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CULTURES MIDTERM REVIEW TERMS The “One Drop” Rule = states that a person with any trace of sub-Saharan ancestry (no matter how small or invisible) cannot be considered white and so unless the person has an alternative non-white ancestry that he or she can claim, such as Native American, Asian, Arab, Australian aboriginal, the person must be considered black Lawrence Wright – half White, half Ghanaian; sisters married Nigerian and Norwegian; nephews range from looking black to having blonde hair – but even the blonde ones are considered black Byzantine Empire = capital was Constantinople, thought of as the Eastern Roman Empire [Greek-speaking portion of the RE] until the RE’s fall; spread along most of the coast of the Mediterranean Sea Similar in political organization and religion to late Roman Empire More succeddful in holding off Germanic invaders with their large military power [developed full body and horse armor, heavy cavalry] Controlled Mediterranean territory from southern Italy to the Eastern Black sea until about 1000 AD o Refined/changed/perpetuated the learning of the Greeks and Romans in math Influences to Europe o Helped form the ideology of Europe o Preserved classical texts of the Romans and Greeks o Basis for Eastern European and Russian ideology (Eastern Orthodox Church) o Strong artistic/stylistic continuity with later Europe o Improvements in weaving, silk, glass-making, armor, principle trading partners o Buffered Europe from Islamic expansion o Byzantine traders supplied Europe with good and generated demand o Called for Crusades and pulled Europe into battle and forced it to compete in the larger world system In about 1095 started a religious movement throughout Europe instead of just mercenaries Fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453, changing the political and economic geography of Europe and Asia Ottoman Empire = captured Constantinople in 1453, which lead to the fall of the Byzantines; later it became Istanbul Teotihuacan = by 500 AD, it had a population of 120,000; current day Mexico City Multi-ethnic center, market center for satellite producing villages, political and military power, housing had neighborhoods grouped by ethnicity Inca – immense administrative organization that united the highlands and the lowlands, located in the Andes Elongated empire held together by a system of roads (not linked by language, ethnicity, etc.) o Organized by big diverse population with a state language Genius administration: taxes, labor, roads, governmental facilities, army, highland-lowland integration Brewed beers so breweries were dotted around (feed workers food and beer) Built interconnecting valleys/canals between rivers to irrigate the land Built buildings/walls of stone with no mortar that are still standing Grand Khan – Kublai Khan, the last of the leaders in the Mongol Empire and the grandson of Genghis; founded the Yuan dynasty in 1271; empire was visited by various Europeans in the 1270s (ie. Marco Polo)
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This note was uploaded on 04/15/2008 for the course ANT 326L taught by Professor Wilson during the Spring '08 term at University of Texas at Austin.

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