Chapter_09 - Introduction Alkynes contain a triple bond....

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1 Introduction Alkynes contain a triple bond. General formula is C n H 2n-2 Two elements of unsaturation for each triple bond. Some reactions are like alkenes: addition and oxidation. Some reactions are specific to alkynes. =>
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2 Nomenclature: IUPAC Find the longest chain containing the triple bond. Change -ane ending to -yne . Number the chain, starting at the end closest to the triple bond. Give branches or other substituents a number to locate their position. =>
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3 Name these: CH 3 CH CH 3 CH 2 C C CH CH 3 CH 3 CH 3 C C CH 2 CH 2 Br CH 3 C CH propyne 5-bromo-2-pentyne 2,6-dimethyl-3-heptyne =>
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4 Additional Functional Groups All other functional groups, except ethers and halides have a higher priority than alkynes. For a complete list of naming priorities, look inside the back cover of your text. =>
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5 Examples CH 2 CH CH 2 CH CH 3 C CH 4-methyl-1-hexen-5-yne CH 3 C C CH 2 CH OH CH 3 4-hexyn-2-ol =>
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6 Common Names Named as substituted acetylene. CH 3 C CH methylacetylene CH 3 CH CH 3 CH 2 C C CH CH 3 CH 3 isobutylisopropylacetylene =>
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7 Physical Properties Nonpolar, insoluble in water. Soluble in most organic solvents. Boiling points similar to alkane of same size. Less dense than water. Up to 4 carbons, gas at room temperature. =>
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8 Acetylene Acetylene is used in welding torches. In pure oxygen, temperature of flame reaches 2800 ° C. It would violently decompose to its elements, but the cylinder on the torch contains crushed firebrick wet with acetone to moderate it. =>
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9 Synthesis of Acetylene Heat coke with lime in an electric furnace to form calcium carbide. Then drip water on the calcium carbide. H C C H Ca(OH) 2 CaC 2 + 2 H 2 O + C CaO 3 + + CaC 2 CO coke lime *This reaction was used to produce light for miners’ lamps and for the stage. => *
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Electronic Structure The sigma bond is sp-sp overlap. The two pi bonds are unhybridized
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Chapter_09 - Introduction Alkynes contain a triple bond....

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