Chapter 6 Vocabulary

Chapter 6 Vocabulary - 1 Chapter 6 Vocabulary...

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Chapter 6 Vocabulary 1. Active site : The binding and catalytic sites of an enzyme; more loosely, those residues of an enzyme that interact with a substrate or participate in any way in binding or catalysis. 2. ADP: Adenosine 5'-diphosphate 3. Allosteric Site: A compound that modifies the activity of an enzyme, or its affinity for its substrate, by binding to a site distinct from the active site; a positive effecter increases the activity; a negative effecter decreases the activity. 4. ATP: Adenosine Triphosphate a multifunctional nucleotide primarily known in biochemistry as the "molecular currency" of intracellular energy transfer. In this role ATP transports chemical energy within cells. It is produced as an energy source during the processes of photosynthesis and cellular respiration. The structure of this molecule consists of a purine base (adenine) attached to the 1' carbon atom of a pentose (ribose). Three phosphate groups are attached at the 5' carbon atom of the pentose. ATP is also one of four monomers (nucleotides) required for the synthesis of ribonucleic acids. Furthermore, in signal transduction pathways, ATP is used to provide the phosphate for protein kinase reactions. 5. ATP synthase complex: An enzyme that hydrolyses ATP; usually the partial activity of an enzyme, or system of enzymes, that uses the energy made available by the hydrolysis of ATP to drive an energetically unfavorable process, e.g. the Na + /K + - ATPase of cell membranes. 6. Chemical Energy: energy that cells can use. 7. Chemiosmosis: electron transport to be arranged across the mitochondrial or chloroplast membrane so that protons are vectorially transported to its outer surface, (2) ATP synthesis to be arranged in the membrane so that the proton gradient can be used to drive ATP synthesis, and (3) that the mitochondrial/chloroplast membrane is impermeable to protons and defines an osmotically isolated space. The electron transport chain is composed alternately of hydrogen atom carriers and electron carriers, so that transfer from the former to the latter permits liberation of protons and their vectorial transport across the mitochondrial or chloroplast membrane. Because proton transport is not accompanied by an equivalent transport of electrons across the 1
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membrane, it generates not only a chemical potential ( pH) but also an electron potential ( ), and the two together are termed the proton motive force 8. Coenzyme: A co-substrate in some enzymic reactions that is usually present in limited quantities in vivo and which requires regeneration in subsequent reactions, e.g.
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This note was uploaded on 06/15/2008 for the course SOCIO 110 taught by Professor Page during the Spring '08 term at Radford.

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Chapter 6 Vocabulary - 1 Chapter 6 Vocabulary...

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