Chapter 3 - Alkane Formulas All C-C single bonds Saturated...

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1 Alkane Formulas All C-C single bonds Saturated with hydrogens Ratio: C n H 2n+2 Alkane homologs: CH 3 (CH 2 ) n CH 3 Same ratio for branched alkanes C H H C H H C H H C H H H H Butane, C 4 H 10 => C H H C C H H H C H H H H H Isobutane, C 4 H 10
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2 Common Names Isobutane, “isomer of butane” Isopentane, isohexane, etc., methyl branch on next-to-last carbon in chain. Neopentane, most highly branched Five possible isomers of hexane, 18 isomers of octane and 75 for decane! =>
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3 Pentanes C H H C H H C H H C H C H H H H H n -pentane, C 5 H 12 C H H C C H H C H H H H H C H H H isopentane, C 5 H 12 => C CH 3 CH 3 H 3 C CH 3 neopentane, C 5 H 12
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4 IUPAC Names Find the longest continuous carbon chain. Number the carbons, starting closest to the first branch. Name the groups attached to the chain, using the carbon number as the locator. Alphabetize substituents. Use di-, tri-, etc., for multiples of same substituent. =
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5 Longest Chain The number of carbons in the longest chain determines the base name: ethane, hexane. (Listed in Table 3.2, page 81.) If there are two possible chains with the same number of carbons, use the chain with the most substituents. C CH 3 2 3 2 2 3 2 3 H 3 C H 3 C =>
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6 Number the Carbons Start at the end closest to the first attached group. If two substituents are equidistant, look for the next closest group. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 CH H 3 C 3 2 3 2 2 3 3 =>
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7 Name Alkyl Groups • CH 3 -, methyl • CH 3 CH 2 -, ethyl • CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 -, n -propyl CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 -, n -butyl CH 3 2 3 sec- butyl 3 3 2 isobutyl 3 CH CH 3 isopropyl C H 3 C 3 CH 3 tert -butyl =>
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8 Propyl Groups C H H H C H H C H H H n -propyl C H H H C H C H H H isopropyl H A primary carbon A secondary carbon
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9 Branched substituents isopropyl substituent 2 1 methylethyl substituent Either is acceptable
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10 Butyl Groups C H H H C H C H H C H H H C H H H C H C H H H C H H n -butyl sec -butyl H H A primary carbon A secondary carbon =>
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11 Branched Substituents Either is acceptable s-butyl substituent 2 1 1-methylpropyl substituent 3
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12 Butyl Groups C H H H C C H H C H H H H C H H H C C H H C H H H H H H A primary carbon A tertiary carbon => isobutyl tert -butyl
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13 Branched Subsituents t-butyl substituent dimethylethyl substituent 2 1 2-methylpropyl substituent 3 isobutyl substituent
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14 Alphabetize Alphabetize substituents by name.
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This note was uploaded on 01/12/2009 for the course CHE 201 taught by Professor Bong during the Fall '08 term at SUNY Buffalo.

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Chapter 3 - Alkane Formulas All C-C single bonds Saturated...

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