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Unformatted text preview: Remembering the Kanji vol. I A complete course on how not to forget the meaning and writing of Japanese characters James W. Heisig fourth edition japan publications trading co., ltd. ©1977 by James W. Heisig All rights reserved, including the right to reproduce this book or portions thereof in any form without the written permission of the publisher. Published by Japan Publications Trading Co., Ltd. 1–2–1 Sarugaku-chõ, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, 101–0064 Japan First edition: 1977 Second edition: 1985 Third edition, First printing: July 1986 Fifteenth printing: November 1999 Fourth edition, First printing: September 2001 Distributors: united states: Kodansha America, Inc. through Oxford University Press, 198 Madison Avenue, New York, N. Y. 10016 canada: Fitzhenry & Whiteside Ltd., 195 Allstate Parkway, Markham, Ontario l3r 4t8 united kingdom and europe: Premier Book Marketing Ltd., Clarendon House, 52 Cornmarket Street, Oxford ox1 3hj, England australia and new zealand: Bookwise International, 54 Crittenden Road, Findon, South Australia 5023, Australia asia and japan: Japan Publications Trading Co., Ltd., 1–2–1 Sarugaku-chõ, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, 101–0064 Japan 0987654321 isbn 4-88996-075-9 Printed in Japan Contents Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Note to the 4th Edition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 part one: Stories (Lessons 1–12) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 part two: Plots (Lessons 13–19) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 part three: Elements (Lessons 20–56) . . . . . . . . . . 197 Indexes i. Kanji . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 473 ii. Primitive Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 491 . . . . . . . . . 495 iii. Kanji Arranged in Order of Strokes iv. Key Words and Primitive Meanings . . . . . . . . . . 505 Introduction The aim of this book is to provide the student of Japanese with a simple method for correlating the writing and the meaning of Japanese characters in such a way as to make them both easy to remember. It is intended not only for the beginner, but also for the more advanced student looking for some relief to the constant frustration of forgetting how to write the kanji and some way to systematize what he or she already knows. By showing how to break down the complexities of the Japanese writing system into its basic elements and suggesting ways to reconstruct meanings from those elements, the method offers a new perspective from which to learn the kanji. There are, of course, many things that the pages of this book will not do for you. You will read nothing about how kanji combine to form compounds. Nor is anything said about the various ways to pronounce the characters. Furthermore, all questions of grammatical usage have been omitted. These are all matters that need specialized treatment in their own right. Meantime, remembering the meaning and the writing of the kanji—perhaps the single most dif³cult barrier to learning Japanese—can be greatly simpli³ed if the two are isolated and studied apart from everything else. What makes forgetting the kanji so natural is their lack of connection with normal patterns of visual memory. We are used to hills and roads, to the faces of people and the skylines of cities, to µowers, animals, and the phenomena of nature. And while only a fraction of what we see is readily recalled, we are con³dent that, given proper attention, anything we choose to remember, we can. That con³dence is lacking in the world of the kanji. The closest approximation to the kind of memory patterns required by the kanji is to be seen in the various alphabets and number-systems we know. The difference is that while these symbols are very few and often sound-related, the kanji number in the thousands and have no consistent phonetic value. Nonetheless, traditional methods for learning the characters have been the same as those for learning alphabets: drill the shapes one by one, again and again, year after year. Whatever ascetical value there is in such an exercise, the more ef³cient way would be to relate the characters to something other than their sounds in the ³rst place, and so to break ties with the visual memory we rely on for learning our alphabets. 2 introduction The origins of the Japanese writing system can be traced back to ancient China and the eighteenth century before the Christian era. In the form in which we ³nd Chinese writing codi³ed some 1,000 years later, it was made up largely of pictographic, detailed glyphs. These were further transformed and stylized down through the centuries, so that by the time the Japanese were introduced to the kanji by Buddhist monks from Korea and started experimenting with ways to adapt the Chinese writing system to their own language (about the fourth to seventh centuries of our era), they were already dealing with far more ideographic and abstract forms. The Japanese made their own contributions and changes in time, as was to be expected. And like every modern Oriental culture that uses the kanji, they continue to do so, though now more in matters of usage than form. So fascinating is this story that many have encouraged the study of etymology as a way to remember the kanji. Unfortunately, the student quickly learns the many disadvantages of such an approach. As charming as it is to see the ancient drawing of a woman etched behind its respective kanji, or to discover the rudimentary form of a hand or a tree or a house, when the character itself is removed, the clear visual memory of the familiar object is precious little help for recalling how to write it. Proper etymological studies are most helpful after one has learned the general-use kanji. Before that, they only add to one’s memory problems. We need a still more radical departure from visual memory. Let me paint the impasse in another, more graphic, way. Picture yourself holding a kaleidoscope up to the light as still as possible, trying to ³x in memory the particular pattern that the play of light and mirrors and colored stones has created. Chances are you have such an untrained memory for such things that it will take some time; but let us suppose that you succeed after ten or ³fteen minutes. You close your eyes, trace the pattern in your head, and then check your image against the original pattern until you are sure you have it remembered. Then someone passes by and jars your elbow. The pattern is lost, and in its place a new jumble appears. Immediately your memory begins to scramble. You set the kaleidoscope aside, sit down, and try to draw what you had just memorized, but to no avail. There is simply nothing left in memory to grab hold of. The kanji are like that. One can sit at one’s desk and drill a half dozen characters for an hour or two, only to discover on the morrow that when something similar is seen, the former memory is erased or hopelessly confused by the new information. Now the odd thing is not that this occurs, but rather that, instead of openly admitting one’s distrust of purely visual memory, one accuses oneself of a poor memory or lack of discipline and keeps on following the same routine. Thus, by placing the blame on a poor visual memory, one overlooks the possibility of introduction 3 another form of memory that could handle the task with relative ease: imaginative memory. By imaginative memory I mean the faculty to recall images created purely in the mind, with no actual or remembered visual stimuli behind them. When we recall our dreams we are using imaginative memory. The fact that we sometimes conµate what happened in waking life with what merely occurred in a dream is an indication of how powerful those imaginative stimuli can be. While dreams may be broken up into familiar component parts, the composite whole is fantastical and yet capable of exerting the same force on perceptual memory as an external stimulus. It is possible to use imagination in this way also in a waking state and harness its powers for assisting a visual memory admittedly ill-adapted for remembering the kanji. In other words, if we could discover a limited number of basic elements in the characters and make a sort of alphabet out of them, assigning to each its own image, fusing them together to form other images, and so building up complex tableaux in imagination, the impasse created by purely visual memory might be overcome. Such an imaginative alphabet would be every bit as rigorous as a phonetic one in restricting each basic element to one basic value; but its grammar would lack many of the controls of ordinary language and logic. It would be like a kind of dream-world where anything at all might happen, and happen differently in each mind. Visual memory would be used minimally, to build up the alphabet. After that, one would be set loose to roam freely inside the magic lantern of imaginative patterns according to one’s own preferences. In fact, most students of the Japanese writing system do something similar from time to time, devising their own mnemonic aids but never developing an organized approach to their use. At the same time, most of them would be embarrassed at the academic silliness of their own secret devices, feeling somehow that there is no way to re³ne the ridiculous ways their mind works. Yet if it does work, then some such irreverence for scholarship and tradition seems very much in place. Indeed, shifting attention from why one forgets certain kanji to why one remembers others should offer motivation enough to undertake a more thorough attempt to systematize imaginative memory. The basic alphabet of the imaginative world hidden in the kanji we may call, following traditional terminology, primitive elements (or simply primitives). These are not to be confused with the so-called “radicals” which form the basis of etymological studies of sound and meaning, and now are used for the lexical ordering of the characters. In fact, most of the radicals are themselves primitives, but the number of primitives is not restricted to the traditional list of radicals. The primitives, then, are the fundamental strokes and combinations of strokes from which all the characters are built up. Calligraphically speaking, 4 introduction there are only nine possible kinds of strokes in theory, seventeen in practice. A few of these will be given primitive meanings; that is, they will serve as fundamental images. Simple combinations will yield new primitive meanings in turn, and so on as complex characters are built up. If these primitives are presented in orderly fashion, the taxonomy of the most complex characters is greatly simpli³ed and no attempt need be made to memorize the primitive alphabet apart from actually using it. The number of primitives, as we are understanding the term, is a moot question. Traditional etymology counts some 224 of them. We shall draw upon these freely, and also ground our primitive meanings in traditional etymological meanings, without making any particular note of the fact as we proceed. We shall also be departing from etymology to avoid the confusion caused by the great number of similar meanings for differently shaped primitives. Wherever possible, then, the generic meaning of the primitives will be preserved, although there are cases in which we shall have to specify that meaning in a different way, or ignore it altogether, so as to root imaginative memory in familiar visual memories. Should the student later turn to etymological studies, the procedure we have followed will become more transparent, and should not cause any obstacles to the learning of etymologies. The list of elements that we have singled out as primitives proper (Index ii) is restricted to the following four classes: basic elements that are not kanji, kanji that appear as basic elements in other kanji with great frequency, kanji that change their meaning when they function as parts of other kanji, and kanji that change their shape when forming parts of other kanji. Any kanji that keeps both its form and its meaning and appears as part of another kanji functions as a primitive, whether or not it occurs with enough frequency to draw attention to it as such. The 2,042 characters chosen for study in these pages (given in the order of presentation in Index i and arranged according to the number of strokes in Index iii) include the basic 1,850 general-use kanji established as standard by the Japanese Ministry of Education in 1946,1 roughly another 60 used chieµy in proper names, and a handful of characters that are convenient for use as primitive elements. Each kanji is assigned a key word that represents its basic meaning, or one of its basic meanings. The key words have been selected on the basis of how a given kanji is used in compounds and on the meaning it has on its own. There is no repetition of key words, although many are nearly synonymous. In these cases, it is important to focus on the particular µavor that that word enjoys in English, so as to evoke connotations distinct from similar key words. To be sure, many of the characters carry a side range of connotations In 1981 an additional 95 characters were added to this list. They have been incorporated into later editions of this book. 1 introduction 5 not present in their English equivalents, and vice versa; many even carry several ideas not able to be captured in a single English word. By simplifying the meanings through the use of key words, however, one becomes familiar with a kanji and at least one of its principal meanings. The others can be added later with relative ease, in much the same way as one enriches one’s understanding of one’s native tongue by learning the full range of feelings and meanings embraced by words already known. Once we have the primitive meanings and the key word relevant to a particular kanji (cataloged in Index iv), the task is to create a composite ideogram. Here is where fantasy and memory come into play. The aim is to shock the mind’s eye, to disgust it, to enchant it, to tease it, or to entertain it in any way possible so as to brand it with an image intimately associated with the key word. That image in turn, inasmuch as it is composed of primitive meanings, will dictate precisely how the kanji is to be penned—stroke for stroke, jot for jot. Many characters, perhaps the majority of them, can be so remembered on a ³rst encounter, provided suf³cient time is taken to ³x the image. Others will need to be reviewed by focusing on the association of key-word and primitive elements. In this way, mere drill of visual memory is all but entirely eliminated. Since the goal is not simply to remember a certain number of kanji, but also to learn how to remember them (and others not included in this book), the course has been divided into three parts. Part one provides the full associative story for each character. By directing the reader’s attention, at least for the length of time it takes to read the explanation and relate it to the written form of the kanji, most of the work is done for the student even as a feeling for the method is acquired. In Part two, only the skeletal plots of the stories are presented, and the individual must work out his or her own details by drawing on personal memory and fantasy. Part three, which comprises the major portion of the course, provides only the key word and the primitive meanings, leaving the remainder of the process to the student. It will soon become apparent that the most critical factor is the order of learning the kanji. The actual method is simplicity itself. Once more basic characters have been learned, their use as primitive elements for other kanji can save a great deal of effort and enable one to review known characters at the same time as one is learning new ones. Hence to approach this course haphazardly, jumping ahead to the later lessons before studying the earlier ones, will entail a considerable loss of ef³ciency. If one’s goal is to learn to write the entire list of general-use characters, then it seems best to learn them in the order best suited to memory, not in order of frequency or according to the order in which they are taught to Japanese children. Should the individual decide to pursue some other course, however, the indexes should provide all 6 introduction the basic information for ³nding the appropriate frame and the primitives referred to in that frame. It may surprise the reader casually lea³ng through these pages not to ³nd a single drawing or pictographic representation. This is fully consistent with what was said earlier about placing the stress on imaginative memory. For one thing, pictographs are an unreliable way to remember all but very few kanji; and even in these cases, the pictograph should be discovered by the student by toying with the forms, pen in hand, rather than given in one of its historical graphic forms. For another, the presentation of an image actually inhibits imagination and restricts it to the biases of the artist. This is as true for the illustrations in a child’s collection of fairy tales as it is for the various phenomena we shall encounter in the course of this book. The more original work the individual does with an image, the easier will it be to remember a kanji. Before setting out on the course plotted in the following pages, attention should be drawn to a few ³nal points. In the ³rst place, one must be warned about setting out too quickly. It should not be assumed that because the ³rst characters are so elementary, they can be skipped over hastily. The method presented here needs to be learned step by step, lest one ³nd oneself forced later to retreat to the ³rst stages and start over; 20 or 25 characters per day would not be excessive for someone who has only a couple of hours to give to study. If one were to study them full-time, there is no reason why the entire course could not be completed successfully in four to six weeks. By the time Part one has been traversed, the student should have discovered a rate of progress suitable to the time available. Second, the repeated advice given to study the characters with pad and pencil should be taken seriously. While simply remembering the characters does not, one will discover, demand that they be written, there is really no better way to improve the aesthetic appearance of one’s writing and acquire a “natural feel” for the µow of the kanji than by writing them. The method will spare one the toil of writing the same character over and over in order to learn it, but it will not supply the µuency at writing that comes only with constant practice. If pen and paper are inconvenient, one can always make do with the palm of the hand, as the Japanese do. It provides a convenient square space for jotting on with one’s index ³nger when riding in a bus or walking down the street. Third, the kanji are best reviewed by beginning with the key word, progressing to the respective story, and then writing the character itself. Once one has been able to perform these steps, reversing the order follows as a matter of course. More will be said about this later in the book. In the fourth place, it is important to note that the best order for learning the kanji is by no means the best order for remembering them. They need to be recalled when and where they are met, not in the sequence in which they are introduction 7 presented here. For that purpose, recommendations are given in Lesson 5 for designing µash cards for random review. Finally, it seems worthwhile to give some brief thought to any ambitions one might have about “mastering” the Japanese writing system. The idea arises from, or at least is supported by, a certain bias about learning that comes from overexposure to schooling: the notion that language is a cluster of skills that can be rationally divided, systematically learned, and certi³ed by testing. The kanji, together with the wider structure of Japanese—and indeed of any language for that matter—resolutely refuse to be mastered in this fashion. The rational order brought to the kanji in this book is only intended as an aid to get you close enough to the characters to befriend them, let them surprise you, inspire you, enlighten you, resist you, and seduce you. But they cannot be mastered without a full understanding of their long and complex history and an insight into the secret of their unpredictable vitality—all of which is far too much for a single mind to bring to the tip of a single pen. That having been said, the goal of this book is still to attain native pro³ciency in writing the Japanese characters and associating their meanings with their forms. If the logical systematization and the playful irreverence contained in the pages that follow can help spare even a few of those who pick the book up the grave error of deciding to pursue their study of the Japanese language without aspiring to such pro³ciency, the efforts that went into it will have more than received their reward. Kamakura, Japan 10 February 1977 Note to the 4th Edition In preparing a new layout and typesetting of this fourth edition, I was tempted to rethink many of the key words and primitive meanings, and to adjust the stories accordingly. After careful consideration and review of the hundreds of letters I have received from students all over the world, as well as the changes that were introduced in the French and Spanish versions of the book,2 I have decided to let it stand as it is with only a few exceptions. There are, however, two related questions that come up with enough frequency to merit further comment at the outset: the use of this book in connection with formal courses of Japanese and the matter of pronunciation or “readings” of the kanji. The reader will not have to ³nish more than a few lessons to realize that this book was designed for self-learning. What may not be so apparent is that using it to supplement the study of kanji in the classroom or to review for examinations has an adverse inµuence on the learning process. The more you try to combine the study of the written kanji through the method outlined in these pages with traditional study of the kanji, the less good this book will do you. I know of no exceptions. Virtually all teachers of Japanese, native and foreign, would agree with me that learning to write the kanji with native pro³ciency is the greatest single obstacle to the foreign adult approaching Japanese—indeed so great as to be presumed insurmountable. After all, if even well-educated Japanese study the characters formally for nine years, use them daily, and yet frequently have trouble remembering how to reproduce them, much more than Englishspeaking people have with the infamous spelling of their mother tongue, is it not unrealistic to expect that even with the best of intentions and study methods those not raised with the kanji from their youth should manage the feat? Such an attitude may never actually be spoken openly by a teacher standing before a class, but as long as the teacher believes it, it readily becomes a selfThe French adaptation was prepared by Yves Maniette under the title Les kanji dans la tête: Apprendre à ne pas oublier le sens et l’écriture des caractères japonais (Gramagraf SCCL, 1998). The Spanish version, prepared in collaboration with Marc Bernabé and Verònica Calafell, is Kanji para recordar: Curso mnemotécnico para el aprendizaje de la escritura y el signi³cado de los caracteres japoneses (Barcelona: Editorial Herder, 2001). 2 note to the 4th edition 9 ful³lling prophecy. This attitude is then transmitted to the student by placing greater emphasis on the supposedly simpler and more reasonable skills of learning to speak and read the language. In fact, as this book seeks to demonstrate, nothing could be further from the truth. To begin with, the writing of the kanji is the most completely rational part of the language. Over the centuries, the writing of the kanji has been simpli³ed many times, always with rational principles in mind. Aside from the Korean hangul, there may be no writing system in the world as logically structured as the Sino-Japanese characters are. The problem is that the usefulness of this inner logic has not found its way into learning the kanji. On the contrary, it has been systematically ignored. Those who have passed through the Japanese school system tend to draw on their own experience when they teach others how to write. Having begun as small children in whom the powers of abstraction are relatively undeveloped and for whom constant repetition is the only workable method, they are not likely ever to have considered reorganizing their pedagogy to take advantage of the older student’s facility with generalized principles. So great is this neglect that I would have to say that I have never met a Japanese teacher who can claim to have taught a foreign adult to write the basic general-use kanji that all high-school graduates in Japan know. Never. Nor have I ever met a foreign adult who would claim to have learned to write at this level from a native Japanese teacher. I see no reason to assume that the Japanese are better suited to teach writing because it is, after all, their language. Given the rational nature of the kanji, precisely the opposite is the case: the Japanese teacher is an impediment to learning to associate the meanings of the kanji with their written form. The obvious victim of the conventional methods is the student, but on a subtler level the recon³rmation of unquestioned biases also victimizes the Japanese teachers themselves, the most devoted of whom are prematurely denied the dream of fully internationalizing their language. There are additional problems with using this book in connection with classroom study. For one thing, as explained earlier in the Introduction, the ef³ciency of the study of the kanji is directly related to the order in which they are learned. Formal courses introduce kanji according to different principles that have nothing to do with the writing. More often than not, the order in which Japan’s Ministry of Education has determined children should learn the kanji from primary through middle school, is the main guide. Obviously, learning the writing is far more important than being certi³ed to have passed some course or other. And just as obviously, one needs to know all the generaluse kanji for them to be of any use for the literate adult. When it comes to reading basic materials, such as newspapers, it is little consolation to know half or even three-quarters of them. The crucial question for pedagogy, therefore, 10 note to the 4th edition is not what is the best way to qualify at some intermediate level of pro³ciency, but simply how to learn all the kanji in the most ef³cient and reliable manner possible. For this, the traditional “levels” of kanji pro³ciency are simply irrelevant. The answer, I am convinced, lies in self-study, following an order based on learning all the kanji. I do not myself know of any teacher of Japanese who has attempted to use this book in a classroom setting. My suspicion is that they would soon abandon the idea. The book is based on the idea that the writing of the kanji can be learned on its own and independently of any other aspect of the language. It is also based on the idea that the pace of study is different from one individual to another, and for each individual, from one week to the next. Organizing study to the routines of group instruction runs counter to those ideas. This brings us to our second question. The reasons for isolating the writing of the kanji from their pronunciation follow more or less as a matter of course from what has been said. The reading and writing of the characters are taught simultaneously on the grounds that one is useless without the other. This only begs the basic question of why they could not better, and more quickly, be taught one after the other, concentrating on what is for the foreigner the simpler task, writing, and later turning to the more complicated, the reading. One has only to look at the progress of non-Japanese raised with kanji to see the logic of the approach. When Chinese adult students come to the study of Japanese, they already know what the kanji mean and how to write them. They have only to learn how to read them. The progress they make in comparison with their Western counterparts is usually attributed to their being “Oriental.” In fact, Chinese grammar and pronunciation have about as much to do with Japanese as English does. It is their knowledge of the meaning and writing of the kanji that gives the Chinese the decisive edge. My idea was simply to learn from this common experience and give the kanji an English reading. Having learned to write the kanji in this way—which, I repeat, is the most logical and rational part of the study of Japanese—one is in a much better position to concentrate on the often irrational and unprincipled problem of learning to pronounce them. In a word, it is hard to imagine a less ef³cient way of learning the reading and writing of the kanji than to study them simultaneously. And yet this is the method that all Japanese textbooks and courses follow. The bias is too deeply ingrained to be rooted out by anything but experience to the contrary. Many of these ideas and impressions, let it be said, only developed after I had myself learned the kanji and published the ³rst edition of this book. At the time I was convinced that pro³ciency in writing the kanji could be attained in four to six weeks if one were to make a full-time job of it. Of course, the claim raised more eyebrows than hopes among teachers with far more experience note to the 4th edition 11 than I had. Still, my own experience with studying the kanji and the relatively small number of individuals I have directed in the methods of this book, bears that estimate out, and I do not hesitate to repeat it here. A word about how the book came to be written. I began my study of the kanji one month after coming to Japan with absolutely no previous knowledge of the language. Because travels through Asia had delayed my arrival by several weeks, I took up residence at a language school in Kamakura and began studying on my own without enrolling in the course already in progress. A certain impatience with my own ignorance compared to everyone around me, coupled with the freedom to devote myself exclusively to language studies, helped me during those ³rst four weeks to make my way through a basic introductory grammar. This provided a general idea of how the language was constructed but, of course, almost no facility in using any of it. Through conversations with the teachers and other students, I quickly picked up the impression that I had best begin learning the kanji as soon as possible, since this was sure to be the greatest chore of all. Having no idea at all how the kanji “worked” in the language, yet having found my own pace, I decided—against the advice of nearly everyone around me—to continue to study on my own rather than join one of the beginners’ classes. The ³rst few days I spent pouring over whatever I could ³nd on the history and etymology of the Japanese characters, and examining the wide variety of systems on the market for studying them. It was during those days that the basic idea underlying the method of this book came to me. The following weeks I devoted myself day and night to experimenting with the idea, which worked well enough to encourage me to carry on with it. Before the month was out I had learned the meaning and writing of some 1,900 characters and had satis³ed myself that I would retain what I had memorized. It was not long before I became aware that something extraordinary had taken place. For myself, the method I was following seemed so simple, even childish, that it was almost an embarrassment to talk about it. And it had happened as such a matter of course that I was quite unprepared for the reaction it caused. On the one hand, some at the school accused me of having a short-term photographic memory that would fade with time. On the other hand, there were those who pressed me to write up my “methods” for their bene³t. But it seemed to me that there was too much left to learn of the language for me to get distracted by either side. Within a week, however, I was persuaded at least to let my notes circulate. Since most everything was either in my head or jotted illegibly in notebooks and on µash cards, I decided to give an hour each day to writing everything up systematically. One hour soon became two, then three, and in no time at all I had laid everything else aside to complete the task. By the end of that third month I brought a camera-ready copy to Nanzan Uni- 12 note to the 4th edition versity in Nagoya for printing. During the two months it took to prepare it for printing I added an Introduction. Through the kind help of Mrs. Iwamoto Keiko of Tuttle Publishing Company, most of the 500 copies were distributed in Tokyo bookstores, where they sold out within a few months. After the month I spent studying how to write the kanji, I did not return to any formal review of what I had learned. (I was busy trying to devise another method for simplifying the study of the reading of the characters, which was later completed as a companion volume to the ³rst.3) When I would meet a new character, I would learn it as I had the others, but I have never felt the need to retrace my steps or repeat any of the work. Admittedly, the fact that I now use the kanji daily in my teaching, research, and writing is a distinct advantage. But I remain convinced that whatever facility I have I owe to the procedures outlined in this book. Perhaps only one who has seen the method through to the end can appreciate both how truly uncomplicated and obvious it is, and how accessible to any average student willing to invest the time and effort. For while the method is simple and does eliminate a great deal of wasted effort, the task is still not an easy one. It requires as much stamina, concentration, and imagination as one can bring to it. James W. Heisig Barcelona, Spain 21 December 2000 3 Remembering the Kanji ii: A Systematic Guide to Reading Japanese Characters (Tokyo: Japan Publications Trading Co., 9th impression, 1998). This was later followed by Remembering the Kanji iii: Writing and Reading Japanese Characers for Upper-Level Pro³ciency (Tokyo: Japan Publications Trading Co., 2nd impression, 1995), prepared with Tanya Sienko. part one Stories Lesson 1 Let us begin with a group of 15 kanji, all of which you probably knew before you ever cracked the covers of this book. Each kanji has been provided with a single key word to represent the basic meaning. Some of these characters will also serve later as primitive elements to help form other kanji, when they will take a meaning different from the meaning they have as kanji. Although it is not necessary at this stage to memorize the special primitive meaning of these characters, a special remark preceded by a star (*) has been appended to alert you to the change in meaning. The number of strokes of each character is given in square brackets at the end of each explanation, followed by the stroke-by-stroke order of writing. It cannot be stressed enough how important it is to learn to write each kanji in its proper order. As easy as these ³rst characters may seem, study them all with a pad and pencil to get into the habit from the very start. Finally, note that each key word has been carefully chosen and should not be tampered with in any way if you want to avoid confusion later on. 1 one In Chinese characters, the number one is laid on its side, unlike the Roman numeral i which stands upright. As you would expect, it is is written from left to right. [1] s ! * As a primitive element, the key-word meaning is discarded, and the single horizontal stroke takes on the meaning of µoor or ceiling, depending on its position: if it stands above another primitive, it means ceiling; if below, µoor. 16 Remembering the Kanji 2 Ì two Like the Roman numeral ii, which reduplicates the numeral i, the kanji for two is a simple reduplication of the horizontal stroke that means one. The order of writing goes from above to below, with the ³rst stroke slightly shorter. [2] #$ 3 three And like the Roman numeral iii, which triples the numeral i, the kanji for three simply triples the single horizontal stroke. In writing it, think of “1 + 2 = 3” (s + Ì = X) in order to keep the middle stroke shorter. [3] X %&( 4 four This character is composed of two primitive elements, mouth S and human legs #, both of which we will meet in the coming lessons. Assuming that you already knew how to write this kanji, we will pass over the “story” connected with it until later. Note how the second stroke is written left-to-right and then top-to-bottom. This is consistent with what we have already seen in the ³rst three numbers and leads us to a general principle that will be helpful when we come to more complicated kanji later on: write north-to-south, west-to-east, northwest-to-southeast. [5] v )*+,/ 5 ³ve As with four, we shall postpone learning the primitive elements that make up this character. Note how the general principle we 2 lesson 1 just learned in the preceding frame applies to the writing of the character for ³ve. [4] 17 0123 6 six The primitives here are top hat and animal legs. Once again, we glide over them until later. [4]  7 4567 seven Note that the ³rst stroke “cuts” through the second. This distinguishes seven from the character for spoon 0 (frame 444), in which the horizontal stroke stops short. [2] Ì 89 * As a primitive, this form takes on the meaning of diced, i.e., “cut” into little pieces, consistent both with the way the character is written and with its association with the kanji for cut × to be learned in a later lesson (frame 85). 8 k eight Just as the Arabic numeral “8” is composed of a small circle followed by a larger one, so the kanji for eight is composed of a short line followed by a longer line, slanting towards it but not touching it. And just as the “lazy 8” % is the mathematical symbol for “in³nity,” so the expanse opened up below these two strokes is associated by the Japanese with the sense of an in³nite expanse or something “all-encompassing.” [2] :; 18 Remembering the Kanji 9 nine If you take care to remember the stroke order of this kanji, you will not have trouble later keeping it distinct from the kanji for power j (frame 858). [2] G =? * As a primitive, we shall use this kanji to mean baseball team or simply baseball. The meaning, of course, is derived from the nine players who make up a team. 10 Y ten Turn this character 45º either way and you have the x used for the Roman numeral ten. [2] @A * As a primitive, this character sometimes keeps its meaning of ten and sometimes signi³es needle, this latter derived from the kanji for needle [ (frame 274). Since the primitive is used in the kanji itself, there is no need to worry about confusing the two. In fact, we shall be following this procedure regularly. 11 mouth Like several of the ³rst characters we shall learn, the kanji for mouth is a clear pictograph. Since there are no circular shapes in the kanji, the square must be used to depict the circle. [3] S BCD * As a primitive, this form also means mouth. Any of the range of possible images that the word suggests—an opening or entrance to a cave, a river, a bottle, or even the largest hole in your head—can be used for the primitive meaning. lesson 1 19 12 day This kanji is intended to be a pictograph of the sun. Recalling what we said in the previous frame about round forms, it is easy to detect the circle and the big smile that characterize our simplest drawings of the sun—like those yellow badges with the words, “Have a nice day!” [4] Õ EFGH * Used as a primitive, this kanji can mean sun or day or a tongue wagging in the mouth. This latter meaning, incidentally, derives from an old character outside the standard list meaning something like “sayeth” and written almost exactly the same, except that the stroke in the middle does not touch the right side (Q, frame 578). 13 month This character is actually a picture of the moon, with the two horizontal lines representing the left eye and mouth of the mythical “man in the moon.” (Actually, the Japanese see a hare in the moon, but it is a little farfetched to ³nd one in the kanji.) And one month, of course, is one cycle of the moon. [4] ½ JKLM *As a primitive element, this character can take on the sense of moon, µesh, or part of the body. The reasons for the latter two meanings will be explained in a later chapter. 14 rice ³eld Another pictograph, this kanji looks like a bird’s-eye view of a rice ³eld divided into four plots. Be careful when writing this character to get the order of the strokes correct. You will ³nd that it follows perfectly the principle stated in frame 4. [5] , 20 Remembering the Kanji NOPQR * When used as a primitive element, the meaning of rice ³eld is most common, but now and again it will take the meaning of brains from the fact that it looks a bit like that tangle of gray matter nestled under our skulls. 15 eye Here again, if we round out the corners of this kanji and curve the middle strokes upwards and downwards respectively, we get something resembling an eye. [5] ‡ STUVW * As a primitive, the kanji keeps its sense of eye, or more speci³cally, an eyeball. In the surroundings of a complex kanji, the primitive will sometimes be turned on its side like this: {. Although only 9 of the 15 kanji treated in this lesson are formally listed as primitives—the elements that join together to make up other kanji—some of the others may also take on that function from time to time, only not with enough frequency to merit learning them as separate primitive elements and attaching special meanings to them. In other words, whenever one of the kanji already learned is used in another kanji, it will retain its key-word meaning unless we have assigned it a special primitive meaning. Lesson 2 In this lesson we learn what a “primitive element” is by using the ³rst 15 characters as pieces that can be ³tted together to form new kanji—18 of them to be exact. Whenever the primitive meaning differs from the key-word meaning, you may want to go back to the original frame to refresh your memory. From now on, though, you should learn both the key-word and the primitive lesson 2 21 meaning of new kanji as they appear. An Index of primitive elements has been added at the end of the book. 16 old The primitive elements that compose this character are ten and mouth, but you may ³nd it easier to remember it as a pictograph of a tombstone with a cross on top. Just think back to one of those graveyards you have visited, or better still, used to play in as a child, with old inscriptions on the tombstones. This departure from the primitive elements in favor of a pictograph will take place now and again at these early stages, and almost never after that. So you need not worry about cluttering up your memory with too many character “drawings.” [5] ò ^_`a * Used as a primitive element, this kanji keeps its key-word sense of old, but care should be taken to make that abstract notion as graphic as possible. 17 I There are actually a number of kanji for the word I, but the others tend to be more speci³c than this one. The key word here should be taken in the general psychological sense of the “perceiving subject.” Now the one place in our bodies that all ³ve senses are concentrated in is the head, which has no less than ³ve mouths: 2 nostrils, 2 ears, and 1 mouth. Hence, ³ve mouths = I. [7] 7 bcdefgh 18 risk Remember when you were young and your mother told you never to look directly into the sun for fear you might burn out à 22 Remembering the Kanji your eyes? Probably you were foolish enough to risk a quick glance once or twice; but just as probably, you passed that bit of folk wisdom on to someone else as you grew older. Here, too, the kanji that has a sun above and an eye right below looking up at it has the meaning of risk (see frame 12). [9] ijklmnopq 19 companion The ³rst companion that God made, as the Bible story goes, was Eve. Upon seeing her, Adam exclaimed, “Flesh of my µesh!” And that is precisely what this character says in so many strokes. [8] ¿ rstuvwxy 20 bright Among nature’s bright lights, there are two that the biblical myth has God set in the sky: the sun to rule over the day and the moon to rule the night. Each of them has come to represent one of the common connotations of this key word: the sun, the bright insight of the clear thinker, and the moon, the bright intuition of the poet and the seer (see frame 13). [8] g z{|}‚ƒ„… 21 − chant This one is easy! You have one mouth making no noise (the choirmaster) and two mouths with wagging tongues (the minimum for a chorus). So think of the key word, chant, as monastery singing and the kanji is yours forever (see frame 12). [11] †‡ˆ‰Š‹Œ‘ ’“” lesson 2 23 22 Æ sparkle What else can the word sparkle suggest if not a diamond? And if you’ve ever held a diamond up to the light, you will have noticed how every facet of it becomes like a miniature sun. This kanji is a picture of a tiny sun in three places (that is, “everywhere”), to give the sense of something that sparkles on all sides. Just like a diamond. In writing the primitive elements three times, note again how the rule for writing given in frame 4 holds true not only for the strokes in each individual element but also for the disposition of the elements in the character as a whole. [12] •–—˜™š›œ Ÿ¡¢£ 23 õ goods As in the character for sparkle, the triplication of a single element in this character indicates “everywhere” or “heaps of.” When we think of goods in modern industrial society, we think of what has been mass-produced—that is to say, produced for the “masses” of open mouths waiting like µedglings in a nest to “consume” whatever comes their way. [9] ¤¥¦§¨©ª «¬ 24 spine This character is rather like a picture of two of the vertebrae in the spine linked by a single stroke. [7] ¨ −°±²³´µ 24 Remembering the Kanji 25 Ä prosperous What we mentioned in the previous two frames about 3 of something meaning “everywhere” or “heaps of ” was not meant to be taken lightly. In this kanji we see two suns, one atop the other, which, if we are not careful, is easily confused in memory with the three suns of sparkle. Focus on the number this way: since we speak of prosperous times as sunny, what could be more prosperous than a sky with two suns in it? Just be sure to actually see them there. [8] ·¸¹º»¼½¾ 26 early This kanji is actually a picture of the ³rst µower of the day, which we shall, in de³ance of botanical science, call the sunµower, since it begins with the element for sun and is held up on a stem with leaves (the pictographic representation of the ³nal two strokes). This time, however, we shall ignore the pictograph and imagine sunµowers with needles for stems, which can be plucked and used to darn your socks. The sense of early is easily remembered if one thinks of the sunµower as the early riser in the garden, because the sun, showing favoritism towards its namesake, shines on it before all the others (see frame 10). [6] f ¿ÀÁÂÃÄ * As a primitive element, this kanji takes the meaning of sunµower, which was used to make the abstract key word early more graphic. 27 rising sun This character is a sort of nickname for the Japanese µag with its well-known emblem of the rising sun. If you can picture two seams running down that great red sun, and then imagine 4 lesson 2 it sitting on a baseball bat for a µagpole, you have a slightly irreverent—but not altogether inaccurate—picture of how the sport has caught on in the Land of the Rising Sun. [6] 25 ÅÆÇÈÉÊ 28 generation We generally consider one generation as a period of thirty (or ten plus ten plus ten) years. If you look at this kanji in its completed form—not in its stroke order—you will see three tens. When writing it, think of the lower horizontal lines as “addition” lines written under numbers to add them up. Thus: ten “plus” ten “plus” ten = thirty. Actually, it’s a lot easier doing it with a pencil than reading it in a book. [5] › ËÌÍÎÏ 29 stomach You will need to refer back to frames 13 and 14 here for the special meaning of the two primitive elements that make up this character: µesh (part of the body) and brain. What the kanji says, if you look at it, is that the part of the body that keeps the brain in working order is the stomach. To keep the elements in proper order, when you write this kanji think of the brain as being “held up” by the µesh.[9] f ÐÑÒÓÔÕÖ ×Ø 30 nightbreak While we normally refer to the start of the day as “daybreak,” Japanese commonly refers to it as the “opening up of night” into day. Hence the choice of this rather odd key word, nightbreak. The single stroke at the bottom represents the µoor (have * 26 Remembering the Kanji a peek again at frame 1) or the horizon over which the sun is poking its head. [5] ÙÚÛÜÝ 31 gall bladder The pieces in this character should be easily recognizable: on the left, the element for part of the body, and on the right, the character for nightbreak, which we have just met. What all of this has to do with the gall bladder is not immediately clear. But if we give a slight twist to the traditional biblical advice about not letting the sun set on your anger (which ancient medicine associated with the choler or bile that the gall bladder is supposed to ³lter out), and change it to “not letting the night break on your anger” (or your gall), the work is done. And the improvement is not a bad piece of advice in its own right, since anger, like so many other things, can often be calmed by letting the sun set on it and then “sleeping it off.” [9] 6 Þßàáâãä åæ 32 span “Sunrise, sunset, sunrise, sunset…” goes the song of the Fiddler on the Roof. You can almost see the journey of the sun as it moves from one horizon (the µoor) to its noonday heights in the sky overhead (ceiling) and then disappears over the other horizon—day after day, marking the span of our lives. [6] Ò çèéêëì Let us end this lesson with two ³nal pictographic characters that happen to be among the easiest to recognize for their form, but among the most dif³cult to write. We introduce them here to run an early test on whether or not you have lesson 3 27 been paying close attention to the stroke order of the kanji you have been learning. 33 concave You couldn’t have asked for a better key word for this kanji! Just have a look at it: a perfect image of a concave lens (remembering, of course, that the kanji square off rounded things), complete with its own little “cave.” Now all you have to do is learn how to write it. [5] í íîïðñ 34 convex Maybe this helps you see how the Japanese have no trouble keeping convex distinct from concave. Note the odd feeling of the third stroke. If it doesn’t feel all that strange now, by the time you are done with this book, it will. There are very few times you will have to write it. [5] ¢ òóôõö Lesson 3 After lesson 2, you should now have some idea of how an apparently complex and dif³cult kanji can be broken down into simple elements that make remembering it a great deal easier. After completing this lesson you should have a clearer idea of how the course is laid out. We merely add a couple of primitive elements to the kanji we already know and see how many new kanji we can form—in this case, 18 in all—and when we run out, add more primitives. And so on, until there are no kanji left. 28 Remembering the Kanji In Lesson 3 you will also be introduced to primitive elements that are not themselves kanji but only used to construct other kanji. These are marked with a star [*] instead of a number. There is no need to make a special effort to memorize them. The sheer frequency with which most of them show up should make remembering them automatic. * walking stick This primitive element is a picture of just what it looks like: a cane or walking stick. It carries with it the connotations of lameness and whatever else one associates with the use of a cane. Rarely—but very rarely—it will be laid on its side. Whenever this occurs, it will always be driven through the middle of some other primitive element. In this way, you need not worry about confusing it with the primitive meanings of one. [1] + a * a drop of The meaning of this primitive is obvious from the ³rst moment you look at it, though just what it will be a drop of will differ from case to case. The important thing is not to think of it as something insigni³cant like a “drop in the bucket” but as something so important that it can change the whole picture— like a drop of arsenic in your mother-in-law’s coffee. [1] , ) * In general, it is written from right to left, but there are times when it can be slanted left to right. At other times it can be stretched out a bit. (In cases where you have trouble remembering this, it may help to think of it as an eyedropper dripping drops of something or other.) Examples will follow in this lesson. lesson 3 29 35 Ç olden times A walking stick is needed for days of olden times, since days, too, get old—at least insofar as we refer to them as the “good old days.” The main thing here is to think of “good old days” when you hear the key word olden times. The rest will take care of itself. [5] ùúûüý 36 oneself You can think of this kanji as a stylized pictograph of the nose, that little drop that Mother Nature set between your eyes. The Japanese refer to themselves by pointing a ³nger at their nose— giving us an easy way to remember the kanji for oneself. [6] À !#$%&( * The same meaning of oneself can be kept when this kanji is used as a primitive element, but you will generally ³nd it better to give it the meaning of nose or nostrils, both because it accords with the story above and because it is the ³rst part of the kanji for nose (frame 678). 37 R white The color white is a mixture of all the primary colors, both for pigments and for light, as we see when a prism breaks up the rays of the sun. Hence, a single drop of sun spells white. [5] )*+,/ * As a primitive, this character can either retain its meaning of white or take the more graphic meaning of a white bird or dove. This latter stems from the fact that it appears at the top of the kanji for bird, which we shall get to later (frame 1941). 30 Remembering the Kanji 38 ß 39 hundred The Japanese refer to a person’s 99th birthday as a “white year” because white is the kanji you are left with if you subtract one from a hundred. [6] 012345 in The elements here are a walking stick and a mouth. Remember the trouble your mother had getting medicine in your mouth? Chances are it crossed her mind more than once to grab something handy, like your grandfather’s walking stick, to pry open your jaws while she performed her duty. Keep the image of getting something in from the outside, and the otherwise abstract sense of this key word should be a lot easier than trying to spoon castor oil into a baby’s mouth. [4] _ 6789 40 thousand This kanji is almost too simple to pull apart, but for the sake of practice, have a look at the drop above and the ten below. Now put the elements together by thinking of squeezing two more zeros out of an eyedropper alongside the number ten to make it a thousand. [3] æ :;= 41 tongue The primitive for mouth and the character for thousand naturally form the idea of tongue if one thinks of a thousand mouths able to speak the same language, or as we say, “sharing a com- â lesson 3 mon tongue.” It is easy to see the connection between the idiom and the kanji if you take its image literally: a single tongue being passed around from mouth to mouth. [6] 31 ?@ABCD 42 © measuring box This is the character for the little wooden box that the Japanese use for measuring things, as well as for drinking saké out of. Simply imagine the outside as spiked with a thousand sharp needles, and the quaint little measuring box becomes a drinker’s nightmare! Be very careful when you write this character not to confuse it with the writing of thousand. The reason for the difference gives us a chance to clarify another general principle of writing that supersedes the one we mentioned in frame 4: when a single stroke runs vertically through the middle of a character, it is written last. [4] EFGH 43 à rise up Our image here is made up of two primitive elements: a sun and a measuring box. Just as the sun can be seen rising up in the morning from—where else—the Land of the Rising Sun, this kanji has the sun rising up out of a Japanese measuring box— the “measuring box of the rising-up sun.” [8] IJKLMNOP 44 K round We speak of “round numbers,” or “rounding a number off,” meaning to add an insigni³cant amount to bring it to the nearest 10. For instance, if you add just a wee bit, the tiniest drop, to nine, you end up with a round number. [3] 32 Remembering the Kanji QRS * As a primitive, this element takes the meaning of a fat man. Think of a grotesquely fat man whose paunch so covers the plate that he is always getting hit by the pitch. Hence a round baseball player becomes a fat man. 45 measurement This kanji actually stood for a small measurement used prior to the metric system, a bit over an inch in length, and from there acquired the sense of measurement. In the old system, it was one-tenth of a shaku (whose kanji we shall meet in frame 1070). The picture, appropriately, represents one drop of a ten (with a hook!). [3] š TUV * As a primitive, we shall use this to mean glue or glued to. There is no need to devise a story to remember this, since the primitive will appear so often you would have to struggle hard not to remember it. 46 specialty Ten . . . rice ³elds . . . glue. That is how one would read the primitive elements of this kanji from top to bottom. Now if we make a simple sentence out of these elements, we get: “Ten rice ³elds glued together.” A specialty, of course, refers to one’s special “³eld” of endeavor or competence. In fact, few people remain content with a single specialty and usually extend themselves in other ³elds as well. This is how we come to get the picture of ten ³elds glued together to represent a specialty. [9] é WXYZ^ _` lesson 3 33 47 N Dr. At the left we have the needle; at the right, the kanji for specialty, plus an extra drop at the top. Think of a Dr. who is a specialist with a needle (an acupuncturist) and let the drop at the top represent the period at the end of Dr. In principle we are trying to avoid this kind of device, which plays on abstract grammatical conventions; but I think you will agree, after you have had occasion to use the right side of this kanji in forming other kanji, that the exception is merited in this case. [12] 6789:;=? @ABC * The primitive form of this kanji eliminates the needle on the left and gets the meaning of an acupuncturist. We have already seen one example of how to form primitives from other primitives, when we formed the nightbreak out of sun and µoor (frame 30). Let us take two more examples of this procedure right away, so that we can do so from now on without having to draw any particular attention to the fact. * divining rod This is a picture of a divining rod, composed of a drop and a walking stick, but easy enough to remember as a pictograph. Alternately, you can think of it as a magic wand. In either case, it should suggest images of magic or fortune-telling. Nowadays it is written in the stroke order given here when it appears as a primitive, but until recently the order was often reversed (in order to instill correct habits for more stylized calligraphy). [2] í ab 34 Remembering the Kanji * Although it falls outside of the list of general-use kanji, this element is actually a kanji in its own right, having virtually the same meaning as the kanji in the next frame. 48 fortune-telling This is one of those kanji that is a real joy of simplicity: a divining rod with a mouth—which translate directly into fortunetelling. Note how the movement from top to bottom (the movement in which the kanji are written) is also the order of the elements which make up our story and of the key word itself: ³rst divining rod, then mouth. This will not always be possible, but where it is, memory has almost no work at all to do. [5] ç cdefg 49 î above The two directions, above and below, are usually pointed at with the ³nger. But the characters do not follow that custom, so we have to choose something else, easily remembered. The primitives show a magic wand standing above a µoor—“magically,” you might say. Anyway, go right on to the next frame, since the two belong together and are best remembered as a unit, just as the words above and below suggest each other. [3] hij 50 below Here we see our famous miraculous magic wand hanging, all on its own, below the ceiling, as you probably already guessed would happen. In addition to giving us two new kanji, the two shapes given in this and the preceding frame also serve to ³x the use of the primitives for ceiling and µoor, by drawing our attention successively to the line standing above and below the primitive element to which it is related. [3] 4 lesson 3 35 klm 51 eminent The word eminent suggests a famous or well-known person. So all you need to do—given the primitives of a magic wand and a sunµower—is to think of the world’s most eminent magician as one who uses a sunµower for a magic wand (like a µower-child who goes around turning the world into peace and love). [8] ß nopqrstu * mist Here is our second example of a primitive composed of other primitives but not itself a kanji. At the bottom is the primitive (also a kanji) for early or sunµower. At the top, a needle. Conveniently, mist falls early in the morning, like little needles of rain, to assure that the sunµower blooms early as we have learned it should. [8] $ vwxyz{|} 52 morning On the right we see the moon fading off into the ³rst light of morning, and to the left, the mist that falls to give nature a shower to prepare it for the coming heat. If you can think of the moon tilting over to spill mist on your garden, you should have no trouble remembering which of all the elements in this story are to serve as primitives for constructing the character. [12] † vwxyz{|} ‚ƒ„… Lesson 4 At the risk of going a little bit too fast, we are now going to introduce ³ve new primitive elements, all of which are very easy to remember, either because of their frequency or because of their shape. But remember: there is no reason to study the primitives by themselves. They are being presented systematically to make their learning automatic. * animal legs Like the four that follow it, this primitive is not a kanji in its own right, though it is said to be derived from k, the character we learned earlier for eight. It always comes at the bottom of the primitive to which it is related. It can mean the legs of any kind of animal: from a grizzly bear’s paws to an octopus’s tentacles to the spindle shanks of a spider. (The one animal not allowed is our friend homo sapiens, whose legs ³gure in the next frame.) Even where the term legs will apply metaphorically to the legs of pieces of furniture, it is best to keep the association with animal legs. (You may review frame 6 here.) [2] ! Z[ * human legs Notice how these human legs are somewhat shapelier and more highly evolved than those of the so-called “lower animals.” The one on the left, drawn ³rst, is straight; while the one on the right bends gracefully and ends with a hook. Though they are not likely to suggest the legs of any human you know, they do have something of the look of someone out for a stroll, especially if you compare them to animal legs. If you had any trouble with the kanji for the number four, now would be the time to return to it (frame 4). [2] # XY lesson 4 37 * wind This primitive gets its name from the full kanji for the wind (frame 524). It is called an “enclosure” because other elements are often drawn in the middle of it, though it can also be compressed together so that there is no room for anything in it. The main thing to remember when writing this element is that the second stroke bends outwards, like a gust of wind blown from above. In addition to the basic meaning of wind, we shall also have occasion to use the image of a weather vane. The derivation is obvious. [2] Ï ‰Š * bound up Like wind, the element meaning bound up is also an enclosure that can wrap itself around other elements or be compressed when there is nothing to enclose. When this latter happens— usually because there is not enough room—and it is set on top, the little hook at the end is dropped off, like this: +. The sense of bound up is that of being “tied and gagged” or wrapped up tightly. If you have trouble remembering when it serves as an enclosure (with the hook) and when not (without the hook), you might think of the former as a chain and the latter as a rope. [2] & ‹Œ * horns This primitive element always appears at the top of the element to which it is related, and is always attached, or almost attached, to the ³rst horizontal line to come under it. The horns can never simply be left hanging in the air. When there is no line available, an extra horizontal stroke (like a one) is added. The ³nal kanji of this lesson gives an example. The meaning of this element is wide enough to embrace the ( 38 Remembering the Kanji horns of bulls, rams, billy goats, and moose, but not the family of musical instruments. As with other elements with such “open” meanings, it is best to settle on one that you ³nd most vivid and stick with that image consistently. [2] ‘’ 53 only When we run across abstract key words like this one, the best way to get an image it to recall some common but suggestive phrase in which the word appears. For instance, we can think of the expression “it’s the only one of its kind.” Then we imagine a barker at a side-show advertising some strange pac-man like creature he has inside his tent, with only a gigantic mouth and two wee animal legs. [5] ï “”•–— 54 shell³sh To remember the primitive elements that make up this kanji, an eye and animal legs, you might be tempted to think of it as a pictograph of a shell³sh with its ridged shell at the top and two little legs sticking out of the bottom. But that might not help you recall later just how many ridges to put on the shell. Better to imagine a freakish shell³sh with a single, gigantic eye roaming the beaches on its slender little legs, scaring the wits out of the sunbathers. [7] Š ˜™š›œŸ¡ * When used as a primitive, in addition to shells, the meanings oyster and clam will often come in handy. lesson 4 39 55 upright Now take the last primitive, the shell³sh, and set a magic wand over it, and you have the kanji for upright. After all, the clam and the oyster are incapable of walking upright. It would take a magician with his wand to pull off such a feat—which is precisely what we have in this kanji. [9] Ì ¢£¤¥¦§¨©ª 56 employee How do we get a mouth over a shell³sh to mean an employee? Simple. Just remember the advice new employees get about keeping their mouths shut and doing their job, and then make that more graphic by picturing an of³ce building full of whitecollar workers scurrying around with clams pinched to their mouths. [10] ‚ «¬−°±²³´ µ· 57 see The elements that compose the character for see are the eye ³rmly ³xed to a pair of human legs. Surely, somewhere in your experience, there is a vivid image just waiting to be dragged up to help you remember this character…. [7] Ø ¸¹º»¼½¾ 58 newborn babe The top part of the kanji in this frame, you will remember, is the character for olden times, those days so old they needed a walking stick to get around. Western mythical imagination has − 40 Remembering the Kanji old “Father Time” leaning on his sickle with a newborn babe crawling around his legs, the idea being that the circle of birthand-death goes on. Incidentally, this is the only time in this book that the kanji for olden times will appear as a primitive element in another kanji, so try to make the most of it. [7] ¿ÀÁÂÃÄÅ 59 beginning “In the beginning…” starts that marvelous shelf of books we call the Bible. It talks about how all things were made, and tells us that when the Creator came to humanity she made two of them, man and woman. While we presume she made two of every other animal as well, we are not told as much. Hence two and a pair of human legs come to mean beginning. [4] â ÆÇÈÉ 60 page What we have to do here is turn a shell³sh into a page of a book. The one at the top tells us that we only get a rather short book, in fact only one page. Imagine a title printed on the shell of an oyster, let us say “Pearl of Wisdom,” and then open the quaint book to its one and only page, on which you ³nd a single, radiant drop of wisdom, one of the masterpiece poems of nature. [9] z ÊËÌÍÎÏÐ ÑÒ * As a primitive, this kanji takes the unrelated meaning of a head (preferably one detached from its body), derived from the character for head (frame 1441). lesson 4 41 61 V stubborn This character refers to the blockheaded, persistent stubbornness of one who sticks to an idea or a plan just the way it was at the beginning, without letting anything that comes up along the way alter things in the least. The explanation makes “sense,” but is hard to remember because the word “beginning” is too abstract. Back up to the image we used two frames ago— Adam and Eve in their Eden—and try again: The root of all stubbornness goes back to the beginning, with two brothers each stubbornly defending his own way of life and asking their God to bless it favorably. Abel stuck to agriculture, Cain to animal-raising. Picture these two with their giant, swelled heads, each vying for the favors of heaven, a stubborn grimace on their faces. No wonder something unfortunate happened! [13] ÓÔÕÖ×ØÙÚ ÛÜÝÞß 62 mediocre While we refer to something insigni³cant as a “drop in the bucket,” the kanji for mediocre suggests the image of a “drop in the wind.” [3] þ üýþ 63 defeat Above we have the condensed form of bound up, and below the familiar shell³sh. Now imagine two oysters engaged in shell-toshell combat, the one who is defeated being bound and gagged with seaweed, the victor towering triumphantly over it. The bound shell³sh thus becomes the symbol for defeat. [9] ; àáâãäåæçè 42 Remembering the Kanji 64 ten thousand Japanese counts higher numbers in units of ten thousand, unlike the West, which advances according to units of one thousand. (Thus, for instance, 40,000 would be read “four tenthousands” by a Japanese.) Given that the comma is used in larger numbers to bind up a numerical unit of one thousand, the elements for one and bound up naturally come to form ten thousand. The order of strokes here needs special attention, both because it falls outside the general principles we have learned already, and because it involves writing the element for bound up in an order opposite to the one we learned. If it is any consolation, this exception is consistent every time these three strokes come together. [3]  éêë 65 phrase By combining the two primitives bound up and mouth, we can easily see how this character can get the meaning of a phrase. After all, a phrase is nothing more than a number of words bound up tightly and neatly so that they will ³t in your mouth. [5] I ìíîïð 66 texture Ever notice how the texture of your face and hands is affected by the wind? A day’s skiing or sailing makes them rough and dry, and in need of a good soft cream to soothe the burn. So whenever a part of the body gets exposed to the wind, its texture is affected. (If it is any help, the Latin word hiding inside texture connotes how something is “to the touch.”) [6] h ùúûüýþ lesson 4 43 67 y decameron There simply is not a good phrase in English for the block of ten days which this character represents. So we resurrect the classical phrase, decameron, whose connotations the tales of Boccaccio have done much to enrich. Actually, it refers to a journey of ten days taken by a band of people—that is, a group of people bound together for the days of the decameron. [6] !#$%&( 68 ladle If you want to bind up drops of anything—water, soup, lemonade—you use something to scoop these drops up, which is what we call a ladle. See the last drop left inside the ladle? [3] ð 69 †‡ˆ bull’s eye The elements white bird and ladle easily suggest the image of a bull’s eye if you imagine a rusty old ladle with a bull’s eye painted on it in the form of a tiny white bird, who lets out a little “peep” every time you hit the target. [8] í )*+,/012 70 / neck Reading this kanji from the top down, we have: horns . . . nose. Together they bring to mind the picture of a moose-head hanging on the den wall, with its great horns and long nose. Now while we would speak of cutting off a moose’s “head” to hang on the wall, the Japanese speak of cutting off its neck. It’s all a matter of how you look at it. Anyway, if you let the word neck conjure up the image of a moose with a very l-o-n-g neck 44 Remembering the Kanji hanging over the ³replace, whose horns you use for a coat-rack and whose nose has spigots left and right for scotch and water, you should have no trouble with the character. Here we get a good look at what we mentioned when we ³rst introduced the element for horns: that they can never be left µoating free and require an extra horizontal stroke to prevent that from happening, as is the case here. [9] 3456789 :; Lesson 5 That is about all we can do with the pieces we have accumulated so far, but as we add each new primitive element to those we already know, the number of kanji we will be able to form will increase by leaps and bounds. If we were to step outside of the standard list, there are actually any number of other kanji that we could learn at this time. Just to give you an idea of some of the possibilities (though you should not bother to learn them now), here are a few, with their meanings: ¤ (pop song), « (teardrops), ’ (inch), Õ (elbow), Í (scolding). While many of the stories you have learned in the previous lessons are actually more complex than the majority you will learn in the later chapters, they are the ³rst stories you have learned, and for that reason are not likely to cause you much dif³culty. By now, however, you may be wondering just how to go about reviewing what you have learned. Obviously it won’t do simply to µip through the pages you have already studied, because the order already gives them away. The best method is to design for yourself a set of µash cards that you can add to as you go through the book. If you have not already started doing this on your own, you might try it this way: Buy heavy paper (about twice the thickness of normal index cards), unlined and with a semigloss ³nish. Cut it into cards of about 9 cm. long and 6 cm. wide. On one side, make a large ball-pen drawing of one kanji in the top two-thirds of the card. (Writing done with fountain pens and felt-tip pens lesson 5 45 tends to smear with the sweat below that comes from holding them in your hands for a long time.) On the bottom righthand corner, put the number of the frame in which the kanji appeared. On the back side, in the upper left-hand corner, write the key word 50 meaning of the character. Then draw a line across the middle of the card and another line about 2 cm. below it. The space between these two lines can be used for any notes you may need later to remind you of the primitive elements or stories you used to remember the character. Only ³ll this in when you need to, but make a card for every kanji as soon as you have learned it. The rest of the space on the card you will not need now, but later, when you come to learn the readings of the characters, you might use the space above the double lines. The bottom half of the card, on both sides, can be left free for inserting kanji compounds (front side) and their readings and meanings (back side). A ³nal note about reviewing. You have probably gotten into the habit of writing the character several times when memorizing it, whether you need to or not; and then writing it more times for kanji that you have trouble remembering. There is really no need to write the kanji more than once, unless you have trouble with the stroke-order and want to get a better “feel” for it. If a kanji causes you trouble, spend time clarifying the imagery of its story. Simply rewriting the character will reinforce any latent suspicions you still have that the “tried and true method” of learning by repeating is the only reliable one— the very bias we are trying to uproot. Also, when you review, review only from the key word to the kanji, not the other way around. The reasons for this, along with further notes on reviewing, will come later. We are now ready to return to work, adding a few new primitives one by one, and seeing what new characters they allow us to form. We shall cover 24 new kanji in this lesson. µoor with mágic wand below m 71 ³sh guts The kanji shown here actually represents the “second” position in the old Chinese zodiac, which the Japanese still use as an + 46 Remembering the Kanji alternate way of enumeration, much the same way that English will revert to Roman numerals. Among its many other meanings are “pure,” “tasteful,” “quaint,” and—get this!—³sh guts. Since it is a pictograph of a ³shhook, let us take this last as the key-word meaning. [1] = * We will keep ³shhook as the primitive meaning. Its shape will rarely be quite the same as that of the kanji. When it appears at the bottom of another primitive, it is straightened out, almost as if the weight of the upper element had bent it out of shape. And when it appears to the right of another element, the short horizontal line that gets the shape started is omitted and it is stretched out and narrowed, all for reasons of space and aesthetics. Examples of these alterations (which are consistent) follow. 72 riot In a riot, manners are laid aside and tempers get short, even in so courtesy-conscious a land as Japan. This kanji shows what happens to a rioting tongue: it gets “barbed” like a ³shhook, and sets to attacking the opposition, to hook them as it were. [7] ( ?@ABCDE 73 straightaway Begin with the top two primitives, needle and eye. Together they represent the eye of a needle. Below them is a ³shhook that has been straightened out and its barb removed so that it can pass through the eye of the needle. [8] Ÿ FGHIJKLM lesson 5 47 * tool Although this primitive is not very common, it is useful to know, as the following examples will show. Conveniently, it is always drawn at the very bottom of any kanji in which it ³gures. The ³rst stroke, the horizontal one, is detached from anything above it, but is necessary to distinguish tool from animal legs. The sense of the element is a carpenter’s tool, which comes from its pictographic representation of a small table with legs (make them animal legs if you need a more graphic image), so that any element lying on top of it will come to be viewed as a tool in the hands of a carpenter. [3] ) NOP 74 tool Here is the full kanji on which the last frame is based. If you can think of a table full of carpenter’s tools of all sorts, each equipped with its own eye so that it can keep a watch over what you are doing with it, you won’t have trouble later keeping the primitive and the kanji apart. [8] S QRSTUVWX 75 true Here again we meet the composite element, eye of the needle, which here combines with tool to give us a measure of what is true and what is not. [10] O YZ^_`a bc 48 Remembering the Kanji * by one’s side This primitive has the look of ten, except that the left stroke is bent down toward the left. It indicates where your hands (your ten ³ngers) fall when you let them droop: by your side. The stroke order of this character can be reversed; but whichever stroke is written second, that stroke should be drawn longer than the other. The difference is slight, and all but unnoticeable in printed characters, but should be learned all the same. [2] * no 76 . de craft ^ The pictograph of an I beam, like the kind used in heavy construction work, gives us the character for craft in general. [3] fgh * As a primitive element, the key word retains the meaning of craft and also takes on the related meanings of I beam and arti³cial. 77 left By combining the primitive and the kanji of the last two frames and reading the results, we get: by one’s side . . . craft. Conveniently, the left has traditionally been considered the “sinister” side, where dark and occult crafts are cultivated. Note how the second stroke droops over to the left and is longer than the ³rst. [5] Ù ijklm lesson 5 49 78 right When thinking of the key word right, in order to avoid confusion with the previous frame, take advantage of the doublemeaning here, too. Imagine a little mouth hanging down by your side—like a little voice of conscience—telling you the right thing to do. Here the second stroke should reach out to the right and be drawn slightly longer than the ³rst. [5] “ nopqr 79 possess The picture here is of someone with a slab of meat dangling by the side, perhaps from a belt or rope tied around the waist. Think of it as an evil spirit in possession of one’s soul, who can be exorcized only by allowing fresh meat to hang by one’s side until it begins to putrefy and stink so bad that the demon departs. Take careful note of the stroke order. [6] À stuvwx 80 bribe To the left we have the primitive for a shell³sh, and to the right the kanji we just learned for possess. Keep the connotation of the last frame for the word possess, and now expand your image of shells to include the ancient value they had as money (a usage that will come in very helpful later on). Now one who is possessed by shells is likely to abandon any higher principles to acquire more and more wealth. These are the easiest ones to bribe with a few extra shells. [13] Ì yz{|}‚ƒ„ …†‡ˆ‰ 50 Remembering the Kanji 81 tribute A tribute has a kind of double-meaning in English: honor paid freely and money collected by coercion. Simply because a ruler bestows a noble name on a deed is hardly any consolation to the masses who must part with their hard-earned money. Little wonder that this ancient craft of getting money by calling it a tribute has given way to a name closer to how it feels to those who pay it: a tax. [10] ” Š‹Œ‘’“”• –— 82 paragraph To the right we see a head and to the left an element that means craft. When we think of a paragraph, we immediately think of a heading device to break a text into parts. (Think of the elaborate heads often seen at the start of medieval manuscripts and the task becomes easier still.) Just where and how to do it belongs to the writer’s craft. Hence, we de³ne paragraphing as the “heading craft” to remember this character. [12] Ÿ ˜™š›œŸ¡¢ £¤¥¦ 83 sword Although this character no longer looks very much like a sword, it does have some resemblance to the handle of the sword. As it turns out, this is to our advantage, in that it helps us keep distinct two primitive elements based on this character. [2] M §¨ lesson 5 * In the form of the kanji, this primitive means a dagger. When it appears to the right of another element, it is commonly stretched out like this § and takes the sense of a great and µashing saber, a meaning it gets from a character we shall learn later (frame 1671). 51 84 blade Think of using a dagger as a razor blade, and it shouldn’t be hard to imagine cutting yourself. See the little drop of blood clinging to the blade? [3] ` 85 §ª« cut To the right we see the dagger and next to it the number seven whose primitive meaning we decided would be diced (frame 7). It is hard to think of cutting anything with a knife without imagining one of those skillful Japanese chefs. Only let us say that he has had too much to drink at a party, grabs a dagger lying on the mantelpiece and starts dicing up everything in sight, starting with the hors d’oeuvres and going on to the furniture and the carpets…. [4] × ¬−°± 86 ª seduce A sword or dagger posed over a mouth is how the character for “beckoning” is written. The related but less tame key word seduce was chosen because it seemed to ³t better with the— how shall we put it?—Freudian implications of the kanji. (Observe if you will that it is not sure whether the long slender object is seducing the small round one or vice versa.) [5] ²³´µ· 52 Remembering the Kanji * The primitive meaning remains the same: seduce. Just be sure to associate it with a very concrete image. 87 shining Let the key word suggest shining one’s shoes, the purpose of which is to seduce the sun down on them for all to see. [9] Å ¸¹º»¼½¾ ¿À 88 rule The character depicts a clam alongside a great and µashing saber. Think of digging for clams in an area where there are gaming rules governing how large a ³nd has to be before you can keep it. So you take your trusty saber, which you have carefully notched like a yardstick, crack open a clam and then measure the poor little beastie to see if it is as long as the rules say it has to be. [9] ’ ÁÂÃÄÅÆÇ ÈÉ * wealth To prepare for following frame, we introduce here a somewhat rare primitive meaning wealth. It takes its meaning from the common image of the overwealthy as overfed. More speci³cally, the kanji shows us one single mouth devouring all the harvest of the ³elds, presumably while those who labor in them go hungry. Think of the phrase exactly as it is written when you draw the character, and the disposition of the elements is easy. [9] & ËÌÍÎÏÏÐÑÒ lesson 5 53 89 viceThe key word vice- has the sense of someone second-in-command. The great and µashing saber to the right (its usual location, so you need not worry about where to put it from now on) and the wealth on the left combine to create an image of dividing one’s property to give a share to one’s vice-wealthholder. [11] O ÓÔÕÖ×ØÙÚ ÛÜÝ 90 separate In the Old East, the samurai and his saber were never separated. They were constant companions, like the cowboy of the Old West and his six-shooter. This character depicts what must have been the height of separation-anxiety for a samurai: to be bound up with a rope and unable to get at his saber leaning only a few feet away from him. Look at that mouth bellowing out for shame and sorrow! Note the order in which the element for tied up is written— just as it had been with the character for ten thousand. [7] ƒ Þßàáâãä 91 street The picture here is of a street sign on a long pole: Hollywood and Vine, if you please, or any street that immediately conjures up the image of a street sign to you. [2] s åæ * Used as a primitive, we change the meaning of the key word and take the shape to signify a nail or a spike. Should it happen, on reviewing, that you ³nd the pictographs get jumbled, 54 Remembering the Kanji then think of jerking a street sign out of the ground and using it as a nail to repair your garage roof. 92 village Street signs standing at the corner of the rice ³elds depict the village limits. (Remember what was said earlier: when used as a primitive, a kanji may either take its primitive meaning or revert to the original meaning of its key word.) [7] ‰ çèéêëìí 93 can Remember the story about the “Little Engine that Could” when you hear this key word, and the rest is simple. See the determined little locomotive huf³ng and puf³ng up the mountain—”I think I can, I think I can....”—spitting railroad spikes out of its mouth as it chews up the line to the top. [5] = îïðñò 94 place on the head The key word is actually a formal metaphor meaning “humble acceptance.” Reading off the two primitive elements in the order of their writing, we have: nail . . . head. As in “hitting the nail on the head.” Now one presumes that most people can handle metaphors, but if you were to run into a dimwit working in a hardware store who only knew the literal meaning of things, and were to ask him, in your best Japanese, to place on your head a nail, he might miss the point and cause you considerable torment. [11] ™ óôõö÷øùú ûüý Lesson 6 The last group of primitives took us pretty far, and probably forced you to pay more attention to the workings of imagination. In this lesson we shall concentrate on primitives that have to do with people. As you were reminded in frame 92, even those kanji that are given special meanings as primitives may also retain their key word meaning when used as primitives. This is done not only because it is convenient for making stories, but also because it helps to reinforce the original meaning of the character. 95 child This kanji is a pictograph of a child wrapped up in one of those handy cocoons that Japanese mothers ³x to their backs to carry around young children who cannot get around by themselves. The ³rst stroke is like a wee head popping out for air; the second shows the body and legs all wrapped up; and the ³nal stroke shows the arms sticking out to cling to the mother’s neck. [3] { !#$ * As a primitive, the meaning of child is retained, though you might imagine a little older child, able to run around and get into more mischief. 96 cavity Probably the one thing most children fear more than anything else is the dentist’s chair. Once a child has seen a dentist holding the x-rays up to the light and heard that ominous word cavity, even though it is not likely to know that the word means “hole” until it is much older, it will not be long before those two syllables get associated with the drill and that row of shiny hooks the dentist uses to torture people who are too small to ³ght back. [4] Z 56 Remembering the Kanji %&() 97 complete Learn this character by returning to frame 95 and the image given there. The only difference is that the “arms” have been left off (actually, only tucked inside). Thus a child with its arms wrapped up into the back-sack is the picture of a job successfully completed. [2] U *+ 98 œ woman You have probably seen somewhere the form of a squatting woman drawn behind this character, with two legs at the bottom, two arms (the horizontal line) and the head poking out the top. A little farfetched, until you draw the character and feel the grace and µow of the three simple strokes. Remembering the kanji is easy; learning to write it beautifully is another thing. [3] ,/0 * The primitive meaning is the same: woman. 99 fond The phrase “to be fond of someone” has a natural gentleness about it, and lends a tenderness to the sense of touching by giving us the related term “to fondle.” The character likens it to a woman fondling her child. [6] Y 123456 lesson 6 57 100 likeness Pardon me if I revert to the venerable old Dr. Freud again, but his eye for symbolism is often helpful to appreciate things that more earthy imaginations once accepted more freely but that we have learned to cover over with a veneer of etiquette. For instance, the fact that things like the mouth of a cave served as natural ritual substitutes for the opening through which a woman gives birth. Hence, in order to be reborn as an adult, one may have to pass through the psychological equivalent of the womb, that is, something that bears a likeness to the opening of the woman from whom you were born. [6] Ø 789:;= 101 mama Look closely at this kanji and you will ³nd the outline of the kanji for woman in it, though it has been expanded to make space for the two breasts that make her a mama. Likening this sound to a baby nursing at its mother’s breast has afforded some scholars of comparative linguistics a way to explain the presence of the same word across a wide range of languagegroups. [5] ª ?@ABC * As a primitive we shall add the meaning of breasts in accord with the explanation given above. Take careful note of the fact that the form is altered slightly when this kanji serves as a primitive, the ³nal two dots joining together to form a longer stroke. An example follows in the next frame. 102 A pierce If one is asked to think of associations for the word pierce, among the ³rst to come to mind is that of piercing one’s ears to hold earrings, a quite primitive form of self-mutilation that 58 Remembering the Kanji has survived into the 21st century. The kanji here is read, top to bottom: mother . . . oyster. All you need to do is imagine piercing an ear so that it can hold a mother-of-pearl you have just wrested from an oyster. [11] DEFGHIJK LMN 103 elder brother By now kanji like this one should “look like” something to you even though it is more of an “ideogram” than a “pictograph.” The large mouth on top and the human legs below almost jump off the page as a caricature of elder brother, the one with the big mouth (or if you prefer a kinder image, the one who “has the say” among all the children). [5] | OPQRS * As a primitive this character will take the meaning of teenager, in accord with the familiar image of the big mouth and the gangling, clumsy legs. 104 overcome In this frame we get a chance to use the kanji we just learned in its primitive meaning of teenager. The needle on top indicates one of the major problems confronting the teenager growing up in today’s world: drugs. Many of them will fall under the shadow of the needle at some time during those tender years, but only when a whole generation rises up and decides that “We Shall Overcome” the plague, will the needle cease to hang over their heads, as it does in this character. [7] ° TUVWXYZ Lesson 7 In this lesson we turn to primitive elements having to do with quantity. We will also introduce a form known as a “roof,” a sort of overhead “enclosure” that comes in a variety of shapes. But let us begin slowly and not get ahead of ourselves, for it is only after you have mastered the simple forms that the apparently impenetrable complexities of later primitives will dissolve. The primitives we give here will immediately suggest others, on the basis of what we have already learned. Hence the somewhat haphazard order among the frames of this lesson. 105 · little The sense of little that this character represents is not the same as “a little bit.” That meaning comes in the next frame. Here little means “small” or “tiny.” The image is actually of three little drops, the ³rst of which (the one in the middle) is written larger so that the kanji has some shape to it. The point of writing it three times is to rub the point in: little, little, nothing but little. [3] ^ * The primitive of the same shape keeps the same meaning. Written above a horizontal line, its form is slightly altered, the last two strokes turning inwards like this: 0. 106 ¸ few First we need to look at the fourth stroke, the drop at the bottom that has been extended into a longer diagonal stroke leaning left. This happens because a single, isolated drop will never appear beneath its relative primitive in its normal size, for fear it would drop off and get lost. As for the meaning, let the tiny drop indicate a further belittling of what is already little—thus making it a few of something little. [4] 60 Remembering the Kanji _`ab 107 large Here we have a simple pictograph of a person, taking up the space of an entire character and giving it the sense of large. It should not be too hard to locate the two legs and outstretched arms. [3] Ø cde * As a primitive, we need a different meaning, since the element representing the human person will come up later. Hence, this shape will become a large dog or, if you prefer, a St. Bernard dog. In frame 238 we will explain why this choice was made. * cliff This primitive means precisely what it looks like: a steep cliff. You can almost see someone standing at the top looking down into the abyss below. [2] F fg 108 many “Many moons ago,” begins much of Amerindian folklore—a colorful way of saying “Once upon a time” and a great deal of help for remembering this kanji. Here we have two moons (three of them would take us back to the beginning of time, which is further than we want to go), lacking the ³nal stroke because they are partially hidden behind the clouds of time. [6] − hijklm lesson 7 61 109 evening Just as the word evening adds a touch of formality or romanticism to the ordinary word “night,” so the kanji for evening takes the ordinary looking moon in the night sky and has a cloud pass over it (as we saw in the last frame). [3] Ï nop * The primitive keeps the same meaning and connotation as the kanji. 110 eventide In the next lesson we will meet the character for morning-tide and the element for drops of water. Meantime we have a perfect blend of picture and idea in this kanji to play on the English word for nightfall, eventide: drops of water inching their way up the shore in the evening. [6] à qrstuv 111 outside On the left, the primitive for evening, and on the right, that for the magic wand. Now, as every magician worth his abracadabra knows, bringing your magic wand out into the evening air makes your magic much more powerful than if you were to stay indoors. Hence, evening and magic wand takes you naturally outside. [5] ‘ wxyz{ 112 name Perhaps you have heard of the custom, still preserved in certain African tribes, of a father creeping into the tent or hut of his e 62 Remembering the Kanji newborn child on the night of the child’s birth, to whisper into its ear the name he has chosen for it, before making his choice public. It is an impressive naming custom and ³ts in tidily with the way this character is constructed: evening . . . mouth. At evening time, a mouth pronounces the name that will accompany one throughout life. [6] |}‚ƒ„… 113 stone With a mouth under a cliff, what else could we have here but the entrance to a secret cavern, before which a great stone has been rolled so that none may enter. Perhaps it is the hiding place where Ali Baba and his band of thieves have stored their treasures, in which case that magic word known to every school child who ever delighted over the tales of the Arabian Nights should be enough to push the stone aside. But take care—the cliff is steep, and one slip will send you tumbling down into the ravine below. [5] This is the one and only time that the second stroke in cliff will reach over to the middle of the horizontal stroke. If you think of the edge jutting outwards (in keeping with the story above), the problem should be taken care of. Í †‡ˆ‰Š * The stone is a quite common primitive element, which is not restricted to great boulders but used of stones or rocks of any size or shape. 114 Ü resemblance The word resemblance should suggest, among other things, a son’s resemblance to his father. A “chip off the old block” is the way we often put it, but the character is more simple. It speaks of a little bit of µesh. [7] ‹Œ‘’“”• lesson 7 * When used as a primitive, the sense of resemblance is replaced by that of spark or candle. (If you want an explanation: the kanji for moon also carries a secondary sense of ³re, which we omitted because we are keeping that meaning for other primitives.) 63 115 Ô nitrate The word nitrate should immediately suggest a beaker of nitric acid, which, as every high-school chemistry student knows, can eat its way through some pretty tough substances. Here we imagine pouring it over a rock and watching the sparks µy as it bores a hole through the rock. [12] –—˜™š›œŸ ¡¢£¤ 116 smash We begin with the two elements on the right, baseball and needle. Since they will be coming together from time to time, let us give the two of them the sense of a game of cricket in which a needle is laid across the wicket. Then imagine using a rock for a ball. A smash hit would probably splinter the bat in all directions, and a smashing pitch would do the same with the needle wicket. [9] ö ¥¦§¨©ª« ¬− 117 sand Good sand for beaches has few or no stones in it. That means that all of us whose feet have been spoiled by too much time in shoes don’t have to watch our step as we cavort about. [9] Þ 64 Remembering the Kanji °±²³´µ· ¸¹ 118 plane Long before the invention of the carpenter’s plane, people used knives and machetes (or here, sabers) to smooth out their woodwork. If you have ever seen the process, you will have been amazed at the speed and agility with which the adept can plane a hunk of wood into shape. Indeed, you can almost see the sparks µy from their sabers. [9] 7 º»¼½¾¿À Á 119 ray There are really only 2 primitives here, little and human legs. The 4th stroke that separates them is added for reasons of aesthetics. (If that doesn’t make sense, try writing the kanji without it and see how ugly the results look, even to your beginner’s eye.) Now if you have wondered what those little particles of “dust” are that dance around in the light-rays that come through the window and fall on your desk, try imagining them as little and disembodied human legs, and you should have no trouble with this character. [6] M ÃÄÅÆÇÈ 120 plump “Plump” is one of those delightful English words that almost sound like their meaning. No sooner do you hear it than you think of a round and ample-bodied person falling into a sofa like a large drop of oil plopping into a ³shbowl—kerrrr-plump! [4] ° lesson 7 65 ÉÊËÌ 121 ^ utensil The picture in this kanji is not a pleasant one. It shows a large and µuffy St. Bernard dog stretched out on a table all stuffed and stewed and garnished with vegetables, its paws in the air and an apple in its mouth. At each corner of the table sits an eager but empty mouth, waiting for the utensils to arrive so the feast can begin. [15] ÍÎÏÐÑÒÓÔ ÕÖ×ØÙÚÛ 122 I stinking This character is a bit friendlier to the animal world. Our friend the St. Bernard is alive and well, its nose in the air snif³ng suspiciously after something stinking somewhere or other. [9] ÜÝÞßàáâ ãä 123 exquisite The primitive for woman is on the left (there and at the bottom of another primitive is where you will always ³nd her), and to the right the element for few. When we refer to a woman as exquisite, we mean to praise her as the sort of person we meet but few and far between. To be pedantic about it, the Latin word at the root of the word exquisite carries this sense of “seeking out” the rare from the ordinary. [7] U åæçèéêë 66 Remembering the Kanji 124 Ó focus When we think of focusing on something, we usually take it in a metaphorical sense, though the literal sense is not far behind. It means to block out what is nonessential in order to ³x our eye on a few important matters. The kanji suggests picking up a few things and holding them before one’s eye in order to focus on them better. [9] ìíîïðñò óô 125 thick When we refer to someone as thick-skinned or thickheaded, we are usually quick to add—even if only under our breath— something about their upbringing, since we cherish the belief that by nature people are basically tender and sensitive. The Japanese character for thick depicts a child abandoned out on the wild cliffs, exposed to the heat of the sun, and thus doomed to develop a head and skin as thick as the parent who left it there. [9] R õö÷øùúû üý 126 ` strange The elements we are given to work with here are St. Bernard dog and can. Since the latter is too abstract, let us return to its elements: a mouth with nails. Now all we need do is create a ³ctitious “Strange But True” column in the Sunday funnies, featuring a St. Bernard whose mouth has been nailed shut because he was hitting the brandy keg around his neck too hard. [8] lesson 8 67 !#$%&( )* Lesson 8 Four basic elements, it was once believed, make up the things of our universe: earth, wind, ³re, and water. We have already met the element for wind, and now we shall introduce the others, one by one, in a somewhat lengthy lesson. Fortunately for our imaginations, these suggestive and concrete primitives play a large role in the construction of the kanji, and will help us create some vivid pictures to untangle some of the complex jumbles of strokes that follow. 127 stream We have taken the image of a river stream over into English to describe things that fall down in straight lines, or ripple along in lines. All of this is more than evident in the kanji given here, a pictograph of a stream. [3] ë +,/ * As a primitive, this character adds to the meaning of stream the more vivid image of a µood. Note, however, that there are certain small changes in the writing of the element, depending on where it appears relative to other elements: on the left, it is written ë on the top, it is written A on the bottom, it is written / 68 Remembering the Kanji 128 ? state Here we see drops of land (little islets) rising up out of a stream, creating a kind of sandbar or breakwater. Ever wonder how the state-line is drawn between states separated by a river? If there were little drops of land as in the kanji, there’d be nothing to it. [6] 012345 129 ˆ obey In primitive language, this character would read stream . . . head. And that turns out to be convenient for remembering its meaning of obey. Either one obeys the person who is head of an organization or else obeys by following the stream of opinion (“current” practice, we call it). Both these senses come together in this kanji. [12]. DEFGHIJK LMNO 130 water This character, which looks a bit like a snowµake, is actually a pictograph of water—not any particular body of water or movement of water, but simply the generic name for water. Should you have any dif³culty remembering it, simply think of a walking stick being dropped vertically into the water, sending droplets out in all four directions. Then all you need to learn is how to write it in proper order. [4] v PQRS * As a primitive, this character can keep its form, or it can be written with three drops to the left of another primitive, like this: Y. This latter, as we will see, is far more common. lesson 8 69 131 ä icicle The appearance of the primitive for water in its full form tells us that we have something to do with water here. The extra drop to the left, added as a second stroke, changes the picture from a splash caused by a walking stick dropped into water to form an icicle. If you hold an icicle up to the light, you can usually see little crystallizations of ³ve-pointed stars inside of it, which is the shape we have in this kanji. [5] TUVWX 132 eternity This kanji also uses the full form of water, though its meaning seems to have nothing at all to do with water. Remember what William Blake said about seeing “in³nity in a grain of sand and eternity in an hour”? Well, reading this character from top to bottom, we see “eternity in a drop of water.” [5] ½ YZ^ 133 spring Call to mind the image of a fresh, bubbling spring of water, and you will probably notice how the top of the spring you are thinking of, the part where the “bubbling” goes on, is all white. Happily, the white is just where it should be, at the top, and the water is at the bottom. [9] ñ _`abcde fg * We will keep this image of a spring when using this kanji as a primitive, but not without ³rst drawing attention to a slight change that distinguishes the primitive from the kanji. The ³nal 4 strokes (the element for water) are abbreviated to the 70 Remembering the Kanji three small drops that we learned earlier as the kanji for little, giving us: 1. 134 meadow Though the kanji is broad enough to embrace both meanings, the meadow you should imagine here is not a µatland plain but a mountain meadow in the Austrian Alps. (Perhaps the opening scene of “The Sound of Music” will help.) Simply think of little springs bubbling up across the meadow to form a sort of path that leads you right to the brink of a precipitous cliff. Now if you can see Schwester Maria skipping along merrily, dodging in and out of the springs, and then falling headlong over the cliff, you have a ridiculous story that should help ³x this kanji in memory. [10] ã hijklmno pq 135 X petition A meadow and a head are all we are given to work with in the kanji for petition. Since the key word already suggests something like a formal request made of some higher power, let us imagine a gigantic Wizard-of-Oz head located in the middle of the µowery meadow we used in the last frame. Then just picture people kneeling hopefully before it, petitioning for whatever it is they want. (The scarecrow wanted brains, the lion, courage, and the tin man a heart. What about you?) [19] rstuvwxy z{|}‚ƒ„… †‡ˆ lesson 8 71 136 swim The primitive to the left, you will recall from frame 130, represents water. To the right, we see the kanji for eternity. Knowing how much children like swimming, what could be a better image of eternal bliss than an endless expanse of water to swim in without a care in the world? [8] ¾ ‰Š‹Œ‘’“” 137 Ë marsh Unlike the meadow with its cliffs, the marshlands are low and near a source of water that feeds them until they get soggy through and through. Why certain land becomes marshy is probably due to the fact that it felt thirsty, and so tried its best to seduce the water over to its side. But, like most inordinate seductions, the last state of the victim is worse than the ³rst. Hence the slushy marsh. [8] •–—˜™š›œ 138 open sea This kanji could hardly be simpler. The key word open sea readily suggests being out in the middle of a great body of water. Thinking of it in this way should avoid confusion with the kanji for “open,” which we will meet later on. [7] ! Ÿ¡¢£¤¥¦ 139 creek Unlike the river, the ocean, the lake, and the pond, the creek is often no more then a dribble of water trickling down a small gully. While the geological history of the larger bodies of water is hard to surmise sometimes, all of us know from our child- s 72 Remembering the Kanji hood how creeks are made. You probably even dug one or two in your time. All you need to do is ³nd a mainstream of water somewhere and dig a little path into dry land. The creek is thus a lesson in water-craft, as this kanji would agree. [6] §¨©ª«¬ 140 ^ soup To make soup, one begins with water and then starts adding things to it, often leftovers from the icebox. This is how the thick soup or stew called “seven-in-one” is made. This kanji does it three better, giving us a ten-ingredient soup. [5] −°±²³ 141 tide Before we get to explaining this character, take a look at it and see if you can ³gure out the primitive elements on your own…. On the left is the water—that much is easy. On the right we have only one primitive, the kanji for morning learned back in frame 52. See how an apparently complex kanji falls apart neatly into manageable pieces? To get the meaning of the key word tide, just think of it in connection with the character for eventide that we learned back in frame 110. Here we have the morning-tide, its complement. By the way, if you missed the question about the number of primitives, it is probably because you forgot what we said earlier about kanji becoming primitives, independently of the pieces that make them up. As a rule, look for the largest kanji you can write and proceed from there to primitives stranded on their own. [15] ‡ ´µ·¸¹º»¼ ½¾¿ÀÁÂà lesson 8 73 142 source With the advice of the last frame in mind, it is easy to see water and meadow in this character for source. Both in its etymology (it has a common parent with the word “surge”) and in popular usage, source suggests the place water comes from. In this kanji, it is under the meadow, where we just saw it breaking the surface in those bubbly little springs. [13] è ÄÅÆÇÈÉÊË ÌÍÎÏÐ 143 lively When we speak of a lively personality or a lively party, we immediately think of a lot of chatter. This kanji depicts the idea of lively by having tongues babble and splash around like µowing water. [9] Ï ÑÒÓÔÕÖ× ØÙ 144 Ì extinguish Among the many things water is useful for is extinguishing ³res. First of all, take the water at the left as the drops of water that are used to depict water in general. In the best of all possible worlds, the most ef³cient way to extinguish a ³re would be to see that each drop of water hits one spark of the conµagration. An unthinkable bit of utopian ³re ³ghting, you say to yourself, but helpful for assigning this key word its primitives. [10] ÚÛÜÝÞßàá âã 74 Remembering the Kanji 145 ð but of course This key word is a connector used to link contrasting phrases and sentences together with much the same µavor as the English phrase but of course. Just picture yourself ready to go off on your ³rst date as a teenager, and having your mother grill you about your manners and ask you embarrassing questions about your hygiene. “Did you have a good shower?” “But of course…,” you reply, annoyed. So water and teenager combine to give us but of course. [8] äåæçèéêë 146 river The character in this frame represents a step up from the stream we met in frame 127; it is a full-sized river. The water to the left tells us what we are dealing with, and the can at the right tells us that our “little engine that could” has now become amphibious and is chugging down the Mighty Mississip’ like a regular riverboat. [8] I ìíîïðñòó 147 Q 148 overnight When you stop at an inn for an overnight rest, all you expect is a bit of water for a wash and a set of clean white sheets to wrap your weary bones in. [8] ôõö÷øùúû lake Water . . . old . . . µesh. You have heard of legends of people being abandoned in the mountains when they had become too old to work. Well, here is a legend about people being set adrift þ lesson 8 in the waters of a stormy lake because their µesh had gotten too old to bear the burdens of life. [12] 75 !#$%&()* +,/0 149 fathom Connoting the measurement of the depth of water, the key word fathom begins with the water primitive. To its right, we see the compound-primitive for rule (frame 88) which we learned in the sense of a “ruler” or “measure.” Hence, when we rule water we fathom it. What could be simpler? But be careful; its simplicity is deceptive. Be sure to picture yourself fathoming a body of water several hundred feet deep by using a ruler of gargantuan proportions. [12] — 12345678 9:;= 150 soil I don’t like it any more than you do, but this kanji is not the pictograph it is trumped up to be: a mound of soil piled on the ground. All I can recommend is that you memorize it as it is. Anyway, it will be occurring with such frequency that you have almost no chance of forgetting it, even if you try. [3] F ?@A * As a primitive, the sense of soil is extended to that of ground because of its connection with the kanji for the same (frame 515). From there it also takes the added meanings of dirt and land. 76 Remembering the Kanji 151 spit We have here a rather small mouth (it is always compressed when set on the left) next to a much larger piece of dirt. It is not hard to imagine what you might do if you got a mouth full of dirt. As least I know what I would do: spit it out as fast and far as I could! [6] 1 BCDEFG 152 pressure One of the things that causes the erosion of soil is the excessive pressure of the topsoil on the lower soil. This can be caused by any number of things from heavy rainfall to heavy buildings to the absence of suf³cient deep-rooted vegetation to hold the layers together. Here we see a steep cliff without a tree in sight. The slightest pressure on it will cause a landslide, which you can almost see happening in this character. [5] 9 HIJKL 153 cape The cape pictured here is a jut of land like Cape Cod. The soil on the left tells us we have to do with land, and the strange on the right tells us it is a cape where unusual things go on. Put a haunted house on it, an eerie sky overhead, and a howling wind rustling through the trees, and you have yourself a picture of Cape Strange (or, if you prefer, Cape Odd). [11] 3 NOPQRSTU VWX lesson 8 77 154 hedge The hedge depicted in this frame is the miraculous hedge of briar roses that completely spanned the castle grounds in which Sleeping Beauty lay for a hundred years, so that none but her predestined beloved could ³nd his way through it. [9] ¤ YZ^_` ab 155 squared jewel Now I am going to do something unusual. The character in this frame is going to get one meaning and the primitive another, with no relation at all between the two. In time, I hope you will see how helpful this is. The kanji key word, square jewel, depicts a mammoth precious stone, several feet high, made by piling up large heaps of soil on top of one another. Not something you would want to present your betrothed on your wedding day, but a good image for remembering this rare character, used chieµy in personal names nowadays. [6] ‚ cdefgh * As a primitive, we shall use this character to mean ivy, that creepy vegetation that covers the surface of the ground to form a sort of “second” ground that can get somewhat tricky to walk on without tripping. 156 seal Think of the key word seal as referring to a letter you have written and are preparing to close. Instead of using the traditional wax seal, you glue a sprig of ivy on the outside. In this way the elements ivy and glue give you a curious and memorable way to seal your secret letters. [9] I 78 Remembering the Kanji ijklmno pq 157 horizon After seeing a constant horizon of water, water everywhere for months at sea, could there be anything more delightful to the eyes than to look astern and see the ivy-clad cliffs of land on a new horizon? Of course, you’d need the eyes of a stellar telescope to recognize that the vegetation was in fact ivy, but the phrase “ivy-clad cliffs” has such a nice ring to it that we won’t worry about such details. [11] — rstuvwxy z{| 158 Buddhist temple You have heard of people “attaching” themselves to a particular sect? Here is your chance to take that metaphor literally and imagine some fellow walking into a Buddhist temple with a fervent resolve to attach himself to the place. Since there is plenty of unused land around the precincts, he simply picks out a suitable patch, brushes the soles of his feet with glue, steps down ³rmly, and so joins the Buddhist temple as a “permanent member.” [6] ± }‚ƒ„…† 159 time “What is time?” asked St. Augustine in his memoirs. “Ask me not, and I know. Ask me, and I cannot tell you.” Here we have the kanji’s answer to that perennial riddle. Time is a sun rising over a Buddhist temple. It sounds almost like a Zen kõan whose repetition might yield some deep secret to the initiated. At any ´ lesson 8 rate, imagining a monk seated in meditation pondering it might help us remember the character. [10] 79 ‡ˆ‰Š‹Œ‘ ’“” 160 level The level this key word refers to is not the carpenter’s tool but rather the even surface of a thing. It pictures soil being scooped up into a ladle and then made level (apparently because one is measuring soil). The excess drops of soil are brushed off the top, which accounts for the added drop at the ladle’s edge. [7] 1 •–—˜™š› 161 ³re Just as sitting before a ³re enlivens the imagination and lets you see almost anything you want to in the µames, this kanji is so simple it lets you see almost any sort of ³re you want to see. It no longer makes a good pictograph, but I invite you to take a pencil and paper and play with the form—³rst writing it as shown below and then adding lines here and there—to see what you can come up with. Everything from matchbooks to cigarette lighters to volcanic eruptions to the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah have been found here. No doubt you, too, will ³nd something interesting to bend your memory around these four simple strokes. [4] J œŸ¡¢ * To avoid confusion later on, it is best to keep to the meaning of a ³replace (or hearth) or a raging conµagration like a forest ³re for this kanji’s primitive meaning. Another primitive element for ³re, based on this one, is written ½ and will mean µames, cauldron, cooking ³re, or an oven ³re. 80 Remembering the Kanji 162 inµammation A ³re belongs in the hearth, not over it. When the ³re spreads to the rest of the house, we have an inµamed house. And as with any inµammation—including those that attack our bodies— the danger is always that it might spread if not checked. This is the sense behind the reduplication of the kanji for ³re. [8] Ý £¤¥¦§¨ ©ª 163 ˜ anxiety The existential condition of anxiety that arises from the inevitable frustration of our worldly passions is contained in this character. The head is set a³re, causing deep torment of spirit (and a whopper of a headache). [13] «¬−°±²³´ µ·¸¹º 164 thin The primitives in this kanji read: water . . . inµammation. Taking inµammation in its medical sense, the ³rst water-related inµammation that pops into mind is dehydration, the principal symptom of which is that it makes one shrivel up and look very, very thin. If that is hard to remember, try thinking it backwards: a very thin chap passes by and you imagine him suffering from (being inµamed with) dehydration (hence the element for water). [11] , »¼½¾¿ÀÁ ÃÄÅ lesson 8 81 165 lamp Since it is very hard to read by the ³replace without going blind from the µickering of the µames or burning up from the heat, our ancestors invented a way to nail down a bit of that ³re, just enough to light up the text of their evening newspapers and no more. Voilà! The lamp. [6] a ÆÇÈÉÊË 166 i farm Looking at the primitives, a ³replace and a rice ³eld, we ³nd the essential ingredients for a farm: a warm hearth to sit by at night, and a well-plowed ³eld to grow one’s crops in by day. [9] ÌÍÎÏÐÑÒ ÓÔ 167 disaster Of all of nature’s disasters, this kanji picks out two of the worst: µoods and ³res. To recall the disposition of the elements, think of nature’s solution to nature’s own problem: a great µood pouring down over a great forest ³re. [7] ó ÕÖ×ØÙÚÛ 168 ashes The kanji for ashes naturally includes the primitive for ³re, or more speci³cally, a ³replace. Now what do you do with that bucket of ashes you have just cleaned out of the ³replace? You walk to the edge of a cliff and tip it upside down, watching as they are swept away in the wind like a swarm of gray mosqui- ‚ 82 Remembering the Kanji toes. Thus the ³re, once it has turned to ashes, ends up at the bottom of the cliff. [6] ÜÝÞßàá 169 spot If you look into the µickering of a ³re for a long time and then turn aside, you will see spots before your eyes. Although nobody ever thought of such a thing before—as least as far as I know, they didn’t—imagine using those spots as a technique for fortune-telling. The old witch sits before her cauldron and watches the spots that show up when she turns to look at you, and from that tells your fortune. [9] ( âãäåæçè éê 170 Ñ illuminate Although the range of possible meanings that the kanji for illuminate can have is about as rich as the connotations of the English word, we need to focus on just one of them: to make something shine. If you glaze a pot and put it into the oven to ³re it, you in fact illuminate it. Hence the kanji for illuminate compares the kanji for shining with the primitive element for the oven’s ³re. [13] ëìíîïðñò óôõö÷ 171 Ö ³sh The composition of this kanji shows three elements, which we list in the order of their writing: bound up . . . rice ³eld . . . cooking ³re. We can join them together by thinking of a three-part lesson 9 story: ³rst a ³sh is caught and bound up on a line with its unfortunate school-mates; when the ³sherman gets home, he cuts off the head and tosses it, with the entrails, out into the rice ³elds for fertilizer; and the rest he sets in a skillet over a cooking ³re for his supper. [11] 83 ôõö÷øùúû üýþ 172 Ô ³shing To the story we have just made about ³sh, this kanji for the profession of ³shing adds yet another element before the others: namely the water, where the ³sh was happily at home before being caught, disemboweled, and eaten. [14] !#$%&()* +,/012 Lesson 9 Although the study of the four basic elements undertaken in the last lesson brought us a lot of new characters—46 in all—we have only scratched the surface as far as water, earth, wind, and ³re are concerned. Perhaps by now it is clear why I said that we are lucky that they appear so frequently. The range of images they suggest is almost endless. At any rate, let us carry on with new “roof” and “enclosure” primitives. But ³rst, a primitive-kanji that we might have included in the last group but omitted so as not to be distracted from the four elements. 84 Remembering the Kanji 173 ri That’s right—a ri. Don’t bother looking it up in your English dictionary; it’s a Japanese word for measuring distances. One ri is about 4 kilometers or 2.5 miles. The kanji depicts how the measure came to be used. Atop we see the rice ³eld, and below the element for land. Those four sections you see in the rice ³eld (and which we made mention of when ³rst we introduced the character in frame 14) are actually measurements of land, much the same as farm-sections in the United States have given us the notion of a “country mile.” The land division based on the size of a rice ³eld is called a ri. [7] = øùúûüýþ * To get a more concrete primitive meaning for this kanji, we shall refer to it as a computer, a meaning deriving from the kanji for logic, which we will meet in Lesson 12. 174 black Like most things electrical, a computer, too, can overheat. Just imagine µames pouring out of it and charring the keyboard, the monitor, and your desk a sooty black color. [11] ¸ !#$%&()* +,/ 175 black ink Besides meaning black ink, this kanji also appears in the word for an inked string that is pulled taut and snapped to mark a surface, much the same as one might used a chalked string. Here it is used to mark off the dirt with black lines for a football game (played, I presume, on a white ³eld). [14] î 01234567 lesson 9 85 89:;=? 176 carp These are the same carp you see in Japan’s famous carp streamers. Only here we ³nd a small home computer or two strung on the line by a father anxious for his son not only to have the courage and determination of a carp swimming upstream, but also the ef³ciency and memory of a computer. Ugh. [18] G @ABCDEFG HIJKLMNO PQ 177 quantity Think of quantity as having to do with measuring time and distance, and the rest is simple: you have a quantity of time in the new day that begins with nightbreak, and a quantity of distance in the rural ri. [12] g RSTUVWXY Z^ 178 rin No doubt you will ³nd it in your heart to forgive me for forcing yet another Japanese word on you in this frame. It is not the last time it will happen in this book, but I can assure you they are used only when absolutely necessary. One rin is equal to about 1/1000 of a yen—or rather was worth that much when it still made economic sense to mint them. While inµation took its toll on this kanji as a monetary unit, it survived with the not at all surprising sense of something “very, very tiny.” m 86 Remembering the Kanji The kanji shows a cliff with a computer under it, apparently because it has been pushed over into the abyss by someone fed up with the thing. The total market value of one home computer that has fallen over rock and bramble for several hundred feet: about one rin! [9] _`abcde fg 179 bury When we speak of burying something (or someone, for that matter), we usually mean putting them under ground. Only here, we are burying our beloved computer that has served us so well these past years. Behind us a choir chants the “Dies irae, dies illa” and there is much wailing and grief among the bystanders as they pass by to shovel a little dirt into what will be its ³nal resting place. R.I.P. [10] ( hijklmn opq Before going any further, we might pause a moment to look at precisely where the primitive elements were placed in the kanji of the last frame: the ground to the left and the computer to the right. Neither of these are absolutely ³xed positions. The kanji for spit (frame 151), for instance, puts ground on the right, and that for plains (frame 1596) will put the computer on the left. While there is no reason to bother memorizing any “rules,” a quick glance through a few generalized principles may help. Use them if they help; if not, simply adjust the story for a problem character in such a way as to help you remember the position of the elements relative to one another. In any case, here are the principles: 1. Many kanji used regularly as primitives have a “strong” position or two from which it is able to give a basic “µavor” to the character. For example, ground at the left (or bottom) usually indicates something to do with earth, soil, land, and the like; ³re at the bottom in the form of the four dots, or at the left in its compressed kanji form, usually tells us we have lesson 9 87 to do with heat, passion, and the like; a mouth at the left commonly signi³es something to do with eating, coughing, spitting, snoring, screaming, and so forth. Where these elements appear elsewhere in the kanji, they do not have the same overall impact on its meaning as a rule. 2. Some primitive elements always have the same position in a kanji. We saw this earlier in the case of the primitive meaning head (frame 60) and that for the long saber (frame 83), as well as in the three drops of water (frame 130). 3. Enclosures like cliff (see frame 125) and bound up (frame 63) are always set above whatever it is they enclose. Others, as we shall see later, “wrap up” a kanji from the bottom. 4. All things being equal, the element with the fewer strokes (usually the more common element) has ³rst rights to the “strong” position at the left or bottom. (Note that the left and bottom cannot both be the dominant position in the same character. Either one or the other of them will dominate, usually the left.) The characters for nitrate (frame 115) and chant (frame 21) illustrate the point. * hood In addition to the basic meaning of hood, this shape can be used for a glass cover, such as that used to serve “pheasant under glass.” Note its difference from the element for wind: the second stroke is hooked inwards here. To help remember this detail, think of the wind as blowing “out” and a glass canopy as keeping something “in.” Among the related images suggested by this primitive are: a monk’s cowl, a riding hood, a helmet, and an automobile hood. [2] · rs 180 same The primitives in this kanji show us one and mouth under a hood. Let us take the key word to connote the sameness that characterizes the life in community of the monk. They all have the same habits, including the “habit” they wear on their backs. | 88 Remembering the Kanji Here we see the monk’s cowl, drawn down over the eyes so that all you can see when you look at him is a mouth. But since monks also speak their prayers in common, it is but a short step to think of one mouth under a hood as the kanji for the sameness of monastic life. [6] tuvwxy * As a primitive, this will mean monks dressed in a common habit. 181 den The key word den refers to an animal lair hollowed out in the side of a mountain. Now if we keep to the image of the monastic life as an image for same, we can picture a den of wild beasts dressed up in habits and living the common life in a mountain cavern. To bring in the element of water we need only give them a sacred “puddle” in the center of their den, the focus of all their pious attentions. [9] … z{|}‚ƒ„ …† 182 trunk The word trunk refers to the part of the body that is left when you have “truncated” all the limbs. I can hardly think of any reason for doing so, unless one were lumberjacking corpses and needed to have them all properly pruned and made the same so they could be µoated downstream without causing a body-jam. [10] ˆ ˆ‰Š‹Œ‘’ “” lesson 9 89 183 yonder Something referred to as “over yonder” is usually far off in the distance and barely within sight—like a wee drop in the distance—and is usually an expression used in giving directions or pointing something out. Hence this kanji begins with a drop. Then we ³nd a sort of transparent helmet with no eyes or nose, but only a prominent mouth under it, obviously an extraterrestrial. And what is it jabbering on about with its mouth open like that? Why, about his spaceship way over yonder with its fuel tank on empty. [6] T •–—˜™š 184 ¹ esteem Above we see the primitive for little attached to one of those glass canopies you might use to display a family heirloom. The littleness is important, because what is in fact on display is the shrunken, stuffed, and mounted mouth of an esteemed ancestor. We may be used to esteeming the words our forebears leave behind, but here we also esteem the very mouth that spoke them. I leave it to you to imagine a suitable place in your room for displaying such an unusual conversation piece. [8] ›œŸ¡¢£¤¥ * house This extremely useful primitive element depicts the roof of a house. You can see the chimney at the top and the eaves on either side without much trouble. It is a “crown” element, which means that it is invariably set atop other things. Examples follow immediately. [3] º ¦§¨ 90 Remembering the Kanji 185 character Here is the character for character itself. Not just kanji, but any written character from hieroglyphs to Sanskrit to our own Roman alphabet. It shows us simply a child in a house. But let us take advantage of the double-meaning of the key word to note that just as a child born to a Japanese house is given characters for its name, so it is also stamped with the character of those who raise it from infancy on. [6] ° ©ª«¬−° 186 ! guard The notion of guarding something easily brings to mind the image of someone standing guard, like the royal soldiers in front of Buckingham Palace or the Pope’s Swiss Guard. The whole idea of hiring guards is that they should stick like glue to your house to protect it from unwanted prowlers. So go ahead and glue a guard to your house in imagination. [6] ±²³´µ· 187 perfect In order not to confuse the key word perfect with others nearly synonymous in meaning, pull it apart to have a look at its native Latin roots. Per-factum suggests something so “thoroughly made or done” that nothing more needs to be added to it. Now look at the kanji, which does something similar. We see a house that has been made perfectly from its beginnings in the foundation to the roof on the top. Now return to frame 97 and make sure not to confuse this key word with the kanji for complete. [7] õ ¸¹º»¼½¾ lesson 9 91 188 proclaim Under the primitive for house we meet the kanji for span. Think of the key word in its religious sense of missionary preaching: “proclaiming the good news to all nations” and “shouting it from the housetops.” That should be enough to help you remember this simple kanji, used in fact both for advertising and missionary work. [9] è ¿ÀÁÂÃÄÅ ÆÇ 189 ´ wee hours As the key word hints, the kanji in this frame refers to the late evening or early morning hours, well after one should be in bed asleep. It does this by picturing a house with a candle in it. The reason is obvious: whoever is living there is “burning the candle at both ends,” and working night after night into the wee hours. [10] ÈÉÊËÌÍÎÏ ÐÑ 190 relax To be told that the place of the woman is in the house may not sit well with modern thought, but like all cultural habits the Chinese characters bear the birthmarks of their age. So indulge yourself in a Norman Rockwell image of relaxing after a hard day’s work: the scruffy and weary woman of the house slouched asleep in the living room chair, her hair in curlers and a duster lying in her lap. [6] H ÒÓÔÕÖ× 92 Remembering the Kanji 191 banquet To carry on from the last frame, we note the entire day of work that comes between a woman and her house in preparing for a dinner banquet, pictorially “interrupting” her relaxation. [10] Ö ØÙÚÛÜÝÞß àá 192 b draw near Let the idea of drawing near suggest something dangerous or eerie that one approaches with fear and trembling. Here we see a strange house—perhaps the haunted House of Usher that Edgar Allen Poe immortalized, or the enchanted Gingerbread House that lured Hansel and Gretel to draw near. [11] âãäåæçèé êëì 193 wealth Here we have the original character on which the primitive element for wealth is based. In keeping with the story introduced back then, note how all the wealth is kept under the roof of the same house. [12] ) íîïðñòóô õö÷ø 194 savings To avoid confusing this frame with the last one, try to think of savings as actual money. The only difference is that our cur- r lesson 10 rency is not paper bills but shells, a not uncommon unit of exchange in older civilizations. The nail under the roof of the house points to a hiding place in the rafters on which one strings up one’s shells for safekeeping. [12] 93 !#$%&()* +,/0 Lesson 10 Of the several primitive elements that have to do with plants and grasses, we introduce two of the most common in this lesson: trees and µowers. In most cases, as we shall see, their presence in a “strong” position (in this case, to the left and at the top, respectively) helps give a meaning to the kanji. Where this is not the case, we shall do our best to make it so. 195 tree Here we see a pictograph of a tree, showing the main trunk in the long vertical stroke and the boughs in the long horizontal stroke. The ³nal two strokes sweep down in both directions to indicate the roots. Although it may look similar at ³rst sight to the kanji for water (frame 130), the order in which it is written is completely different and this affects its ³nal appearance. [4] … ùúûü * As a primitive, this kanji can be used to mean tree or wood. In those cases where the last two strokes are detached from the trunk (6), we shall change its meaning to pole, or wooden pole. 94 Remembering the Kanji 196 grove Learn this frame in connection with the next one. A grove is a small cluster of trees. Hence the simple reduplication of the kanji for tree gives us the grove. [8] n 123456 78 197 forest A forest is a large expanse of trees, or “trees, trees everywhere,” to adopt the expression we used back in frames 22 and 23. [12] I 9:;=?@AB CDEF 198 Japanese Judas-tree Unless you are a botanist, you are not likely to know what a Japanese Judas-tree looks like, and probably never even heard of it before, but the name is suf³ciently odd to make remembering it easy. Using the primitives as our guide, we de³ne it as a tree with ivy growing down its branches in the shape of a hangman’s rope. [10] ” GHIJKLMN OP 199 P oak This kanji calls to mind the famous myth of the “golden bough.” As you may recall, what made the sacred oak in the forest of Diana the Huntress outside of Rome “golden” were the white berries of the mistletoe that grew in the branches of lesson 10 the tree, presumably appearing yellow when the light of the sun shone through them. (If you don’t know the story, take a break today and hunt it down in a dictionary of myth and fable. Even if you forget the kanji, which of course you won’t, the story of the mistletoe and the fate it brought to Balder the Beautiful is most memorable.) [9] 95 QRSTUVW XY 200 frame You might think of the frame this character refers to as the sort of frame we have created by drawing a dark line around this kanji and its explanation. Then think of that line as made of very thin wood; and ³nally note how each time the line bends it forms a 90° angle, thus giving us the nine and the ten. [8] Ï Z^_` ab 201 È treetops As the days grow shorter and shorter, or so the northern European myth goes, the fear grows that the sun will take its leave of us altogether, abandoning the world to total darkness. Fixing candles to the branches of evergreen trees, it was believed, would lure the sun back (like things attracting like things), whence the custom of the lighted tree that eventually found its way into our Christmas customs. The story is a lot longer and more complex than that, but it should help to ³x the image of climbing high up into the treetops to ³x candles on the tree. [11] cdefghij klm 96 Remembering the Kanji 202 shelf One often thinks of books as “good companions,” but here it is the shelf we store them on that is the companion. The reasons should be obvious: it is made of the same stuff, wood, and spends a lot more time with them than we do! Here again, be careful not to let the rationality of the explanation get in the way before you turn it into a proper story. [12] ù nopqrstu vwxy 203 apricot Since apricots can be eaten just as they fall from the trees, picture this mouth agape at the bottom of a tree (just as the elements have it), waiting for apricots to fall into it. [7] O 204 z{|}‚ƒ„ paulownia Since you probably don’t know what a paulownia tree is, we shall let the key word suggest the phrase “the Little Brothers of St. Paulownia” and it is a short step to associate the tree with the monks to its right. (For the curious, the name of this oriental tree really comes from a Russian princess, Anna Pavlovna.) [10] + …†‡ˆ‰Š‹Œ ‘’ 205 plant You have no doubt seen how people practicing the Japanese art of bonsai take those helpless little saplings and twist them into 0 lesson 10 crippled dwarves before they have a chance to grow up as they should. The more proper way to plant a young tree and give it a fair shake in life is to set it into the earth in such a way that it can grow up straight. [12] 97 “”•–—˜™š ›œŸ¡ 206 wither What makes a tree begin to wither up, and perhaps even die, is a kind of arteriosclerosis that keeps its sap from µowing freely. Usually this is due to simple old age, as this character shows us. Be sure to picture a wrinkled old tree, withering away in a retirement center so that the commonsense explanation does not take over. [9] ü ¢£¤¥¦§¨ ©ª 207 crude As all magicians who have passed their apprenticeship know, one makes one’s wand out of a hazel branch and is careful not to alter the natural form of the wood. For the magic of the wand derives its power from its association with the hidden laws of nature, and needs therefore to be kept in its crude, natural state. [6] 𠫬−°±² 208 town The character for village was associated with rice ³elds (frame 92). That for town, a step up on the evolutionary path to cities, shows a circle of trees glued together to measure off the con³nes of a town. [7] ª 98 Remembering the Kanji ³´µ·¸¹º 209 interThe pre³x inter- stirs up associations of cooperation among people. From there we read off the elements: tree . . . eye. Those two words call to mind the scriptural proverb about ³rst taking the tree out of one’s own eye before helping your neighbors with the splinter in theirs. What more useful rule for interhuman relationships, and what more useful tool for remembering this kanji! [9] o »¼½¾¿ÀÁ Âà 210 h desk We need to ³x imagination here on two things to learn the kanji for desk: the wonderful rough wood of which it has been hewn and the wind that blows across it, sending your papers µying all over the room. These two elements, written in that order, dictate how to write the character. [6] ÄÅÆÇÈÉ 211 book Recalling that books are made of paper, and paper made of trees, one might think of a book as a slice of a tree. Can you see the “cross-cut” in the trunk of the tree? Picture it as a chainsaw cutting you out a few books with which to start your own private library. [5] û ÊËÌÍÎ lesson 10 99 212 tag The tags you see hanging on trees in public places in Japan are helpful to identify what sort of trees they are. Next time you see one, imagine the bit of wire that ³xes the tag to the branch as a large ³shhook. really imagine it, illogical as it is, and you will never have trouble with this kanji again. [5] M ÏÐÑÒÓ 213 calendar Look at this character in reverse order, from bottom up. First we see the primitive for days, an appropriate enough way to begin a calendar. Next we see a grove of trees growing under a cliff. The laws of nature being what they are, the trees would be stunted under such conditions, unless they were strong enough to keep growing upwards until they passed through the layers of rock and soil, right up to the surface. Now imagine that in those little boxes marking off the days on your wall calendar, you see that very process taking place step by step: 365 or so time-lapse pictures of that grove of trees each month, from January under the cliff to December on top of the cliff. The story is not as complex as it sounds, particularly if you happen to have a calendar nearby and can µip through it with this image in mind. [14] ” ÔÕÖ×ØÙÚÛ ÜÝÞßàá 214 plan Without much effort, the elements relax . . . tree suggest a hammock strung between two trees in your backyard, and you stretched out in it, hands folded behind your head, planning something or other. After all, it’s something we all do from time to time: kick up our legs on the nearest piece of furniture L 100 Remembering the Kanji and daydream about the best plan of action to take. Only here be sure to relate the relaxation to the tree, so that you don’t end up with something else in its place (like “legs” or “desk” or “table”). [10] âãäåæçèé êë 215 parch Parchment, made from animal skins, was the most common form of writing material used until the beginning of the 19th century. When paper took over, a method was devised to make arti³cial parchment from wood pulp. The ³re at the left and in the “strong” position serves to remind us of the root word, “parch,” since nothing dries, puckers, wrinkles, and scorches quite like ³re. And here is how we put it all together. Take a sheet of paper (a “wood-good,”), wet it, and hold it over a hearth in your mind’s eye. Now watch as it parches the paper, leaving it with a strange and bumpy surface resembling parchment. [17] l ìíîïðñò óôõö÷øù úûü 216 not yet As the key word suggests, this kanji has to do with something not quite over and done with. More concretely, it shows us a tree that is not yet fully grown. The extra short stroke in the upper branches shows new branches spreading out, leaving one with the feeling that the tree has a ways to go yet before it reaches maturity. In other words, the kanji conveys its meaning pictographically, playing on the earlier pictograph of the tree. [5] J lesson 10 101 !#$%& 217 extremity This character is best learned in connection with that of the previous frame. The ³rst stroke shows a branch that is longer than the main branch, indicating that the tree has reached the extremity of its growth, so that its branches stop spreading and start drooping downwards. Be sure to keep this imagery in mind, to avoid confusing this key word with synonyms that will appear later. [5] = ()*+, 218 splash The splash this kanji refers to is the dash of water against the rocks, with all the foam and spray that this creates. If you think of a splash in this sense as a wave that has run its full course and reached its extremity, namely the seashore, and if you think of it pictorially in your mind’s eye, this somewhat rare (but ohso-easy-to-learn) kanji is yours for good. [8] ? /0123456 219 µavor When a tree has not yet ³nished growing, it produces fruit with a full µavor. When the of³cial taster (the professional mouth to the left) determines that full µavor has been reached, the tree is pruned back so that it remains permanently not yet grown. A neat little agricultural trick and an easy to way see the sense of µavor hidden in this character. [8] I 789:;=?@ 102 Remembering the Kanji 220 younger sister The younger sister in the family is the woman in the family who, like the newest branch in a tree, is not yet old enough or mature enough to do everything the elder sister can do (see frame 413). [8] ) ABCDEF GH 221 $ vermilion That red-orange color we call vermilion is found in nature during the fall when the leaves lose their sugar and begin to change color. This kanji depicts the very last leaf on a tree in the fall (the drop hung in the ³rst stroke), the leaf that has not yet fallen as it one day must. Look at its color—vermilion. (Well, not really. The truth is, vermilion is made from a mercuric sul³de, but I’m sure you will agree that autumn leaves are a lot easier to work with.) [6] IJKLMN 222 stocks The stocks bought and sold on the market by the tens of millions each day get their name from a comparison to a healthy tree, in which one takes “stock” in the hopes that it will grow and produce more and more trees like itself. Usually good stocks are referred to as “blue chip,” but here we are asked to associate the key word with the color vermilion, perhaps because one can assess the value of a tree from the color of its autumn leaves. [10] Û OPQRSTU VWX lesson 10 103 * µower We are not yet equipped with all the pieces necessary to learn the character for µower, so shall have to content ourselves here with the ³rst three strokes, which represent the primitive of the same meaning. Concentrate on the actual “bloom” of the µower, and keep a particular µower in mind. Try a rose, a tulip, or a daisy, since none of them will have their own kanji. [3] 4 YZ[ 223 young Here we see a µower held in the right hand. You can imagine yourself in a magic garden where µowers picked with the right hand grant eternal youth; and those picked with the left, premature senility. Go ahead, pick one with each hand and watch what happens. [8] ø ^_`abcd 224 grass Perhaps you know the custom of seeding grass randomly or in some particular pattern with the µower called the crocus, which blooms for a few days each year in early spring. As the grass begins to turn green again after winter has passed, these tiny µowers dot up here and there. Now just look out your window at a patch of grass somewhere and think what a nice idea it would be to have your name spelled out in µowers once as a sort of early harbinger of spring. [9] u efghijk lm 104 Remembering the Kanji 225 suffering The picture of suffering we are given here is that of a µower that has grown old. When a µower ages, it pales and dries up, and probably even suffers. If you think that plants are incapable of such feelings, then ask yourself why so many people believe that talking to their µowers helps them bloom better. [8] N nopqrstu 226 tolerant The house of µowers or “hothouse” has become a metaphor for a narrow-minded, biased, and intolerant attitude distrustful of change. Tolerance, in contrast, is open-minded and welcomes novelty. The way to encourage tolerance in those who lack it is ³rst to have them see through their own hothouse attitudes, which is the very counsel we are given in this kanji. [13] ÷ vwxyz{|} „ƒ„…† 227 V dilute Take a good look at this kanji: the “strong” element here is really the µower, not the water as you might have thought on ³rst glance. To the right is the acupuncturist from frame 47. Taking the key word to connote diluting the vital humors of the body, we can imagine our acupuncturist performing his task with µowers in place of needles, and using their hollow stems to pipe water into the body of the patient. [16] Š‹Œ‘’“”• –—˜™š›œŸ lesson 10 105 228 leaf Three elements are given here: µower . . . generation . . . tree. The ³rst and last seem logical enough, since it is the leaf that feeds the µowers on a tree. The element for generation interposed between the two suggests that the movement of a tree from one generation to the next is like its “turning over a new leaf.” [12] è ¡¢£¤¥¦§¨ ©ª«¬ * graveyard The element shown here should be taken to represent a modern graveyard. Gone are the cobwebs and gnarled trees, the tilted headstones and dark, moonless nights that used to scare the wits out of our childhood imaginations. Instead, we see brightly colored µowers placed before the tombstones, the sun shining gloriously overhead, and a cuddly St. Bernard sitting at the gate keeping watch. [10] 2 −°±²³´µ· ¸¹ 229 imitation Ah, but haven’t modern graveyards become a parody of their ancestors! The µowers are plastic, the writing on the stones is unimaginative and cold, and the whole thing looks more like a marble orchard than a right and proper graveyard. This kanji continues with the modernization trend by picturing imitation trees in the graveyard. But of course, how convenient! They don’t need pruning or fertilizing, their leaves don’t fall, and they remain the same color all year long. [14] v º»¼½¾¿ÀÁ 106 Remembering the Kanji ÂÃÄÅÆÇ 230 Y vague Think of the key word as having to do with something viewed through a haze, or in the twilight and from a distance, so that only its outlines are vaguely discernible. Now we are back again to the essence of the true graveyard. The water may be taken as the sound of waves dashing up against the rocks or the dripping of moisture on cold rock—anything that helps you associate vagueness with the graveyard and keep it distinct from the imitation we met in the last frame. [13] ÈÉÊËÌÍÎÏ ÐÑÒÓÔ 231 grave The mounds of soil with crude wooden crosses set at their head suggests those boot-hill graves we all know from cowboy lore. The only odd thing about this kanji is that the soil comes under the graveyard, rather than to its left, where we might expect. Just think of the bodies as “lying under boot-hill” if you have any trouble. By the way, this is not the ³rst time, nor will it be the last, that we learn a kanji whose key word is the same, or almost the same, as a primitive element based on it, but whose shape differs somewhat. There is no cause to worry. By using the primitive in a variety of other characters, as we have done here, the confusion will be averted as a matter of course. [13] ¦ ÕÖ×ØÙÚÛÜ ÝÞßàá lesson 10 107 232 livelihood Imagine that you have chosen the occupation of the keeper of a graveyard and spend your days tending to other’s deadhood in order to make your means of livelihood. [14] © âãäåæçèé êëìíîï 233 membrane The part of the body ³rst affected by a stroll through a haunted graveyard is the skin, which gets goose bumps. But we save the word “skin” for another kanji, and use the odd word “membrane” here. Think of being so scared through and through that the goose µesh moves from the outside in, giving you goose membranes. [14] 2 ðñòóôõö÷ øùúûüý 234 ï seedling To avoid confusion with the image of rice seedlings to appear later, we shall take these seedlings out of their agricultural setting in the rice ³elds and into the frame of Brave New World surgery, where “ideas” or “values” are being implanted into brains like seedlings to insure a harmonious society. Then you need only imagine them taking root and breaking out into µower right through the tops of the skulls of people walking around on the streets. [8] # $ % & ‘( ) * Lesson 11 Now that we have made our way through well over 200 characters, it is time to pause and consider how you are getting on with the method introduced in this book. While this lesson will be a short one (only 15 new kanji) you might want to spend some time reviewing your progress in the light of the remarks that follow. In them I have tried to draw out the main principles that have been woven into the fabric of the text from frame to frame and lesson to lesson. I do so by looking at some of the typical problems that can arise: If you can remember the key word when you see the kanji, but have trouble remembering the kanji when you have only the key word to go on… Probably you did not take seriously the advice about studying these stories with a pad and pencil. If you try to shortcut the process by merely learning to recognize the characters for their meaning without worrying about their writing, you will ³nd that you have missed one bird with two stones, when you could have bagged two with one. Let me repeat: study only from key word to kanji; the reverse will take care of itself. If you ³nd yourself having to go back to a kanji, once you have written it, to make corrections or additions… My guess is that you are asking your visual memory to do the work that belongs to imaginative memory. After Lesson 12, you will be given more leeway to create your own images and stories, so it is important that you nip this problem in the bud before going any further. A small step in the wrong direction on a journey of 2,000 kanji will land you in deep trouble in no time. Here are the steps you should be following each time you come to a new frame: 1. Read the key word and take note of the particular connotation that has been given it. There is only one such meaning, sometimes associated with a colloquial phrase, sometimes with one of the several meanings of the word, sometimes with a a well-known cultural phenomenon. Think of that connotation and repeat it to yourself. When you’re sure you’ve got the right one, carry on. 2. Read through the particular little story that goes with the key word and let the whole picture establish itself clearly. 3. Now close your eyes, focus on those images in the story that belong to the key word and primitive elements, and let go of the controls. It may take a few seconds, sometimes as long as a minute, but the picture will start to change on its own. The exaggerated focal points lesson 11 109 will start to take on a life of their own and enhance the image with your own particular experiences and memories. You will know your work is done when you have succeeded in creating a memorable image that is both succinct and complete, both faithful to the original story and yet your very own. 4. Open your eyes and repeat the key word and primitive elements, keeping that image in mind. This will clear away any of the fog, and at the same time make sure that when you let go you didn’t let go of the original story, too. 5. In your mind, juxtapose the elements relative to one another in line with your image or the way they normally appear in the characters. 6. Take pencil and paper and write the character once, retelling the story as you go. These are basically the same steps you were led through in reading the stories, even though they were not laid out so clearly before. If you think back to the kanji that “worked” best for you, you will ³nd that each of these steps was accomplished perfectly. And if you look back at the ones you are forgetting, you should also be able to locate which step you skipped over. In reviewing, these same steps should be followed, with the only clue to set the imagination in motion being the key word. If you ³nd you are forgetting the relative position of the elements in a kanji… Before all else, go back and reread the frame for that character to see if there were any helpful hints or explanatory notes. If not, return to the frame where the particular primitives were ³rst introduced to see if there is any clue there. And if this is not the problem, then, taking care not to add any new words or focal points to your story (since they might end up being elements later on), rethink the story in such a way that the image for each element actually takes the position it has in the kanji itself. This should not happen often, but when it does, it is worthwhile spending a few minutes to get things sorted out. If you are confusing one kanji with another… Take a careful look at the two stories. Perhaps you have made one or the other of them so vivid that it has attracted extraneous elements to itself that make the two kanji-images fuse into one. Or again, it may be that you did not pay suf³cient attention to the advice about clarifying a single connotation for the key word. Whether or not you have had all or only a few of these problems, now is the 110 Remembering the Kanji time to review the ³rst 10 lessons keeping an eye out for them. Put aside any schedule you may have set yourself until you have those lessons down perfectly, that is, until you can run through all 6 steps outlined above for every character, without a hitch. The most important thing in this review is not really to see whether you are remembering the characters, but to learn how to locate problems and deal with them. One ³nal note before you close the book and run your review. Everyone’s imagination works differently. Each has its own gifts and its own defects. The more you pay attention to how you imagine things, the more likely you are to ³nd out what works best for you and why. The one thing you must distrust, if the system outlined in this book is to work for you, is your ability to remember kanji just as they are, without doing any work on them. Once you start making exceptions for characters you “know” or “have no trouble with” or “don’t need to run through all the steps with,” you are headed for a frustration that will take you a great deal of trouble to dig yourself out of. In other words, if you start using the method only as a “crutch” to help you only with the kanji you have trouble with, you will quickly be limping along worse than ever. What we are offering here is not a crutch, but a different way to walk. That having been said, let us pick up where we left off, turning from primitive elements having to do with plants to those having to do with animals. 235 portent Here we have a pictograph of the back of a turtle, the two sloping vertical strokes representing the central ridge and the four short strokes the pattern. Think of reading turtle shells as a way to foretell the future, and in particular things that portend coming evils. [6] t 345678 * When this character is used as a primitive in its full form, we keep the key-word sense of a portent. When it appears to the left in its abbreviated form (namely, the left half only, 7), we shall give it the pictographic sense of a turtle. lesson 11 111 236 peach tree To associate the peach tree with the primitive for a portent, recall the famous Japanese legend of Momotarõ, the Peach Boy. It begins once upon a time with a ³sherman and his wife who wanted badly to have a child, but none was born to them. Then one day the old man caught a giant peach, out of which jumped a healthy young lad whom they named Peach Boy. Though the boy was destined to perform heroic deeds, his birth also portended great misfortune (how else could he become a hero?). Thus the tree that is associated with a portent of coming evil comes to be the peach tree. [10] Y +,/01234 56 237 stare To give someone the “evil eye” is to stare at them, wishing them evil. The roots of the superstition are old and almost universal throughout the cultures of the world. In this kanji, too, being stared at is depicted as an eye that portends evil. [11] Š 789:;=?@ ABC 238 dog We have already learned that the character for large takes on the meaning of the St. Bernard dog when used as a primitive. In this frame we ³nally see why. The drop added as a fourth and ³nal stroke means that we have to do with a normal-sized dog, which compared to the St. Bernard is no more than a drop in the kennel. [4] Ñ DEFG 112 Remembering the Kanji * As a primitive this character can take two meanings. In the form given here it will mean a very small dog (which we shall refer to as a chihuahua for convenience sake). When it takes the form t to the left of a character, we shall give it the meaning of a pack of wild dogs. 239 status quo Did you ever hear of the turtle who fell madly in love with a chihuahua but could not have her because their two families did not like the idea of their children intermarrying? Like all classic stories of ill-fated love, this one shows how the young upset the status quo with an emotion older and more powerful than anything their elders have devised to counter it: blind love. [7] ! HIJKLMN 240 silence Oddly enough, the character for silence shows us a black chihuahua. Actually, the cute little critter’s name is Darkness, as I am sure you remember from the famous song about silence that begins, “Hello, Darkness, my old friend...” Note how the four dots reach all the way across the bottom of the character. [15] † OPQRSTUV WXYZ^ 241 sort of thing The key word in this frame refers to a suf³x that gives the word before it an adjectival quality; hence we refer to it as “sort of thing.” Reverting to the time when dog was more widely eaten than it is today (see frame 121), we see here a large cauldron boiling over an oven µame with the µesh of a chihuahua being 5 lesson 11 thrown into the whole concoction to make it into a “hot-diggity, dog-diggity” sort of thing. [12] 113 _`abcde fghij 242 reed You’ve no doubt seen cattails, those swamp reeds with a furry µower to them like the tail of a cat. This might just turn out to be a good way to get rid of a troublesome pack of wild dogs: lure them into a swamp of these reeds with the cattail µowers and then set ³re to the swamp. Take care to focus on the µower rather than the “cattail” to avoid confusion with frame 244 below. [10] # klmnopqr st 243 & hunt One of the worst problems you have to face when you go hunting is to guard your take from the wild dogs. If you imagine yourself failing at the task, you will probably have a stronger image than if you try to picture yourself succeeding. [9] uvwxyz{ |} 244 cat Knowing how much dogs love to chase cats, picture a pack of wild dogs planting “cat-seedlings,” watering them, and fertilizing them until they can be harvested as a crop of cats for them to chase and torment. If you begin from the key word and ä 114 Remembering the Kanji think of a “crop of cats,” you will not confuse this story with the apparently similar story of two frames ago. [11] ‚ƒ„…†‡ˆ‰ Š‹Œ 245 È cow Why not see this kanji as a “doodle” showing a cow that has just been run over by a steamroller. The small dot in the ³rst stroke shows its head turned to one side, and the next two strokes, the four legs. [4] ‘’“” * As a primitive, the same sense of cow is kept. Note only that when it is placed over another element, its tail is cut off, giving us 8. 246 special Despite the strong phonetic similarity, there will be no problem keeping the key word special distinct from the character we met earlier for specialty (frame 46), since the latter has immediate connotations lacking in this kanji. Anyway, let special refer to something in a special class all its own—like the sacred cows of India that wander freely without fear of being butchered and ground into hamburger. Though the practice is a Hindu one, the Buddha’s refusal to take the life of any sentient being makes it only ³tting that the cows should be placed on the sacred grounds of a Buddhist temple in this kanji. [10] – •–—˜™š›œ Ÿ¡ lesson 11 115 247 revelation Folklore throughout the world tells us of talking animals who show a wisdom superior to that of human beings, and that same tradition has found its way into television shows and cartoons right into our own century. This character depicts revelation through the mouth of a cow, suggesting oracular utterances about truths hidden to human intelligence. [7] ² ¢£¤¥¦§¨ 248 before Take this key word in its physical, not its temporal, sense (even though it refers to both). If you have a cow with human legs, as the elements show us here, it can only be because you have two people in a cow-suit. I always thought I’d prefer to be the one standing before, rather than the one that holds up the rear and becomes the “butt” of everyone’s laughter. [6] å ©ª«¬−° 249 wash This character is so logical that one is tempted to let the elements speak for themselves: water . . . before. But we have already decided we shall not do that, not even once. So let us change the character from the Peanuts comic strip called “Pigpen,” who is always preceded by a little cloud of dust and grime, and rename him “Wash-Out.” Everywhere he walks, a spray of water goes before him to sanitize everything he touches. [9] ó ±²³´µ·¸ ¹º Lesson 12 In this the ³nal lesson of Part one we introduce the useful compound primitive for metals and the elements needed to form it, in addition to picking up a number of stray characters that have fallen by the wayside. * umbrella The actual character on which this primitive meaning umbrella is based we shall not meet until frame 1026. We may think of it as a large and brightly-colored beach umbrella. If you compare this with frame 8, you will notice how the two strokes touch here, while the kanji for eight would leave a gaping leak in the top. [2] 3 »¼ 250 jammed in The idea of something getting jammed into something else is depicted here by having a walking stick get jammed into an umbrella frame by someone shoving it into an already occupied slot in the umbrella stand at the door. First notice the vertical strokes: on the left is the curved umbrella handle, and on the right the straight walking stick. Now try to imagine the two parties tugging at their respective properties like two kids on a wishbone, creating a scene at the entrance of an elegant restaurant. [4] k »½¾¿ 251 world As the world gets jammed with more and more people, there is less and less space. Imagine yourself taking an air µight over a world so densely populated that every bit of it is sectioned off ƒ lesson 12 like a gigantic checkerboard (the rice ³elds). If you look closely at the character, you should be able to see a kind of movement taking place as still more is being jammed into that already narrow space. [9] 117 ÀÁÂÃÄÅÆ ÇÈ 252 tea As everyone knows, tea is made from tea leaves. But the tea plant itself has its own µowers, which can be quite beautiful and add a special µavor to the tea, as the Chinese found out already over 4,600 years ago. With the image of a terrace of µowering tea bushes in mind, picture very l-o-n-g wooden poles (frame 195) placed here and there in their midst, with a tiny umbrella at the top to shade the delicate-tasting tea µowers. [9] [ ÉÊËÌÍÎÏ ÐÑ * meeting This compound primitive depicts a meeting as a massive gathering of people under one umbrella. The full kanji from which this derives will be introduced later in frame 752. The important thing here is to picture the scene just described and associate it with the word meeting. [3] 5 ÓÔÕ 253 ³t The kanji for ³t reads literally, top to bottom, as a meeting of mouths—which is a rather descriptive way of speaking of a romantic kiss. We know what happens when there is no meet- § 118 Remembering the Kanji ing of minds and when people’s ideas don’t ³t, but try to imagine what would happen to a poor couple whose mouths didn’t ³t. [6] Ö×ØÙÚÛ 254 pagoda On the left we see a mound of dirt, and to the right µowers made to ³t together. The two sides combine to create a great pagoda made of dirt, with µowers by the tens of thousands ³tted together for the roo³ng of each of the layers. Be sure to put yourself in the scene and ³t a few of the µowers in place yourself so that the image works its way into memory with full force. [12] O ÜÝÞßàáâã äåæç 255 king See what you can do to come up with a pictograph of a king’s scepter here that suits your own idea of what it should look like. You might even begin with the basic element for I beam and then try to ³t the remaining third stroke in. [4] ÷ èéêë * As a primitive, this can mean either king or scepter, but it will usually be taken as an abbreviation of the character in the next frame. 256 jewel Note the drop here in the king’s scepter, which is exactly what you would expect it to be: a precious jewel handed down from of old as a symbol of his wealth and power. [5] * lesson 12 119 ìíîïð * As a primitive, we can use this to mean either jewel or ball. When it appears anywhere other than on the left side of a kanji, it takes the same shape as here. On the left, it will be lacking the ³nal stroke, making it the same as the character in the previous frame, ÷. 257 treasure Every house has its treasure, as every thief knows only too well. While the things we treasure most are usually of sentimental value, we take the original sense of the term treasure here and make it refer to jewels kept in one’s house. [8] µ ñòóôõö÷ø 258 ( pearl Take care to keep the meaning of this kanji distinct from that for jewel. Think of the most enormous pearl you have ever seen, a great vermilion-colored ball sitting on your ring—and making it extremely dif³cult to move without falling over from the weight of the thing. [10] !#$%&()* +, 259 present Do not think of a “gift” here, but of the present moment, as distinct from the future and the past. The kanji gives us a ball in which we see the present—obviously a crystal ball that enables us to see things going on at the present in faraway places. [11] ê /0123456 120 Remembering the Kanji 789 260 ñ lunatic A lunatic is literally one driven mad by the light of the moon, and the most famous of the “looneys” are the legendary lycanthropes or “wolfmen.” Sometimes the transformation is only a temporary phenomenon, sometimes it is permanent. In the latter case, the poor chap takes off on all fours to live with the beasts. Imagine one of these lycanthropes going looney and setting himself up as king of a pack of wild dogs that roams about and terrorizes innocent suburban communities. [7] :;=?@AB 261 emperor An emperor, as we all know, is a ruler—something like a king but higher in status. The white bird perched above the king, elevating him to imperial heights, is the messenger he sends back and forth to the gods to request advice and special favors, something that white birds have long done in folklore throughout the world. [9] y CDEFGHI JK 262 display The trick to remembering this character lies in associating the key word with the line from the nursery rhyme about 4 and 20 blackbirds baked in a pie: “Wasn’t this a dainty dish to set before the king?” If we think of display in terms of that famous line, and the king with his head thrown back and his mouth wide open as 4 and 20 blackbirds µy in one after the other, we shall have satis³ed both the elements and their position. [7] Í lesson 12 121 LMNOPQR 263 whole Wholeness suggests physical and spiritual health, “having your act together.” The kanji-image for wholeness depicts being “king under your own umbrella,” that is, giving order to your own life. I know it sounds terribly abstract, but what could be more abstract than the word whole? [6] 6 STUVWX 264 plug Here we think of plug in the sense of a cork or stopper used to seal the mouth of a bottle, water faucet, or something with liquid running out of it. Forgetting the abstract picture of the former frame, let us work with all the primitive units: tree . . . umbrella . . . ball. Imagine a tree with a faucet in the side out of which tennis balls are µowing, bouncing all over the ground by the hundreds. You ³ght your way up to it and shove your giant beach umbrella into the tree to plug it up. [10] ï YZ^_` abc 265 logic We ³rst referred to this character back in frame 173, to which you might want to return to have a peek. The image of logic we are given is something like a central jewel in a computer, like the jewels in old clocks that keep them running smoothly. Try to picture yourself making your way through all the rams and roms and approaching this shining jewel, a chorus of voices and a blast of trumpets in the background heralding the great seat of all-knowing logic. [11] 7 122 Remembering the Kanji defghijk lmn 266 lord “A man’s home is his castle,” goes the proverb from an age where it was the male who was lord of the household. Fundamentally, it means only that every person is a bit (or drop) of a king in one’s own environment. If you take care to “read off” the primitives in this way, you won’t end up putting the drop down below, where it turns the kanji into a jewel. [5] ü ùúûüý * As a primitive element, we set the key word aside entirely and take it as a pictograph of a solid brass candlestick (with the drop representing the µame at the top). 267 pour Picture pouring water from a lighted candlestick. What could be more ridiculous, or simpler, as a way to recall this kanji? [8] f 268 opqrstuv pillar The pillar referred to here is the wooden beam that stands at the entrance to a traditional Japanese house. Carve it in imagination into the shape of a gigantic candlestick and your work is done. [9] e wxyz{|} ‚ƒ lesson 12 123 269 gold If this were not one of the most common characters you will ever have to write, I would apologize for having to give the explanation that follows. Anyway, we want to depict bars of gold bullion with an umbrella overhead to shade them from the heat (and perhaps to hide them as well). The bullion is made by melting down all the scepters of the kingdom, drop by drop, and shaping them into bars. [8]  „…†‡ˆ‰Š‹ * As a primitive, it means not only gold but any metal at all. 270 pig iron Pig iron refers to iron in the crude form in which it emerges from the smelting furnaces. Of all the various forms metal can take, this one shows us metal before it has been re³ned. Imagine two photographs labeled “before” and “after” to show the process. [14] / Œ‘’“”•– —˜™š›œŸ 271 l bowl Let bowl suggest a large and heavy golden bowl into which you are throwing all the books you own to mash them into pulp, for some outrageous reason you will have to think up yourself. [13] ¡¢£¤¥¦§ ¨©ª«¬− 124 Remembering the Kanji 272 copper Picture an order of monks serving as chaplains for the police force. Their special habit, made of protective metal, is distinguished by a row of copper buttons just like the “cops” they serve. [14] ‹ °±²³´µ·¸ ¹º»¼½¾ 273 angling The character we learned for ³shing (frame 172) refers to the professional, net-casting industry, while the angling of this character refers to the sport. The odd thing is that your angling rod is a golden ladle which you are using to scoop gold³sh out of a river. [11] Å ¿ÀÁÂÃÄÅÆ ÇÈÉ 274 needle In frame 10 we referred ahead to this full character from which the primitive for needle (on the right) derives. Since we already expect that needles are made of metal, let us picture a set of solid gold darning needles to complete the kanji. [10] [ ÊËÌÍÎÏÐÑ ÒÓ 275 inscription Take inscription in the sense of the name you ask the jeweler to carve on a gold bracelet or inside a gold ring to identify its j lesson 12 owner or communicate some sentimental message. It will help if you can recall the ³rst time you had this done and the feelings you had at the time. [14] 125 ÔÕÖ×ØÙÚÛ ÜÝÞßàá 276 tranquillize The ³rst lie-detector machines of the twentieth century worked by wiring pieces of metal to the body to measure the amount of sweat produced when questions were asked. It was discovered that nervousness produced more sweat, indicating subconscious reactions when the truth was getting too close for comfort. Nowadays, people can take drugs that tranquillize them in such a way as to neutralize the effect of the device, which is why other means have had to be developed. [18] ¥ âãäåæçèé êëìíîïðñ òó With that, we come to the end of Part one. Before going on to Part two, it would be a good idea to return now to the Introduction and read it once again. Anything that did not make sense at ³rst should now be clear. By this time, too, you should be familiar with the use of all the Indexes. If not, take a few minutes to study them, since you will no doubt ³nd them useful in the pages ahead. part two Plots Lesson 13 By this time, if you have been following along methodically frame by frame, you may ³nd yourself growing impatient at the thought of having to read through more than 2,000 of these little stories. You probably want to move at a quicker pace and in your own way. Take heart, for that is precisely what we are going to start doing in Part two. But if you happen to be one of those people who are perfectly content to have someone else do all the work for them, then brace yourself for the task that lies ahead. We begin the weaning process by abbreviating the stories into simple plots, leaving it up to you to patch together the necessary details in a manner similar to what we did in Part one. As mentioned in the Introduction, the purpose of the longer stories was to impress on you the importance of recreating a complete picture in imagination, and to insure that you did not merely try to associate words with other words but with images. The same holds true for the kanji that remain. Before setting out on our way again, a word of caution is in order. Left to its own, your imagination will automatically tend to add elements and see connections that could prove counterproductive in the long run. For example, you might think it perfectly innocent and admissible to alter the primitive for old to old man, or that for cliff to cave. In fact, these changes would be confusing when you meet the kanji and primitives with those meanings later on. You would return to the earlier kanji and find that everything had become one great confusion. It may be that you have experienced this problem already on one or the other occasion when you decided to alter a story to suit your own associations. That should help you appreciate how hard it is to wipe out a story once you have learned it, particularly a vivid one. To protect yourself against this, stick faithfully to the key words as they are given, and try not to move beyond the range of primitive meanings listed. Where such confusion can be anticipated, a longer story will be presented as a protective measure, but you will have to take care of the rest. We begin Part two with a group of 23 kanji having to do with travel, and the primitives that accompany them: a road, a pair of walking legs, and a car. 130 Remembering the Kanji * road The road envisioned here is a road for traf³c, or a path or walkway. The natural sweep of these three simple strokes should be easy to remember, as it appears so often. [3] ; 277 9:; road-way The key word carries both the sense of a road for transit and a way or method of doing something, but the former is better for forming an image. The primitives read: the neck of a road. Think of a crowded road-way where traf³c has come to a standstill—what we commonly refer to as a “bottleneck.” [12] Š =?@ABCDE FGHI 278 guidance When we accept someone’s guidance, we permit ourselves to be glued to a certain road or way of doing something, and try to “stick” to it. [15] ‚ JKLMNOPQ RSTUVWX 279 crossing Take the ³rst two strokes in the sense we gave them back in frame 10, as the pictograph of a cross, and set it on a road to create a “crossing.” [5] ¹ YZ^ lesson 13 131 280 swift Here we see a crossing in the form of a barbed ³shhook, suggesting a swifter alternate not only to the old roundabouts but also to the “cloverleaf” design used on superhighways. [6] h 281 _`abcd create Think of creating as making something out of nothing. Then recall how the way of revelation laid out in the Bible begins with the story of how God created the world out of a dark and chaotic nothingness. [10] ‹ efghijkl mn 282 W 283 urge To urge someone to do something, you make the way as appealing as possible, perhaps even whitewashing it a bit. [8] opqrstuv escape When escaping from something or someone, one always feels as if one is not going fast enough, like a turtle on an expressway. (Since the turtle is on the road and not on the left, it can keep its full kanji shape as given in frame 235.) [9] s wxyz{|} ‚ƒ 132 Remembering the Kanji 284 environs To keep the environs clean and safe, you could cement daggers in the road, blades pointed upwards, so that no polluting traf³c could pass by. You could, if you were an ecologically-minded terrorist. [5] Œ „…†‡ˆ 285 … 286 patrol A virtual deluge of motorcycle police washing down a road is this kanji’s image for a patrol. [6] ‰Š‹Œ‘’ car You may keep the whole range of connotations for this key word, car, provided it does not interfere with the pictograph. Look for the front and back wheels (the ³rst and last horizontal strokes) and the seat in the carriage in the middle. As an exercise, try to isolate the primitives on your own and make a story out of them. [7] ë “”•–—˜™ * Car, cart, wagon, and vehicle may all be used as primitive meanings. 287 take along What you are meant to take along in this kanji are not things but people. The image of the car on the road should ground your image for picking up your friends to take them along to wherever you are going. [10] ¦ lesson 13 133 š›œŸ¡¢£¤ ¥¦ 288 } rut Combine the primary and secondary meanings of this key word to form your story. Begin with the car whose tires get caught in a rut and spin without going anywhere. Then go on to the baseball team who can’t win a game because it has fallen into a rut of losing. [9] §¨©ª«¬− °± 289 transport On the left we see a vehicle used for transport. On the right, we see a new tangle of elements that need sorting out. The ³rst three strokes, you will remember, are the primitive for meeting. Below it we see the elements for µesh and saber, which combine to create a compound element for a butcher and his trade. Put them together in the image of a “trucker’s convoy.” [16] ´ ²³´µ·¸¹º »¼½¾¿ÀÁ 290 in front We waited to introduce this character until now, even though the pieces have been available for some time, because it helps to reinforce the odd kanji of the last frame. Picture the butcher hacking away with his knife at a slab of meat on his table with a pair of ram’s horns placed in front of him (or on his head, if you prefer). There is no need to worry about confusing this kanji with that 2 134 Remembering the Kanji for before (frame 248), since it will not appear as a primitive in any other character used in this book. [9] ÃÄÅÆÇÈÉ ÊË * walking legs We call this element walking legs because it indicates “legs in motion,” whether you want to think of them as jogging or walking in long strides, as the shape seems to suggest. Be careful how you write it, with the ³rst two strokes like a stylized “7.” [3] = ÌÍÎ 291 each “Suum cuique” goes the popular Latin proverb. A certain disease of the English language makes it almost impossible to translate the phrase without gender bias. In any event, here we see someone walking with his/her mouth between his/her walking legs, giving us an image of “To each his/her own.” [6] ª ÏÐÑÒÓÔ * The sense of the proverb should help when using this kanji as a primitive; otherwise, reduce it to its original elements. But do not associate it in any way with the word “every,” which we shall meet later in another context. 292 status If you can imagine trees as status symbols (as they might well be for those living in Japan’s congested modern cities), then each might be aiming to have his/her own tree, just to keep up with the Suzukis. [10] ° lesson 13 135 ÕÖ×ØÙÚÛÜ ÝÞ 293 abbreviation Each ³eld has its own abbreviations (chemistry, philosophy, sports, etc.). Needless to say, the stronger primitive goes to the left, even though the story would read them off the other way around. [11] F ßàáâãäåæ çèé 294 ª guest When you are a guest in a courteous town, each household has its own way of welcoming you, and each house becomes your home. [9] êëìíîïð ñò 295 forehead Out of respect, you do not look straight into the eyes of your guest, but look at the top button of their collar. Here, however, you are told to look above the eyes to the forehead of your guest. [18]  $%&()*+, -./01234 56 136 Remembering the Kanji 296 summer In the summer, fatigued by the heat, your head hangs down nearly as far as your walking legs, or rather, your “dragging legs.” Note how the walking legs (instead of “animal legs”) are the only thing that distinguishes this character from that for page (frame 60). [10] @ óôõö÷øùú ûü 297 ‰ dispose Both the stretching out of the walking legs and the little bit of wind tucked in on the right suggest using one’s legs to kick something out of the way, or dispose of it. [5] 789:; 298 û 299 twig Geppetto made walking legs for his little Pinocchio from two twigs of a tree, giving him a set of “twiggy” shanks. [7] =?@ABCD fall When water falls, it splats and splashes; when µower petals fall, they µoat gently in the breeze. To each thing its own way of falling. [12] % EFGHIJK LMNOP Lesson 14 We may now go a step further in our streamlining, this time in the strokeorder of the kanji. From here on in, only the order in which the composite primitive elements are written will be indicated; if you are not sure of the writing of any of the particulars in a given character, you will have to hunt it down yourself. Index ii should help. New primitives and unusual writings will be spelled out as before, however. At any rate, you should always count the strokes of the character when you learn it, and check your results against the number given in square brackets in each frame. The next group of primitives, around which this lesson is designed, have to do with lids and headgear. * crown This pictograph of a simple crown is distinguished from the roof only by the absence of the chimney (the ³rst drop at the top). It can be used for all the principal connotations of the word crown. We will meet the full character from which this element is derived later on, in frame 304. [2] ? QR 300 ò superµuous Picture a weather vane beneath a regal crown, spinning round and round. It is not only superµuous but makes a perfect ass out of the one who wears it. [4] ST 301 army The crowned vehicle depicted here is a “chariot,” symbol of an army. [9] t 138 Remembering the Kanji ^ * Used as a primitive this kanji means only chariot. 302 ‚ 303 radiance Take advantage of the ³rst syllable of the key word to think of the ray of light to the left. Now add the glittering chariot that is emitting those rays and you have radiance. [15] _` carry A long string of “sweet” chariots “swinging low” to our roads is a sure sign that the Lord is “comin’ for to carry” someone home. [12] ± 304 ab crown By having the crown pass from one age to the next, a people keeps itself glued to its beginnings. [9] ì 305 cde dream To have a dream after going to bed is really the crown to a perfect evening. The µower petals over the eyes (instead of the “sand” that Westerners are used to ³nding there when they awake in the morning) only con³rms the image of a pleasant dream suggested by the rest of this rather complex kanji. [13] Z ‘’“” lesson 14 139 * top hat The broad rim and tall top of the top hat is pictured graphically here in these two simple strokes. At this point, by the way, you can revert back to frame 6. If you have had any trouble with that character, you now have the requisite elements to make a story: Six suggests the number of spider’s legs; just set a tall silk top hat on the crawling creature and you have your character. [2] @ ji * whirlwind A formal high silk top hat resting atop a weather vane represents a whirlwind. To keep it distinct from the primitive for wind, try to picture the vortex, or tornado-like spinning movement, of a whirlwind. The next frame should help. [4] A kl 306 pit A whirlwind begins to dig its way into the soil like a drill until it makes a deep pit. [7] W 307 !# tall Recalling an image from frame 183, ³rst see the mouth under the extraterrestrial’s glass hood, and then the mouth under the top hat of one of his mates who has tried on the strange earthling’s headgear only to ³nd that it makes him look much, much taller than everyone else. [10] ¢ …†‡ 140 Remembering the Kanji * As a primitive, this character keeps its sense of tall and its position at the top of other primitives, but its writing is abbreviated to the ³rst 5 strokes: Á 308 Ø receive Tall children receive more attention. Tall children grow up to make better wide receivers. Take your pick, depending on whether you prefer child psychology or American football. At any rate, be sure you have some particular tall child in mind, someone who really was outstanding and always attracting attention, because he or she will come in handy in the next two frames. [8] op 309 k cram school Cram schools are after-hours educational institutions where kids can do concentrated preparing for their coming entrance examinations or drill what they missed during regular class hours. The exception are the tall children who are out on the school grounds practicing sports, and the fat ones who are out there burning off calories. So this character depicts those who do not go to the cram schools, rather than those who do. [14] qrs 310 l mellow The tall and fat children from the last frame are here cast into a cauldron over an oven µame until they have suf³ciently mellowed that they can return to the normal life of a student. [15] UVW lesson 14 141 311 pavilion Think of all the pavilions at some World Expo you attended or followed in the media, and you will no doubt see rising up among them the towering tall crowned nail (the crown being a revolving restaurant)—that architectural monstrosity that has become a symbol of science and technology at such events. [9] Ç yz{ 312 Ù 313 capital Think of some tall, domed capital building with swarms of little folk gathered around its base, probably demonstrating for their government’s attention. [8] |} refreshing Since few things are as refreshing on a warm day as a cool shower (the water), here we picture a capital building treating itself to one, and in full view of everyone. [11] ^ 314 ‚ƒ scenery Scenery is depicted as a sun rising over a capital, which is as close as some city dwellers get to natural scenery for years at a time! [12] “ ÷ø 142 Remembering the Kanji 315 whale The whale swallows a whole school of ³sh, who turn their new abode into a proper little ³sh-capital. [19] « * ùú lidded crock Soil over the mouth of a container gives us a piece of clay pottery with its lid. Behold the lidded crock. [6] B 316 ûü cottage A lidded crock with an umbrella overhead gives us a mixture of the modern and the nostalgic in this design for a cottage. [8] à 317 ýþ : circumference Look more closely at your lidded crock and you will see little ruler marks along its bottom edge. This is so you can use it to calculate the circumference of your motorcycle helmet: just begin at a ³xed point and turn the lidded crock around and around, keeping it µush against the side of the helmet, until you come back to your starting point. If you kept track of how many turns and part-turns your lidded crock made, you now know the circumference. [8] –—˜ * As a primitive, this character can take the added signi³cance of a lap. lesson 14 143 318 Q week Picture a circular road with 7 markers on it, one for each day of the week. When you have walked one complete lap on this road, you shall have completed one week. [11] ¥¦ 319 gentleman The shape of this kanji, slightly differing from that for soil by virtue of its shorter ³nal stroke, hints at a broad-shouldered, slender-waisted warrior standing at attention. When feudalism collapsed, these warriors became Japan’s gentlemen. [3] w §¨© * The primitive meaning reverts to the more colorful image of the samurai, Japan’s warrior class. 320 Ÿ good luck Here we see a samurai standing on a street with an open mouth, which people walk up to and look down deep inside of for good luck. [6] ª« * As a primitive, we shall take this shape to mean an aerosol can, from the mouth and the very tightly-³tting lid (note how it differs here from the lidded crock). 321 robust Robust is seen as a turtle turned samurai. [6] X ²³ 144 Remembering the Kanji 322 villa The villa pictured here is ³lled with exotic µowers at every turn, and has a pair of turtle-samurai standing before its gates. [9] v 323 »¼½  sell A samurai, out of a job, is going door-to-door selling little windup crowns with human legs that run around on the µoor looking like headless monarchs. [7] ÂÃÄ Lesson 15 In this lesson we consider a group of primitives associated one way or another with schooling. Be sure to give your stories enough time to come to life in imagination, because your images will need a lot more vividness than these brief “plots” allow for. You know that you are not giving enough time when you ³nd yourself memorizing de³nitions rather than playing with images. * schoolhouse Here we see a little red schoolhouse with the 3 dots on the roof. As you write it in the following frames, you should acquire a “feel” for the way the ³rst two short strokes move left to right, and the the third one right to left. Write it twice now, saying to yourself the ³rst time as you write the ³rst 3 strokes, “In the C lesson 15 schoolhouse we learn our A-B-Cs,” and the second time, “In the schoolhouse we learn our 1-2-3s.” [5] 145 ÅÆÇÈÉ 324 study The child in the little red schoolhouse is there for one reason only: to study. Anyone who has gone through the schooling system knows well enough that study is one thing and learning quite another again. In the kanji, too, the character for learning (frame 574) has nothing to do with the schoolhouse. [8] ¿ ÐÑ 325 memorize The idea of memorizing things is easily related to the schoolhouse; and since we have been at it for more than a hundred pages in this book, the idea that memorizing involves seeing things that are not really there should make it easy to put the two elements together. [12] · ÜÝ 326 µourish The botanical connotations of the word µourish (to bud and burst into bloom, much as a tree does) are part of the ideal of the schoolhouse as well. [9] ¼ * åæ brush This primitive element, not itself a kanji, is a pictograph of a writing brush. Let the ³rst 3 strokes represent the hairs at the ¿ 146 Remembering the Kanji tip of the brush, and the following two strokes the thumb and fore³nger that guide it when you write. Note how the long vertical stroke, cutting through everything, is drawn last. This is standard procedure when you have such a stroke running the length of a character. However, as we saw in the case of cow, when this primitive appears on top of another primitive, its “tail” is cut off, giving us D. [6] çèéêëì 327 – write The sage talks rapidly with his tongue wagging in his mouth, while the brush of the scribe runs apace to write down the master’s words. [10] íîïðñòóô õö 328 haven Seeing the tiny boats of poor mortals tossed about in a stormy sea like so many corks, the All-Merciful took its brush and drew little inlets of water where the hapless creatures might seek shelter. And so it is that we have havens. [9] § ‹Œ * ß taskmaster First ³nd the long rod (the ³rst stroke), held in the hand of someone seated (the next 3 strokes, not unlike the pictograph for woman, but quite different from that for walking legs introduced in the last lesson). The only thing left to do is conjure up the memory of some taskmaster (or taskmistress) from your past whom you will “never forget.” [4] lesson 15 147 $%&( 329 breed When it is time to breed new cattle, the bull is usually willing but the cow is often not. Thus the taskmaster to the right forces the cow into a compromising position, so to speak, so that she and her mate can breed. [8] ñ )* 330 aggression The special craft of successful taskmasters is their ability to remain constantly on the aggressive, never allowing their underlings a moment to ponder a counter-aggression of their own. [7] k +, 331 2 332 failure The taskmaster is acknowledging the failure of a clam to make the grade in some marine school or other. [11] 89 a sheet of English counts thin, µat objects, like bed linen and paper, in sheets. The kanji does this with a taskmaster whipping a tree into producing sheets against its will. [8] + BC 148 Remembering the Kanji 333 happenstance Call it fate or providence or plain old Lady Luck, happenstance is the oldest taskmaster we know. It nearly always has its way. [9] û 334 KL awe Standing in awe of someone, you get self-conscious and may try to speak in µowery phrases out of veneration or fear. The taskmaster at the right is drilling you in the practice of your “honori³cs.” [12] ’ VWX 335 say Of all the things we can do with our mouths, speech is the one that requires the greatest distinctness and clarity. Hence the kanji for say has four little sound-waves, indicating the complexity of the achievement. [7] í YZ^_` * This kanji, which appears often as a primitive, can mean saying, speech, or words, depending on which is most useful. 336 admonish Here you have a perfect example of how an apparently impossible snarl of strokes becomes a snap to learn once you know its elements. The idea of being admonished for something already sets up a superior-inferior relationship between you and the person you are supposed to stand in awe of. While you are restricted to answering in honori³cs, the superior can use straightforward and ordinary words. [19] ¥ lesson 15 149 ab 337 plot Words and a meter’s needle combine to form the sense of plot: to talk over plans and to calculate a course of action. [9] £ 338 cd prison Although we did not make note of it at the time, the kanji for dog is also a low-grade term for a spy. And later (frame 1414) we will meet another association of criminals with dogs. The prison here depicts a pack of wild dogs (the long-timers and hardened criminals) into which the poor little chihuahua (³rstoffender) has been cast. The only thing he has to protect himself against the pack are his shrill and frightened words. [14] ¹ efg 339 revise After completing the ³rst draft, you revise it by nailing down your words and “hammering” them into shape. [9] à 340 hi chastise Words spoken to chastise us stick to us like glue in a way no other words can. [10] o jk 150 Remembering the Kanji 341 instruction The personalism connoted by the word instruction, as opposed to “teaching” or “discipline,” suits the picture here of words guiding one’s progress like the gentle µowing of a stream. Even the etymology of the word instruction suggests the sense of “pouring into”. [10] r lm 342 ä imperial edict The imperial edict, spoken with the force of unquestionable law, is made up of words intended to seduce the masses—be it through fear or respect—to follow obediently. [12] no 343 ¥ packed A piece of writing that is pregnant with meaning and needs to be reread several times to be understood we refer to colloquially as “packed.” The character sees the words as sealed tightly inside an aerosol can. [13] pq 344 tale That the words of the tongue should come to mean a tale is clear from the etymology: a tale is something “talked,” not something read from a book. [13] Ê rs lesson 15 151 345 recitation Listening to the words of poets reciting their poetry is like being transported for a moment into eternity where the rules of everyday life have been suspended. [12] Æ 346 tu poem Since silence is treasured so highly at a Buddhist temple the words spoken there must be well-chosen. Perhaps this is why the records of the monks often read to us like poems. Before going on, back up a frame and make sure you have kept poem and recitation distinct in your mind. [13] ¡ vw 347 word Whereas the character for say focused on the actual talking, that for words stresses the fact that although it is I who say them, the words of a language are not my own. You can see the clear distinction between I and words just by looking at the kanji. [14] B xy 348 read In the age of advertising, most words we read are out to sell some product or point of view. [14] œ z{ 152 Remembering the Kanji 349 tune A complete tune is composed not only of a succession of notes but also of one lap of the words that go with it. [15] “ 350 |} discuss In almost every attempt to discuss an issue, the fervor of one’s convictions comes to the surface and creates an inµammation of words (if you will, the “cuss” in discuss). [15]  ‚ƒ 351 consent The words of the young do not have legal validity unless backed up by “parental consent.” [15] ë 352 „… rebuke The stern tone of a rebuke is seen here in the image of words spoken at a meeting of butchers (see frame 289) waving their choppers at one another and “cutting one another down” as only butchers can. [16] ³ †‡ Lesson 16 In this short lesson of 17 characters we come to an interesting cluster of primitive elements—unique among all those we have met or will meet throughout this book—built up step by step from one element. Be sure to study this lesson as a unit in order to appreciate the similarities and differences of the various elements, which will appear frequently later on. * arrow Here we see a pictograph of a long and slightly warped arrow. By extending the short ³nal stroke in both directions, you should see the arrowhead without any dif³culty. The hook at the bottom represents the feathers at the butt end. When it serves as a semienclosure for other primitives, the ³rst stroke is drawn longer, as we shall see in the following frames. [3] v ˆ‰Š 353 style Take style in its sense of some fashion design or model. Then let the element arrow and craft stand for the well-known style of shirts known as “Arrow shirts” because of the little arrow sewn on each one. [6] Å ‹Œ‘ 354 test When a manufacturer produces a new style for the market, the ³rst thing that is done is to run a test on consumers, asking them to speak their opinions frankly about the product. Never mind the anachronism (the kanji was there well before our capitalistic market system) if it helps you remember. [13] ¢ 154 Remembering the Kanji š› * quiver This primitive is easy to remember as depicting something used to bring all one’s arrows together into one handy place: the quiver. [4] E 355 œŸ¡¢ ii (two) We use the Roman numeral ii here to stress that this kanji is an older form of the kanji for two. Think of two arrows in a quiver, standing up like the numeral ii. [6] Î * £¤¥¦§¨ O ³esta The picture in this primitive is what we may call a “tassled arrow.” A decorative tassle is strung on the shaft of an arrow to indicate that it is no longer a weapon but a symbol of a ³esta. As before, the ³rst stroke is extended when it serves as a semienclosure. [4] º»¼½ 356 range From its original meaning of a de³ned area or zone, a range has also come to meana grazing land where cowboys roam and do whatever it is they do with cows. When the herds have all been driven to market, there is a great homecoming ³esta like that pictured here. As soon as the cowboys come home, home on the range, the ³rst thing they do is kiss the ground (the mouth on the µoor), and then get on with the ³esta. [11] o lesson 16 155 /©ª«¬ 357 burglar From a burglar’s point of view, a ³esta is an occasion to take out the old lockpicking needle and break into the unattended safe ³lled with the family shells (the old form of money, as we saw in frames 80 and 194). [13] œ ²³ * Thanksgiving I choose the word Thanksgiving as only one possible way of making this primitive more concrete. The sense, as its composite primitives make clear, is of a “land ³esta,” or a harvest feast. If you choose a word of your own, make sure it does not conµict with ³esta. [6] F ´µ·¸¹º 358 plantation On a fruit plantation it is the trees that one is particularly grateful for at the time of Thanksgiving. Imagine yourself inviting a few representative trees from the ³elds and orchards to join you around the table to give thanks. [10] ð ÂÃÄ 359 load One loads bales on a wagon or cart in preparation for the great Hay Ride that follows the Thanksgiving dinner each year. [13] þ ÌÍÎ 156 Remembering the Kanji * parade Note ³rst the order of the writing. The ³rst stroke, added to ³esta, gives us a full-µedged enclosure, because of which we should always think of this as a parade of something or other, namely whatever is inside the enclosure. [5] ¨ ÇÈÉÊË 360 overgrown The sense of the key word overgrown is of something growing luxuriously, though not necessarily in excess—in this case a whole parade of weeds (outcaste µowers). By way of exception, the µowers take their normal place over the enclosure. [8] w ÒÓ 361 turn into Let the phrase “turn into” suggest some sort of a magical change. What happens here is that the parade marching down main street turns into a dagger-throwing bout between competing bands. Note how only one stroke has to be added to make the change. [6] ¨ ÔÕÖ×ØÙ 362 ô castle In this frame, we see a mound of dirt that is being turned into a castle (the way you may have done as a child playing on the beach). [9] áâ lesson 16 157 363 sincerity The sure sign of sincerity is that one’s mere words are turned into deeds. [13] ¼ * ãä R march As distinct from the parade, the march points to a formal demonstration, whose emotions are generally a far cry from the happy spirit of the parade. The inclusion of the one gives the sense of the singlemindedness and unity of the group joined in the march. As was the case with parade, the primitive inside the enclosure indicates who or what is marching. [6] åæçèéê 364 intimidate Here we see a march of women demonstrating on behalf of equal rights, something extremely intimidating to the male chauvinist population. [9] X 365 ñòó destroy Picture a march of µames demonstrating against the Fire Department for their right to destroy, but being doused with water by the police riot squads. [13] n ö÷øù 158 Remembering the Kanji 366 dwindle A group of unquenchable mouths sets out on a march across the country, drinking water wherever they ³nd it until the water supply has dwindled to a trickle, triggering a national disaster. [12] ç –—˜™ * µoat The µoats that are such an important part of a ³esta are shown here by the addition of the two extra horizontal strokes, which you may take as a quasi-pictographic representation of the platform structure of a µoat. [6] G GHIJKL 367 scaffold Prior to the use of metal, trees were once cut down and bound together for use as scaffolding material. In the case of this kanji, what is being constructed is not a skyscraper but a simple µoat. [10] ` úû 368 coin Those special gold-colored tokens minted each year for the Mardi Gras and thrown into the crowds from people on the µoats give us the kanji for coins. [14] , üý lesson 17 159 369 shallow An entourage of µoats going from one town to the next must always seek a shallow place to cross the water. Try to picture what happens if they don’t. [9] ò () Lesson 17 Because of the rather special character of that last group of primitives (7 in all), it might be a good idea not to rush too quickly into this lesson until you are sure you have them all learned and ³tted out with good images. Now we will take up another set of primitives built up from a common base, though fewer in number and lacking the similarity of meaning we saw in the last lesson. 370 stop The character for stop is easiest to learn as a pictograph, though you have to take a moment to see it. Take it as a rather crude drawing of a footprint: the ³rst 3 strokes represent the front of the foot and the last the heel. The big toe (stroke 2 sticking out to the right) on the right indicates that this is a left foot. [4] Œ *+,/ * Although the meaning of stop will be retained, we will return often to the pictographic meaning of footprint. 160 Remembering the Kanji 371 walk Footprints that follow one another a few at a time indicate walking. [8] Ÿ 372 01234567 Í 373 ford To ford a body of water means to walk across it. [11] BCD ü 374 repeatedly The image of something occurring repeatedly, over and over again, is of having one’s head walked on. [17] EF agreement Seeing footprints on someone’s µesh indicates a rather brutal way of having secured that person’s agreement. [8] 375 MN Y undertake To undertake a project is to take some idea floating in the air and stop it so that it can be brought down to earth and become a reality. Here we see some undertaking made to stop under a beach umbrella. [6] OPQRST lesson 17 161 376 curriculum That same grove of trees we met in frame 213 shows up here in the character for curriculum (in the sense of a record of one’s life or academic achievements, the curriculum vitae). Instead of the grove making its way slowly through the surface of the cliff as before, here we see it stopped, much the same as a curriculum vitae calls a halt to the calendar and talks only about the past. [14] • UVW 377 warrior With a quiver of arrows set on one’s back, the goal of the warrior depicted here is not to attack but merely to stop the attack of others: the oldest excuse in history! [8]  XYZ^_` 378 levy A certain portion of shells (money) is collected by the warrior from the local villages as he passes through to defray the costs of keeping the land safe, and this is called a levy. [15] = ab 379 correct “A journey of a thousand miles begins with a single step,” says the Chinese proverb. Here we see one footprint, complementing that proverb with the sound advice that if the ³rst step is not made correctly, the whole point of the journey will be forfeited. This is the ideal that teachers are supposed to have in correcting their students, and parents in correcting their children. [5] ± 162 Remembering the Kanji cdefg 380 ã evidence Words that testify to the correctness of some fact are classi³ed as evidence. (Here we see a good example of how the more common primitive element takes the “strong” position to the left, even though it has more strokes.) [12] rs 381 politics To the many de³nitions for politics that already exist, this character offers yet another: correct taskmastering. Think about what the primitives tell us. On the one hand, we see the pessimistic wisdom that politics has to do with taskmastering, maneuvering people with or without their will. And on the other, we see the campaign assurances that this duty can be performed correctly if only the right candidate is given a chance. [9] © {| * mending This primitive differs from the kanji for correct only by the movement added to the last two strokes, the “-ing” of mending if you will. But take a more concrete sense, like mending holes in socks. [5] H }‚ƒ„… 382 determine Determination, in the sense of settling on a certain course of action, is likened here to mending one’s house. [8] Ï lesson 17 163 †‡ 383 lock Metal of itself doesn’t lock. It needs to be so determined by a locksmith. Now make a concrete image of that. [16] ) 384 ˆ‰ run Running, we are told here, mends the soil. Observe in the following frames how this kanji can embrace other elements from below, much the same way as the element for road does; and how, in order to do this, the ³nal stroke needs to be lengthened. [7] { Š‹ 385 transcend When one is running after something, the goal that seduces one is said to transcend the seeker. [12] • 386 Œ‘ proceed In proceeding to a new city or a new job, something in you runs ahead with excitement, and something else holds you back, like a divining rod built into your psyche warning you to check things out carefully before rushing in too wildly. [9] ? ™š 164 Remembering the Kanji 387 surpass Here we see two parades in competition, each trying to surpass the other by running at high speed from one town to the next. Note the little “hook” at the end of the ³rst stroke of the element for parade. This is the only time it appears like this in the kanji treated in this book. [12] Î ¨© 388 just so In this kanji we are shown someone spending an entire day at mending one stocking, because they want the job done “just so.” Be sure to make a clear image of a finicky old fusspot to make the abstract idea as concrete as possible. [9] ¡ ³´ 389 topic In many kinds of research, one can ³nd information on a given topic only if the headings are prepared just so. [18] Û 390 µ· dike A dike is a successful bit of engineering only if the amount of earth piled up is measured just so for the height and pressure of the water it is meant to contain. [12] Î ¸¹ lesson 17 165 * stretch The primitive meaning to stretch might at ³rst seem similar to that for road. Take a moment to study it more carefully and you will see the difference. Like road, this character holds other primitives above its sweeping ³nal stroke. [3] o º»¼ 391 build To construct a building, you ³rst draw a set of plans (the writing brush) and then s-t-r-e-t-c-h your drawing out to scale in reality. [9] É 392 ½¾ prolong This character is a kind of pictographic image of how prolonging is a clever way of stopping things by trying to stretch them out a little bit at a time (the extra drop at the top of stop). Be sure to get a concrete image of this process, by imagining yourself prolonging something you can really, physically, stretch. [8] × ¿À 393 nativity The key word of course calls to mind the feast of Christmas. As the famous poem at the start of St. John’s gospel tells us, the nativity we celebrate at Christmas had its origins at the very start of time and governs all of human history: it represents the prolongation of the eternal Word in time and space. [15] 8 Á 166 Remembering the Kanji * Ð zoo Rather than use this for animals in general, we will refer to it as a zoo, to avoid confusion with the other animals that will be showing up. Except for the downward hook at the end of the ³rst stroke, this element is indistinguishable from mending. Perhaps by now you have developed a quick eye for such details. If not now, you will before long. [5] ÃÄÅÆÇ 394 cornerstone This character depicts a cornerstone as a stone set at the end of a wildlife preserve (the “zoo in the grove”). [18] G 395 ÈÉÊ bridegroom What makes a man a bridegroom is obviously a woman and her dowry, here presented as a small zoo (animals were often used for this purpose in earlier societies) and a month away from it all (the “honeymoon”). [12] b ËÌÍ Lesson 18 The three groups of characters brought together in this rather long lesson are clustered around three sets of primitives dealing respectively with cloth and garments, weather, and postures. lesson 18 167 396 garment At the top we see the top hat, and at the bottom a pictographic representation of the folds of a garment. If you break the “4fold” fold into 2 sets of 2 strokes, you will ³nd it easier to remember. [6] h ÎÏÐÑÒÓ * Used as a primitive, the additional meanings of cloak or scarf will come in handy. What has to be noted particularly are the changes in shape the kanji can undergo when it becomes an element in other kanji. In fact, it is the most volatile of all the kanji we shall treat, and for that reason deserves special attention here. * When it appears to the left, it looks like this: 7, and we shall take it to mean cloak. At the bottom, when attached to the stroke immediately above it, the ³rst two strokes (the top hat) are omitted, giving us: R, which we shall take to mean a scarf. * On rare occasions, the element can be torn right across the middle, with the ³rst 2 strokes appearing at the top and the last 4 at the bottom of another primitive or cluster of primitives: S, in which cases we shall speak of a top hat and scarf. * And ³nally, of course, it can keep its original kanji shape, along with its original meaning of garment in general. * Note that when any of the above forms have something beneath them (as in frame 402), the third from ³nal stroke is “unhooked,” like this: T. 397 tailor You might think here of garment that have been specially tailored for Thanksgiving celebrations to look like traditional Pilgrim garb. [12] ü ÛÜß 168 Remembering the Kanji 398 attire The character for attire can be remembered as a picture of what we may call a “turtle-samurai” sweater. At the top we see the turtle-samurai and at the bottom the element for garment. [12] z 399 éêë back An innocent looking top hat and scarf lying there in front of you, turned over, reveal a hidden computer sewn into the back of each—obviously the tools of a master spy. Such experiences teach one always to have a look at the back side of things. [13] : ìíî 400 demolition The right half of this character shows a garment woven so ³ne that it can pass through the eye of a needle, ³ttingly draped around the slithering, ethereal form of a poltergeist. In this frame, our eerie visitor brushes its robes against a nearby block of apartments and completely demolishes them, razing them to the ground. [16] p ïðñ 401 pathetic A drunken sod in a tattered top hat and soiled silk scarf with a giant mouth guzzling something or other gives us a pathetic character role in which W. C. Fields might ³nd himself right at home. [9] & òóô lesson 18 169 402 distant A distant ³gure on the road is such a blur it looks like a lidded crock wearing a silk scarf. [13] æ 403 õö÷ monkey This clever little monkey has captured an entire pack of wild dogs, locked them inside a lidded crock, and wrapped the whole thing up in a silk scarf to present to the dogcatcher. [13] á 404 øùú Š * ³rst time The primitives here take care of themselves: cloak and dagger. What I leave to you is to decide on an appropriate connotation for “³rst time” to take advantage of them. [7] ûü towel The basic meaning of this primitive is a bolt of cloth, from which we derive the meaning of a towel. [3] 2 405 !#$ linen The maid, towels by her side, distributes the linen. [5] + %& 170 Remembering the Kanji 406 „ 407 sail A sail made of a towel makes a mediocre vessel. [6] ,/ hanging scroll A towel owned by the wealthiest tycoon in the world is made into a hanging scroll after his death and auctioned off to the highest bidder. [12] Q :; 408 cap Because of the risk involved (of getting the sun in one’s eyes), one puts together a makeshift cap out of a dirty old towel. [12] Ø 409 GHI curtain A dirty towel draped over the entrance to the old graveyard is painted to look like the curtain of death that leads to the other world. [13] 1 410 JK canopy A large towel stretched overhead with only a few of the sun’s rays breaking through represents a canopy over one’s bed. [13] ù ²³´ lesson 18 171 411 brocade A strip of white towel and some scraps of metal have the makings of a primitive kind of brocade. [16] 3 412 LMN market Dressed in nothing but a bath towel and top hat, one sets off to the marketplace in search of a bargain or two. [5] } 413 OPQRS elder sister Of all the women of the family, it is the elder sister who has the duty to go to market to do the shopping. [8] y 414 TU 7 * lungs One is surprised, strolling through the market, to ³nd among the meats hung out for sale a slab marked: lungs. [9] VW apron The towel with edges jagged like little crowns is the cook’s apron. [5] I XY 172 Remembering the Kanji 415 sash The part of the apron where one ³nds the buckle (represented pictorially by the ³rst 5 strokes) is on the sash. [10] Ä 416 Z^_`a stagnate People that have been “sashed” to something (whether their mother’s apron strings or a particular job) for too long become like water that has stopped moving: they start to stagnate. [13] Ë * bc belt This primitive, clearly derived from that for towel, is always hung on another vertical stroke, and takes the meaning of a belt. [2] J 417 de thorn Thorns grow on a bush here that has wrapped itself around a tree like a belt, cutting into the poor tree like little sabers. [8] r 418 fghijklm system This kanji show a unique system for leading cows to the slaughterer’s saber: one ties a belt about their waist and ³xes that belt to an overhead cable, pulling the cow up into the air where it hangs suspended, helpless against the fate that awaits it. [8] £ lesson 18 173 nopqrstu 419 made in… A label indicating that a garment was made in U.S.A. or Taiwan or Japan is itself a symbol for the systematization of the garment industry. [14] º * vw rising cloud This primitive is meant to depict in graphic fashion a cloud of something or other rising upwards, like vapor or smoke or dust. [4] ° 420 xyz{ revolve As the wheels of the car revolve, they kick up small rising clouds of dust and debris behind them. [11] % 421 |} technique The secret technique of making a rising cloud of smoke turn into a bouquet of µowers is shown here. [7] © 422 ‚ƒ rain This kanji, also a primitive, is one of the clearest instances we have of a complex pictograph. The top line is the sky, the next ˜ 174 Remembering the Kanji 3 strokes a pair of clouds, and the ³nal 4 dots the rain collected there and waiting to fall. [8] „…†‡ˆ‰Š‹ * As a primitive it can mean either rain or weather in general. Because it takes so much space, it usually has to be contracted into a crown by shortening the second and third strokes into a crown like this: U. 423 cloud Here is the full character for cloud from which the primitive for a rising cloud derives. Clouds begin with vapors rising up in small clouds from the surface of the earth, and then gathering to make clouds that eventually dump their rain back on the earth. [12] ² Œ‘ 424 cloudy weather We refer to days when the sun is covered by the clouds as cloudy weather. [16] · 425 ’“ thunder The full rumble and roar and terror of thunder is best felt not with your head tucked under your pillow safe in bed, but out in an open rice ³eld where you can get the real feel of the weather. [13] ! ”• lesson 18 175 426 frost Think of frost as a cooperative venture, an inter-action of the malevolent forces of weather that sit around a conference table and ³nally decide to allow a very light amount of moisture to fall just before a short and sudden freeze. [17] ƒ –— * ice The condensation of the three drops we have been using to mean water into two drops signals the solidifying of water into ice. Note that when this primitive appears to the left, it is written like the last two strokes of the element for water, Å, whereas under another primitive, it is written like the ³rst two strokes of the water primitive: V. [2] Å ˜™ 427 winter Walking legs slipping on the ice are a sure sign of winter. [5] K 428 š› heavens This character is meant to be a pictograph of a great man, said to represent the Lord of the Heavens. (You may, of course, use the elements ceiling and St. Bernard instead.) [4] ú œŸ¡¢ * The primitive can mean either the heaven of eternal bliss or the general term for sky, the heavens. Pay special attention to the fact that in its primitive form the ³rst stroke is written 176 Remembering the Kanji right to left, rather like the ³rst stroke of thousand (frame 40), rather than left to right, giving us: _. * å 429 angel The sense of the primitive, angel, derives from the primitive for heavens replacing the top hat in the character for tall. [12] £¤ ï 430 bridge The bridge shown here is made of trees in their natural form, except that the trunks have been carved into the forms of angels, a sort of “Ponte degli Angeli.” [16] ¥¦ attractive Associating a particularly attractive woman you know with an angel should be no problem. [15] Ÿ 431 §¨ stand up This picture of a vase standing up has its meaning extended to represent the general posture of anything standing up. [5] C ©ª«¬− * Used as a primitive, it can also mean vase. In taking its kanji meaning, it is best to think of something standing up that is normally lying down, or something standing up in an unusual way. lesson 18 177 432 ¾ 433 cry One cries and cries until one is standing up knee-deep in water (or until one has a vase-full of water). [8] °± Ø 434 badge Try to imagine a club badge pinned to your lapel in the form of a mammoth sunµower protruding from a wee little vase. [11] ²³ Þ 435 vie Two teenagers are seen here standing up to one another, vying for the attention of their peers. [20] ´µ· sovereign An uncommon, but not altogether unlikely picture of a reigning sovereign has him standing up in his apron, presumably at the behest of his sovereign (she who is to be obeyed), who needs help with washing the dishes. [9] Ð ¸¹º 436 juvenile This frame shows up the image of a juvenile hacker standing on top of a computer, or rather jumping up and down on it, because it refused to come up with the right answer. [12] ‡ 178 Remembering the Kanji »¼ 437 pupil Begin with the double meaning of the key word pupil: “student” and the “the apple of one’s eye.” Now all you have to do is dwell on the phrase “juvenile of one’s eye” (the meaning here) until it provides you with an image. [17] † ½¾ 438 ë bell This bell is made of cheap metal, and so badly made that when you ring it, it lets out a noise like the “bellowing” of juveniles who aren’t getting their own way. [20] ¿À 439 ¬ make a deal See the peddlar standing atop his motorcycle helmet as if it were a soapbox, hawking his wares to passersby. The legs and mouth represent the tools of the trade of making a deal any way you can. [11] ÁÂÃÄ * antique The primitive meaning antique, not itself a kanji, depicts a vase kept under a glass hood because it is very, very old. [11] Ð ÅÆÇ lesson 18 179 440 legitimate wife The phrase legitimate wife would have no meaning if there were not such things as “illegitimate wives,” taken because one’s legal woman has turned into an antique. The very offense of the idea should help you remember the kanji. [14] ÈÉ 441 suitable Can you imagine anything less suitable to do with one’s precious antiques than to display them in the middle of a crowded roadway? [14] ï ÊË 442 drip Picture water dripping on what you thought were precious antiques, only to ³nd that the arti³cial aging painted on them is running! [14] ì ÌÍ 443 enemy Picture your most precious antique (it doesn’t matter how old it really is, so long as it is the oldest thing you own) being knocked over by your most unlikeable taskmaster, and you have a good picture of how people make themselves enemies for life. [15] ë ÎÏ 180 Remembering the Kanji 444 spoon This character, a pictograph of a spoon, is easy enough to remember, provided you keep it distinct from that for seven. The difference, of course, is that the ³rst stroke cuts across the second only ever so slightly here. [2] 0 ÐÑ * As a primitive, this kanji can take on the additional meaning of someone sitting on the ground, of which it can also be considered a pictograph. In this case, the second stroke does not cut through the ³rst at all, as in the following frame. 445 north The cold air from the north is so strong that we see two people sitting on the ground back to back, their arms interlocked so they don’t blow away. (Pay special attention to the drawing of the ³rst 3 strokes.) [5] ë ÒÓÔÕÖ 446 6 447 stature One’s stature is measured according to the “northern-most” part of the body. [9] ×Ø ² compare With two spoons, one in each hand, you are comparing your mother’s cooking with your mother-in-law’s. [4] ÙÚ lesson 18 181 448 descendants By comparing apes with anthropoids, we not only discover the latter have descended from those progenitors educated in the higher branches, but that the very idea of seeing everything descended from everything else, one way or another, means that there is “nothing new under the sun.” [8] Ì ÛÜ 449 all Think of the housewives in tv commercials “comparing the whiteness” of their laundry across the fence, a typical advertisement for the popular detergent known as All. (If you don’t know the brand, surely you’ve heard the phrases “all-purpose detergent” or “all-temperature detergent.”) [9] „ ÝÞ 450 mix Mixed marriages, this character suggests, water down the quality of one’s descendants—the oldest racial nonsense in the world! [11] Ï * ¸¹ siesta Conjure up the classic portrait of the Latin siesta: a muchacho sitting on the ground, propped up against some building, bound up from neck to ankles in a serape, one of those great, broadrimmed mariachi hats pulled down over his face, and the noonday sun beating down overhead. Always use the complete image, never simply the general sense of siesta. [8] K 182 Remembering the Kanji ßàá 451 thirst As you pass by the muchacho taking the siesta, he cries out that he is thirsty and asks for something to drink. So you turn the water hose on him. [11] Ð 452 âã audience Imagine an audience with the emperor or the pope in which all those in attendance are sitting down, leaning against the wall, sleeping like our muchacho on siesta as the honorable host delivers his speech. [15] Í äå 453 brown The color of the serape or cloak of our muchacho on siesta is a dull brown, the color this kanji indicates. [13] Ó 454 æç hoarse When the muchacho on siesta looks up at you and opens his mouth to talk, his voice is so hoarse that you cannot understand him. [11] Ì èé lesson 18 183 455 delicious Something is so downright delicious that one spends the entire day with a spoon in hand gobbling it up. [6] Š 456 êë fat This kanji tells us that if you feed the µesh with too many delicious things, it soon picks up a thick layer of fat. [10] š 457 ìí i (one) The Roman numeral i, like that for ii we met earlier in frame 355—is only rarely used now. In the midst of all the samurai, we notice one in particular sitting on the ground with a crown on his head, indicating that he is “number i” in the current rankings. [7] t îïð * reclining The picture is obvious: the ³rst stroke represents the head, and the second the body of someone reclining. You may also use the synonyms lying or lying down. [2] L 458 ýþ every “Behind every successful person lies a woman…,” who usually turns out to be one’s mother! [6] , 184 Remembering the Kanji ñò 459 þ 460 cleverness Behind every successful taskmaster, the cleverness of a fox to outwit his charges. [10] óô ? 461 plum Behind every Jack Horner’s piemaker, a tree full of plums. [10] õö sea Behind every drop of water, a sea from which all water originally came. [9] } 462 ÷ø beg See someone lying down in a public place with a hook in place of a hand, begging a morsel of rice or a few pence. [3] F 463 ùú drought In times of drought anything at all will do. Here we see the victims begging for just a little mist for relief. [11] ê ûü lesson 18 185 * double back Either the connotations of turning around and heading back during one’s travels, or folding an object in half will do here. It pictures someone doubling back to the nearest inn to lie down and rest a weary pair of walking legs after a full day’s voyage. [9] M !#$ 464 abdomen If you double back (fold over) most animals in the middle, the part of the body where the crease comes is the abdomen. [13] T 465 %& duplicate In its original and etymologically transparent sense, to duplicate something means to double it back with a fold, like the fold of a cloak. [14] U () 466 lack The pictograph hidden in this character is of someone yawning. The ³rst stroke shows the head thrown back; the second, the arm bent at the elbow as the hand reaches up to cover the mouth; and the last two, the legs. Since yawning shows a lack of something (psychologically, interest; physiologically, sleep), the connection is plain to see. [4] µ *+,/ * As a primitive, it can mean either yawn or lack. 186 Remembering the Kanji 467 blow To blow is really no more than a deliberate effort to make one’s mouth lack all the air that is in it. [7] r 468 01 cook Better to picture what happens when you do not pay attention to your work in the kitchen. Here we see a blazing ³re and an inattentive, yawning cook who let things get out of control. [8] w 469 23 song The song in this kanji is being sung by a chorus line of can-can girls. Why it should be eliciting nothing but yawning from the audience, I leave to you to decide. [14] H 470 µ· soft If the cushions of one’s car are too soft, one may begin yawning at the wheel. [11] É 471 45 next This key word connotes the “next in line” of a succession of people or things. Let there be a lack of ice on the hottest day of summer, and you stand impatiently in line waiting for the distributor to call out “Next!” [6] µ lesson 18 187 67 * As a primitive, this character can either retain its key word meaning of next or the related meaning of second. 472 briar Earlier we made mention of the story of Briar Rose (or “Sleeping Beauty,” as we called her in frame 154) and drew attention to the briar hedge that grew up all about her castle. But in the second part of the story, these briars blossomed into µowers. Hence her name, Briar Rose. Be careful not to confuse this character with that for thorn (frame 417). [9] x 89 473 assets The ³rst shells (money) you earn, you use to pay your debts. From then on, the next shells you accumulate become your assets. [13] ¥ 474 :; ³gure This kanji depicts a woman’s ³gure as a sort of second self. [9] z 475 =? consult with To seek the words of a second mouth is to consult with someone about something. [16] ¤ @AB Lesson 19 We conclude Part two by picking up most of the remaining primitives that can be built up from elements already at our disposal, and learning the kanji that are based on them. When you have completed this section, run through all the frames from Lesson 13 on, jotting down notes at any point you think helpful. That way, even if you have not made any notations on your review cards, you will at least have some record of the images you used. * muzzle The element for muzzle shows a vase ³xed over a mouth, perhaps with a rubber band running around the back of the head to keep it in place. [8] N 476 CD E 477 compensation Picture a clam used as a muzzle to quiet the complaints of a ³sherman’s widow asking compensation for her husband lost at sea. [15] EF cultivate The barrel hoops used by many Japanese farmers to stretch clear plastic over row of vegetables in a garden patch in the hopes of cultivating bigger and bigger vegetables is a way of muzzling the soil. [11] ; GH lesson 19 189 478 divide To “divide and conquer” you use a saber and a muzzle. [10] Õ 479 IJ sound The kanji for sound depicts something standing in the air over a tongue wagging in a mouth, much the same as a sound does for the briefest of moments before disappearing. [9] 3 KL * The primitive from this kanji also means simply a sound. 480 darkness When “darkness covered the earth” at the beginning of time, there was neither sun nor sound. [13] K 481 MN rhyme Poetry restricted to verses that rhyme often ³nds it has to abandon clarity of thought in order to make the rhyme of the words work. In this kanji’s picture, one becomes a kind of “sound-employee.” [19] ‘ OP * kazoo This primitive’s special usefulness lies not in its frequency but in its simpli³cation of a few otherwise dif³cult kanjis. It pic- O 190 Remembering the Kanji tures the sound of a ³esta, namely a kazoo. Note how the element for sound is written ³rst, the ³fth stroke extended so that it can be used in the element for ³esta. [12] QRSTUVWX YZ 482 discriminating A person of discriminating intellect can tell the difference between mere kazoo-buzzing and words spoken wisely. [19] Æ * ^_ mirror This primitive gets its meaning from the following frame. It shows a pair of human legs and a tongue-wagging mouth looking at a mirror standing on the wall, asking perhaps who might be the fairest of them all. [11] ‚ `a› 483 ù 484 mirror After lakes but before glass, polished metal was used for mirrors. These metal mirrors are recalled in this character for a mirror. [19] bc æ boundary Imagine the boundary of a plot of land marked with gigantic mirrors enabling the landowner to keep trespassers in sight at all times. [14] lesson 19 191 de 485 deceased A top hat hanging on a hook in the front hall, right where the deceased left it the day he died, reminds us of him and his kanji. [3] Ó fg * In addition to deceased, the primitive meaning of to perish will also be used for this character. 486 blind If one’s eyes perish before death, one remains blind for the rest of life. [8] | 487 hi delusion The “ideal woman” one daydreams about is no more than a delusion. Hence, perish the thought of her. [6] x 488 jk laid waste The µowers that perish in the µood are taken here as symbols of an area that has been laid waste. [9] Œ lmn 192 Remembering the Kanji 489 ambition The story of ambition talks of a king walking under the perishing (or “waning”) moon dreaming great dreams about his kingdom. (The roots of ambition are from the same word as “ambulate,” meaning to walk about.) [11] Ý opq 490 direction Spinning a dagger about on its hilt on the top of a top hat— waiting to see in which direction it points when it comes to rest—one leaves to fate where one is going next. Take care in writing this character. [4] ¾ rsœ * As a primitive, this character will take the sense of a compass, the instrument used to determine direction. 491 disturb Imagine a compass that is disturbed every time a woman passes by, sending the needle spinning madly round and round. [7] × 492 tu boy The character for a boy shows us a Boy Scout cleaning the dirt out of his compass—the more dirt, the better. [7] Ö vw lesson 19 193 493 perfumed Here we see a special compass used to pick out those µowers most suited for making good perfumes. [7] Æ 494 xy obese One who eats too much soon needs a compass to ³nd one’s way around the obese mass of µesh that accumulates in the midsection. Compare this with your stories for round (frame 44) and fat (frame 456), similar in meaning but distinct in imagery. [8] â z{ 495 call on When making a courtesy call on a dignitary, one has to gauge one’s words with great care. Hence the need for a compass. [11] Ë 496 |} set free The taskmaster sets an unruly servant free, giving him no more than a quick glance at the compass and a boot from behind. [8] ½ 497 ‚ƒ violent Some cosmic taskmaster hovering overhead whips up the waves to make them dash violently against the shore. In the white foam that covers the water we see a broken compass µoating, all that remains of a shipwreck. [16] ± 194 Remembering the Kanji „…†‡ * devil The two horns on the head of the teenager are enough to suggest to most parents of adolescents a good image of a devil. [7] P 498 ˆ‰ undress To undress is to expose the µesh and tempt the devil in the eyes of one’s onlookers. Ignore the moral if you want, but not the devil. [11] õ 499 Š‹ rumor Not inappropriately, this character likens a rumor to the devil’s own words. [14] ß 500 Œ‘ pointed Metal that has been pointed (as an awl, a pick, a nail, or a knife) tends to serve the devil’s purposes as well as civilization’s: our tools are also our weapons. [15] Ç 501 ’“ formerly This primitive (named for its associations with the kanji of the following frame) is composed of a pair of horns growing out of B lesson 19 a brain with a tongue wagging in the mouth beneath. Think of “former” in connection with administrators or heads of state who have just left of³ce but continue to make a nuisance of themselves by advertising their opinions on public policy. [11] 195 ”•– * The primitive meaning, increase, comes from the next frame. Always think of something multiplying wildly as you watch. 502 increase This kanji depicts an increase of soil, multiplying so fast that it literally buries everything in its path. [14] † 503 —˜ presents The presents offered here are money that increases each time you give it away. Do not confuse with the temporal word “present” (frame 259). [18] Š 504 ™š east As a “Western” language, English identi³es the east with the rising sun. In more fanciful terms, we see the sun piercing through a tree as it rises in the east. [8] X žŸ¡¢£¤¥ * Both the direction east and the part of the world called “the East” are primitive meanings of this character. 196 Remembering the Kanji 505 ridgepole If the piece of wood in the roof known as the ridgepole points east, the sunrise will be visible from the front door. [12] [ 506 ¦§ frozen The whole secret to breaking the ice with the East is to peek behind those mysteriously “frozen smiles.” [10] L * ¨© porter Let the extended dot at the top represent the load that the samurai is carrying in his role as the master’s porter. [4] b 507 ª« pregnancy A woman who is in her pregnancy is a bit like a porter, bearing her new companion wherever she goes. [7] Ü 508 ¬− courts Those who rule the courts, the porters of justice and order, are often found to stretch the law to suit their own purposes. Recall the kanji for prolong from frame 392 and keep it distinct. [7] Ó °± part three Elements We come now to the third major step in our study of the kanji: the invention of plots from primitive elements. From now on, the ordering of the remaining characters according to their primitives will be taken care of, but the reader will be required to do most of the work. As before, particularly dif³cult kanji will be supplied with supplementary hints, plots, or even whole stories. By now you will have a feel for the way in which details can be worked into a kanji story so as to create a more vivid ambience for the primitive elements to interact. What may be more dif³cult is experimenting with plots and discarding them until the simplest one is ³xed on, and then embellished and nuanced. You may ³nd it helpful occasionally to study some of the earlier stories that you found especially impressive, in order to discover precisely why they struck you, and then to imitate their vitality in the stories you will now be inventing. Equally helpful will be any attention you give to those characters whose stories you have found it dif³cult to remember, or have easily confused with those of other characters. As you progress through this ³nal section, you may wish even to return and amend some of those earlier stories. But do it with the knowledge that once a story has been learned, it is generally better to review it and perhaps repair it slightly than to discard it entirely and start over. Lesson 20 To begin our work with the primitives alone, let us take six kanji of varying dif³culty that use primitives we have already learned, and that have been kept apart deliberately for the sake of this initial sally into independent learning. 509 dye Water . . . nine . . . tree. From those elements you must compose a plot for the key word, dye. Here, as elsewhere, any of the alternate meanings of the primitives may be used, provided ô 200 Remembering the Kanji they do not require a position other than that of the kanji in question. [9] ¾¿À 510 burn Hearth . . . sort of thing. Beware of letting the simple reading off of the primitive elements do your work for you. Unless you make a vivid image of something burning and relate it just as vividly to those primitive meanings, you can count on forgetting this character very quickly. [16] ê Âà 511 û 512 V.I.P. The V.I.P. indicated here is an important guest making a visit. The elements are: house . . . ceiling . . . few . . . shells. [15] ÄÅÆÇ year-end Stop . . . march . . . little. Be sure not to forget that ³nal dot in the element for march! [13] ñ 513 ÈÉÊË prefecture Above, the eye of a needle, and below the primitive for little. Although apparently the simplest of these ³rst six kanji, when you begin to work on its plot and story you will soon ³nd out that the number of strokes and visual complexity of a kanji does not make it easier or harder to remember. It is the primitives with which one has to work that are the critical factor, as Ö lesson 21 in this case where the meaning of the key word is so seemingly distant from the elements. Remember, you can always break larger elements down (eye of a needle into eye and ³shhook) if you think it helps. [9] 201 ÌÍ 514 horse chestnut A tree . . . cliff . . . ten thousand. [9] Ÿ ÎÏÐ Lesson 21 If you have found some of the characters in the last brief lesson dif³cult to work with, I can only assure you that it will get easier with time, indeed already with this long lesson. More important is to take heed that as it does get easier you don’t skip over the stories too quickly, trusting only in the most super³cial of images. If you spend up to ³ve minutes on each character focusing on the composition of the primitives into a tidy plot, and then ³lling out the details of a little story, you will not be wasting time, but saving yourself the time it takes to relearn it later. * scorpion This primitive is a pictograph of the scorpion, the ³rst 2 strokes representing its head and pincers, the last stroke its barbed tail, in which you may recognize the ³shhook. [3] ˜ ÑÒÓ 202 Remembering the Kanji 515 ground Soil and a scorpion (an “earth animal”). This is, of course, the full character from which the primitive for ground derives. [6] G 516 ÔÕ pond Water . . . scorpion. It would be easy to slip into a “lazy image” in cases like this one, picturing, let us say, a scorpion near the water. But if you picture rather a scorpion letting its venom out drop by drop until it has made a whole pond of the stuff, the image is more likely to remain ³xed. [6] K Ö× 517 insect Work with the pictograph as you wish. [6] g ØÙÚÛ * As a primitive, this insect will refer to the whole insect kingdom, so that it can be further speci³ed in each kanji that contains it. 518 lightning bug Schoolhouse . . . insect. [11] ¢ 519 ÜÝ snake Insect . . . house . . . spoon. [11] í lesson 21 203 Þßà 520 rainbow Insect . . . craft. [9] Ó 521 áâ butterµy Insect . . . generation . . . tree. [15] ’ 522 ãäå single Think of this key word in connection with bachelorhood. The elements: wild dogs . . . insect. [9] › 523 æç silkworm Heavens . . . insect. Be sure to do something about the position of the two elements. [10] f 524 #! wind Windy . . . drops of . . . insects. Hint: think of the last two primitives as representing a swarm of gnats, those tiny drops of pesky insects. [9] K èéê 204 Remembering the Kanji 525 self The kanji carries the abstract sense of the self, the deep-down inner structure of the human person that mythology has often depicted as a snake—which is what the kanji shows pictographically. Be sure to keep it distinct from the similar key words, oneself (frame 36) and I (frame 17). [3] ÷ ëìí * As a primitive element, this kanji can be used for the snake— of which it is a pictograph—or any of the various concrete symbolic meanings the snake has in myth and fable. [3] 526 | 527 rouse Run . . . snake. [10] îï ¨ 528 queen Woman . . . snake. [6] ðñ reformation Pluralizing the snake and focusing on a single taskmaster may help recommend the image of Ireland’s most famous reformer, St. Patrick, who, legend has it, drove away the snakes from the land. [7] y òó lesson 21 205 529 z 530 scribe Words . . . snake. [10] ôõ wrap Bind up . . . snake. [5] ± ö÷ * The primitive meaning of wrap should always be used with the snake in mind to avoid confusion with similar terms. Just let “wrap” mean “with a snake coiled about it.” 531 placenta Part of the body . . . wrap. [9] Å 532 øù cannon Stones . . . wrap. [10] à 533 úû bubble Water . . . wrap. [8] Á üý 206 Remembering the Kanji 534 † tortoise This is not a turtle (see frame 235) but a tortoise, however you wish to picture the difference. Let the “bound up” at the top refer to the head, and the two suns, with a long tail running through it, to the shell. [11] $%&( * As a primitive, this kanji is abbreviated to its bottom half, ›, and comes to mean eel. (If it is any help, this kanji in its full form can also be remembered through its abbreviation’s primitive meaning.) 535 electricity Rain/weather . . . eel. [13] / 536 )* dragon Vase . . . eel. In order not to confuse this kanji with the zodiacal sign of the dragon, which we will meet later (frame 2008) and use as a primitive, you might think here of a paper parade dragon. [10] O +, 537 waterfall Water . . . vase . . . eels. To avoid the confusion mentioned in the previous frame, the character learned there for dragon should not be used as a primitive. [13] Ý /01 lesson 21 207 * sow Let this primitive represent a fat sow. Easier than pulling it apart into smaller elements is remembering its shape as a highly stylized pictograph. Practice its 7 strokes a few times before going on to examples of its use in the next six frames. [7] [ 2345678 538 pork Flesh . . . sow. [11] ² 539 9: pursue Sows . . . road. [10] X 540 ;= consummate The horns atop the sow suggest a boar at work in the background. Add the element for a road. Now create a story whose meaning is: consummate. [12] | 541 ?@A house This is the full character whose primitive form we learned already. To help a little, this kanji recalls the times when the “domestic” animals were, as the word itself suggests, really kept in the house. Hence: house . . . sow. [10] B 208 Remembering the Kanji BC 542 marry into The kanji in this frame demonstrates the traditional Japanese approach to marriage: it is the woman who leaves her family for another household, thus marrying into a man’s family. [13] A 543 DE overpowering Tall . . . crowned . . . sow. [14] « * FGH piglets This abbreviation of the full primitive for a sow, quite naturally, means piglets. [5] W * IJKLM , piggy bank This very helpful primitive element is worth the few moments it takes to learn it. Just remember that each day you put a few pennies into the back of the little piglet on your bureau that you call a piggy bank. [9] NO 544 intestines Flesh . . . piggy bank. [13] ‘ lesson 21 209 PQ 545 õ 546 location Soil . . . piggy bank. [12] RS hot water Water . . . piggy bank. [12] _ 547 TU sheep This pictograph shows the animal horns at the top attached to the head (3rd stroke), the front and back legs (strokes 4 and 5) and body (³nal stroke). [6] æ VWX * The primitive meaning of sheep can add the further connotations given in the following frame. As we saw with the cow, the “tail” is cut off when it is set immediately over another element: X. 548 Ë beauty Try to think of what the Chinese were on to when they associated the idea of beauty with a large sheep. [9] YZ 210 Remembering the Kanji 549 ocean Water . . . sheep. Be sure to keep the stories and key word of this kanji distinct from those for sea. (frame 461). [9] á 550 å 551 detailed Words/speaking . . . sheep. [13] ^_ fresh Fish . . . sheep. [17] 1 552 `a accomplished The key word is meant to connote someone “skilled” at something. On the road we ³nd soil over a sheep. You may have to work with this one a while longer. [12] ò 553 bcd envious Sheep . . . water . . . yawn/lack. Although this character looks rather simple, special care should be taken in learning it because of the proximity of the ³nal two elements to the character for next, which we learned in frame 471. Note, too, that the water comes under the sheep, rather than on its own to the left. [15] þ lesson 21 211 efg * wool This rather uncommon primitive is made by pulling the tail of the sheep to one side to create a semienclosure. The meaning of wool is derived from the fact that the shearer is holding the sheep by the tail in order to trim its wool. [7] Y hi 554 distinction Wool . . . craft. [10] Ú 555 jk don I cannot resist doing this one for you, since it clearly describes donning (putting on) one’s clothes as “pulling the wool over one’s eyes.” [12] ^ * lm turkey This primitive is best remembered as an old turkey, complete with pipe and monocle. Its writing is somewhat peculiar, so take note of the order of the strokes. Let the ³rst four strokes stand for the turkey’s head, neck, and drooping chin. The remainder can then be pictographic of the plumage. [8] @ nopqrs tu 212 Remembering the Kanji 556 solely Mouth . . . turkey. [11] µ 557 vw Ð 558 char Turkey . . . oven ³re. [12] xy Õ 559 reef Rocks . . . char. [17] z{ T 560 gather Turkeys . . . atop a tree. [12] |} w 561 quasiIce . . . turkey. [10] ‚ƒ advance Turkey . . . road. [11] Z lesson 21 213 „… 562 miscellaneous Baseball . . . trees . . . turkey. [14] P 563 †‡ˆ feminine This character for feminine forms a pair with that for masculine, which we will learn later (frame 743). The elements: footprint . . . spoon . . . turkey. [14] § 564 ‰Š‹ } 565 semiThink of this in terms of the semi³nals of some sports competition. Water . . . turkeys . . . needle. [13] Œ‘œ stirred up St. Bernard dog . . . turkey . . . rice ³eld/brains. [16] f 566 ’“” rob Whereas burglary (frame 357) implies clandestine appropriation of another’s property, robbery refers to taking by force. The primitive elements: St. Bernard dog . . . turkey . . . glue. [14] ô 214 Remembering the Kanji •–— 567 assurance On the left you see the rock, which is familiar enough. But pay attention to the right. Taking careful note of the unusual stroke order that has the “chimney” on the house doubled up with the ³rst stroke of the turkey, we may see the right side as a turkey house (or “coop”). We shall see this pattern only on one other occasion (frame 1943), but even for these two characters it is well worth the trouble to single it out as a primitive. [15] ´ ˜™š› 568 noon With a bit of stretching, you might see a horse’s head pointing leftwards in this character. That gives the primary meaning of the Chinese zodiacal sign of the horse, which corresponds to the hour of noon. Note how this kanji primitive differs from that for cow (frame 245). [4] 5 žŸ¡ * As a primitive, this character gets the meaning of a horse. Any horse image will do, except that of a team of horses, which will come later (frame 1978) and get its own primitive. 569 Ñ permit Words . . . horse. [11] ¢£ lesson 21 215 * Pegasus By combining the horse (giving a twist to its ³nal stroke a bit to the left to keep the strokes from overlapping) with the turkey, we get a µying horse or Pegasus. Be sure not to confuse with the turkey house from frame 567. [11] Z ¤¥ 570 ) delight Again I cannot resist sharing my own associations. If you’ve ever seen Disney’s animated interpretation of classical music, “Fantasia,” you will recall what was done there with Beethoven’s “Pastoral Symphony” (the 6th), and the µying horses that ³gured in it. The mares are bathing in the stream and the stallions begin to gather. As dusk sets in, the µying horses all start yawning and pair off for the night: a perfectly delightful portrait of delight. [15] ¦§ 571 authority Tree . . . Pegasus. [15] Ï 572 ¨© ? outlook Pegasus . . . see. [18] ª« 216 Remembering the Kanji 573 feathers From the pictograph of two bird-wings, we get feathers. [6] – ¬−°± * The related image of wings can be added as a primitive meaning. It can also take the form  when used as a primitive, as we shall see in frames 576 and 577. 574 H 575 learn Feathers . . . white bird. [11] ²³ the following Feathers . . . vase. Be sure to contrast the connotation of this key word with that for next (frame 471). [11] õ 576 ´µ weekday Day . . . feathers . . . turkey. [18] Þ 577 ·¸¹ laundry Water . . . feathers . . . turkey [17] æ º»¼ Lesson 22 This is a good time to stop for a moment and have a look at how primitive elements get contracted and distorted by reason of their position within a kanji. Reference has been made to the fact here and there in passing, but now that you have attained greater µuency in writing, we may address the phenomenon more systematically. 1. At the left, a primitive will generally be squeezed in from the sides and slanted upwards. For instance, gold  comes to be written [ when it functions as the primitive for metal. Or again, tree has its kanji form … µattened into ] when it comes to the left. 2. Long strokes ending in a hook, which would normally µow out gracefully, are squeezed into angular form when made part of a primitive at the left. We see this in the way the kanji for ray M gets altered to ^ in the kanji for radiance ‚. In like manner, the spoon that is spread out on the right side of compare ² is turned in on itself on the left. Certain characters are pressed down and widened when weighted down by other elements from above. Such is the case, for example, with woman, which is µattened into _ when it appears in the lowest position of banquet Ö. 4. A long vertical stroke cutting through a series of horizontal lines is often cut off below the lowest horizontal line. We saw this in changing the cow È to ³t it in revelation ², the sheep æ to ³t in beauty Ë, and the brush ¿ that appeared in the kanji for write –. 5. The long downward swooping stroke that we see in ³re is an example of another group of distortions. Crowded in by something to its right, it is turned into a short stroke that bends downwards: `. Hence ³re J and lamp a. 6. Again, we have seen how horizontal lines can double up as the bottom of the upper primitive and the top of the lower primitive. For instance, when stand C comes in the primitive for make a deal ¬. 7. Finally, there are situations in which an entire kanji is changed to assume a considerably altered primitive form. Water v, ³re J, and portent t thus become Y, ½, and 7 in other characters. Because the full forms are also used as primitives, we have altered the meaning or given distinctions in meaning in order to be sure that the story in each case dictates precisely how the character is to be written. 218 Remembering the Kanji From this chapter on, the stroke order will not be given unless it is entirely new, departs from the procedures we have learned so far, or might otherwise cause confusion. Should you have any trouble with the writing of a particular primitive, you can refer to Index 2 which will direct you to the page where that primitive was ³rst introduced. With that, we carry on. * pent in This primitive depicts a corral or pen surrounding something, which is thus pent in. [3] ß 578 ½¾¿ Q sayeth Pent in . . . one. The key word refers to famous sayings of famous people, and is the origin for the primitive meaning of a tongue wagging in the mouth that we learned in frame 12. The size of this kanji, a relatively rare one, is what distinguishes it from day. [4] äåæç 579 quandary Pent in . . . trees. [7] Å 580 ÃÄÅÆÇÈÉ harden Old . . . pent in. Leave the people out of your story to avoid complications later when we add the element for person to form a new kanji (frame 973). [8] ô lesson 22 219 581 country Jewels . . . pent in. [8] ³ 582 group Glued . . . pent in. [6] : 583 cause St. Bernard dog . . . pent in. [6] ƒ 584 matrimony Woman . . . cause. Think here of the “state of matrimony” and you will not confuse it with other characters involving marriage, one of which we have already met (frame 542). [9] „ 585 park Pent in . . . lidded crock . . . scarf. [13] Ó 586 -times The suf³x “-times” refers to a number of repetitions. Its elements: a mouth . . . pent in. Hint: you may ³nd it more helpful to forget the primitives and think of one circle revolving inside of another. [6] n ÊËÌ 587 podium Soil/ground . . . top hat . . . -times . . . nightbreak. With kanji as dif³cult as this one, it generally pays to toy with the various ; 220 Remembering the Kanji connotations of its primitives before settling on one image. Aim for as much simplicity as you can. [16] * cave This primitive combines the cliff (the last 2 strokes) with the ³rst dot we use on the roof of the house. Together they make a “cliff house” or cave. It “encloses” its relative primitives beneath it and to the right. [3] Z ÍÎÏ 588 store Cave . . . fortune-telling. [8] ü 589 ÐÑ storehouse Cave . . . car. [10] ø 590 courtyard Cave . . . courts. [10] Ò 591 government of³ce Cave . . . a spike. [5] z 592 » bed Cave . . . tree. [7] lesson 22 221 593 hemp Cave . . . grove. If it helps, this is the hemp marijuana comes from. [11] & 594 grind Hemp . . . stone. [16] $ 595 ÒÓ heart This character, a pictographic representation of the heart, is among the most widely used primitives we shall meet. [4]  ÔÕÖ× * As a primitive, it can take three forms, to which we shall assign three distinct meanings. * In its kanji-form, it appears beneath or to the right of its relative primitive and means the physical organ of the heart. * To the left, it is abbreviated to three strokes, °, and means a wildly emotional state of mind. * And ³nally, at the very bottom, it can take the form a, in which case we give it the meaning of a valentine. 596 forget Perish . . . heart. [7] Ù 597 endure Blade . . . heart. Endure here means long-suffering patience. [7] Ý 222 Remembering the Kanji 598 acknowledge Words . . . endure. [14] Þ 599 f 600 mourning Snake . . . heart. [7] intention Samurai . . . heart. [7] ƒ 601 document Words . . . intention. [14] £ 602 loyalty In the middle of a . . . heart. [8] b 603 shish kebab This pictograph of two pieces of meat on a skewer, a shish kebab, will help us in the next frame. [7] 604 ØÙÚ afµicted Shish kebab . . . heart. [11] ú 605 think Brains . . . heart. [9] „ lesson 22 223 606 grace Take grace in its sense of a favor freely bestowed, not in its meaning of charming manners or µuid movement. The primitives: cause . . . heart. [10] 0 607 apply Cave . . . heart. The sense of the key word here is of something appropriate that ³lls a particular need, and hence “applies.” [7] ñ 608 idea Sound . . . heart. [13] [ 609 concept To distinguish this kanji from that of the previous frame, focus on the sense of the “con-” in the word “concept.” Its elements are: inter- . . . heart. [13] ` 610 breath Nose . . . heart. [10] ” 611 recess tongue . . . nose . . . heart. The sense of breath from the last frame should not be used in your story, since it might lead us later to put only the nose over the heart and leave the tongue off to one side. [16] ‹ 612 favor Ten . . . ³elds (or: needle . . . brains) . . . heart. [10] ˆ 224 Remembering the Kanji 613 ë 614 fear Craft . . . mediocre . . . heart. [10] beguile The ³rst three elements, ³esta . . . mouth . . . µoor, appeared together once already in frame 356. Beneath them, once again, the heart. [12] Î 615 emotion Mouths . . . marching . . . heart. [13] û 616 melancholy Head . . . crown . . . heart . . . walking legs. Two things merit mention here. First, the doubling-up of the last stroke of head with the top of the crown serves to make the whole more aesthetically beautiful. It happens so rarely that the exceptions are easily learned. Second, try to make a single image out of the four elements. (Religious statuary of melancholy ³gures should offer plenty of suggestions.) [15] ¾ ÛÜÝÞ 617 widow House . . . head . . . dagger. Immediately we get another instance of a very odd exception. Notice how the ³nal stroke of the head is lenghthened, giving the ³nal two strokes a chance to stretch out and make room for the dagger that ³ts in beneath. [14] C ßàáâã lesson 22 225 618 busy State of mind . . . perish. [6] Ú 619 ecstasy State of mind . . . devil. [10] Ì 620 constancy State of mind . . . span. [9] f 621 lament To keep this character distinct from others of similar connotation, one need only think of the Prophet Jeremiah whose poetry gave an eminence to the state of mind we call lamentation. [11] U 622 enlightenment I know of an Indian religious sect which teaches that enlightenment is to be had by covering the eyes with one’s index ³ngers, the ears with the thumbs, and the mouth with the little ³ngers. While these differ a bit from the ³ve holes that we used to represent the “I” (frame 17), the idea of achieving a special state of mind by covering those ³ve places can help you learn this kanji. You might try the position out while you are learning this character. [10] ; 623 dreadful State of mind . . . linen. [8] / 226 Remembering the Kanji 624 disconcerted State of mind . . . laid waste. [12] g 625 repent State of mind . . . every (see frame 458). [9] t 626 hate State of mind . . . increase. [13] ‡ 627 accustomed State of mind . . . pierce. [14] ü 628 pleasure State of mind . . . butchers (see frame 289). [12] − 629 lazy State of mind . . . left (i.e. “sinister”) . . . µesh. [12] · 630 humility State of mind . . . truth. [13] E 631 remorse State of mind . . . emotion. Hint: the etymology of “remorse” indicates a memory that returns again and again to “bite at” one’s conscience and disturb one’s peace of mind. [16] þ lesson 22 227 632 recollection State of mind . . . idea. [16] & 633 pining Graveyard . . . valentine. Note carefully the stroke order of the valentine primitive. [14] § 634 äåæçè annexed Water . . . heavens . . . valentine. [11] þ 635 × invariably First note the stroke order of this character, which did not really evolve from the heart, even though we take it that way. If one takes it as a pictograph “dividing” the heart in half, then one has one of those invariably true bits of human anatomy: the fact that each heart is divided into two halves. [5] éêëìí 636 ³ ooze Water . . . the invariably divided heart. [8] Lesson 23 With this lengthy lesson we shall have passed well beyond one-third of our way through this book. Here we focus on elements having to do with hands and arms. As always, the one protection you have against confusing the elements is to form clear and distinct images the ³rst time you meet them. If you make it through this chapter smoothly, the worst will be behind you and you should have nothing more to fear the rest of the way. 637 # hand Any way you count them, there are either too many or too few ³ngers to see a good pictograph of a hand in this character. But that it is, and so you must. [4] îïðñ * Keep to the etymology when using this kanji as a primitive: a single hand all by itself. 638 3 639 watch over Hand . . . eyes. [9] òó chafe Hemp . . . hand. [15] # 640 ego Hand . . . ³esta. Note how the second stroke of the hand is stretched across to double up as the ³rst stroke of the tasseled arrow we use for ³esta. Compare this kanji with frames 17, 36, and 525. [7] a lesson 23 229 ôõö÷øùú 641 – 642 righteousness Sheep . . . ego. [13] ™ 643 deliberation Words . . . righteousness. [20] “ * sacri³ce Cow . . . righteousness. Do not use the image of an animal sacri³ce here, as that will have it own character later on. [17] ³ngers This alternate form of the primitive for hand we shall use to represent ³nger or ³ngers. It always appears at the left. [3] − 644 ûüý rub Fingers . . . extremity. [8] ; 645 embrace Fingers . . . wrap. [8] » 646 board The key word refers to boarding vessels for travel. Its elements are: ³nger . . . µowers . . . ³t together (see frame 254). [12] W 230 Remembering the Kanji 647 ¿ 648 extract Fingers . . . a few. [7] confront Fingers . . . a whirlwind. [7] h 649 − 650 criticism Finger . . . compare. [7] À 651 beckon Finger . . . seduce. [8] clear the land Fingers . . . rocks. [8] ä 652 O 653 clap Fingers . . . white. [8] strike Finger . . . spike. [5] ¸ 654 arrest Fingers . . . phrase. [8] i lesson 23 231 655 discard Fingers . . . cottage. [11] ã 656 kidnap Finger . . . mouth . . . dagger. [8] x 657 pinch Finger . . . antique. [14] é 658 challenge Fingers . . . portent. [9] „ 659 ³nger Finger . . . delicious. [9] … 660 hold Fingers . . . Buddhist temple. [9] ³ 661 fasten Finger . . . tongue. [9] Î 662 g brandish Finger . . . chariot. [12] 232 Remembering the Kanji 663 conjecture Fingers . . . turkey. [11] u 664 hoist Fingers . . . piggy bank. [12] Û 665 propose Fingers . . . just so. [12] Ø 666 damage Finger . . . employee. [13] © 667 B 668 pick up Fingers . . . ³t together. Compare frame 646. [9] shouldering The key word of this frame refers to shouldering a burden of some sort. Its elements are: ³ngers . . . nightbreak. [8] ( 669 Í 670 foothold Fingers . . . dispose. [8] ì sketch Fingers . . . seedling. [11] lesson 23 233 671 maneuver Fingers . . . goods . . . tree. [16] e 672 touch Fingers . . . vase . . . woman. [11] Ù 673 put up a notice Fingers . . . siesta. [11] Œ 674 hang Fingers . . . ivy . . . magic wand. [11] Ä * two hands Let this primitive represent a union of two hands, both of which are used at the same time. Whenever this element appears at the bottom of its relative primitive, the top line is omitted, whether or not there is a horizontal line to replace it. [4] b !#$% 675 polish Stone . . . two hands. [9] Ó 676 commandment Two hands . . . ³esta. [7] w &() 234 Remembering the Kanji 677 contraption Tree . . . commandment. [11] | 678 Ì 679 nose Let me share a rather grotesque image to help with this kanji. Imagine taking your two hands and reaching up into someone’s nostrils. Once inside you grab hold of the brain and yank it out. At the end, you would have a picture something like that of this character, the full kanji for nose. [14] punish Two hands . . . saber. [6] { 680 mould Punish . . . soil. In cases like this, you might ³nd it easier to break the character up into its more basic elements, like this: two hands . . . saber . . . soil. [9] „ 681 genius Whatever one is particularly adept at—one’s special “genius”—one can do very easily, “with one ³nger” as the phrase goes. This kanji is a pictograph of that one ³nger. Note how its distinctive form is created by writing the ³nal stroke of the element for ³ngers backwards. [3] î *+, * The primitive meaning, genie, derives from the roots of the word genius. Use the genie out in the open when the primitive appears to the right of or below its relative primitive; in that case it also keeps its same form. At the left, the form is altered to c, and the meaning becomes a genie in the bottle. lesson 23 235 682 property Clam . . . genie. [10] ( 683 lumber Tree . . . genie. [7] % 684 suppose Genie in the bottle . . . a child. Hint: focus on the key word’s connotation of “make believe”. [6] ¦ 685 /012 exist Genie in the bottle . . . soil. [6] $ 686 from This pictograph of a clenched ³st is another of the “handprimitives.” Take note of its rather peculiar drawing. Try to think of drawing a ³st (the primitive meaning) “from” this character to give yourself a connotation for the otherwise abstract key word. [2] ì 34 * The primitive meaning is taken from the pictograph: a ³st. 687 portable Fingers . . . turkey . . . ³st. [13] ‘ 236 Remembering the Kanji 688 ´ reach out The addition of a ³nal stroke transforms this character from the primitive for a clenched ³st into the kanji for reaching out, much as a stroke of kindness can often turn anger into acceptance. [3] 567 * As a primitive, this shall stand for outstretched hands. Only take care not to confuse it with that for beg (frame 462) 689 µ 690 suck Mouth . . . outstretched hands. Hint: use the image of a nursing baby. [6] handle Finger . . . outstretched hands. [6] ; * arm The picture of an arm dangling from the trunk of the body gives us the element for arm, or tucked under the arm (relative to the element below it). Examples of both usages follow. Unlike most primitives, the kanji that bears the same meaning (frame 1418) has absolutely no connection with it. [2] d 89 691 ï length The length whose measure this kanji depicts extends from the tip of one hand to the tip of the other with arms at full length. Notice the ³nal stroke, which cuts across the vertical second stroke to distinguish it from large (frame 107). [3] lesson 23 237 :;= 692 history A mouth . . . tucked under the arm. [5] t 693 ?@A of³cer One . . . mouth . . . tucked under the arm. [6] 3 694 grow late The implication behind the meaning of grow late is that things are changing in the same way that the day turns into night. The elements: ceiling . . . sun . . . tucked under the arm. [7] n BCD 695 stiff Rocks . . . grow late. [12] z 696 or again Like the several abbreviations in Roman script to indicate “and” (+, &, etc.), this short two-stroke kanji is used for the similar meaning of or again. [2] : EF * As a primitive, it will mean crotch, as in the crotch of the arm. Or whatever. 238 Remembering the Kanji 697 pair The crotch reduplicated gives us a pair. [4] T 698 mulberry Crotches, crotches everywhere . . . tree. Hint: think of a group of children playing an original version of “Here We Go ’Round the Mulberry Bush.” [10] m 699 vessels The key word indicates the Japanese generic term for counting ships. Its elements: turkey . . . crotch. [10] Æ 700 safeguard Words . . . µowers . . . vessels. [20]  701 seize A pack of wild dogs . . . µowers . . . vessels. Do not confuse this with the character for arrest (frame 654). [16] ³ 702 guy Woman . . . crotch. [5] G 703 angry Guy . . . heart. [9] H 704 friend By one’s side . . . crotch. [4] º lesson 23 239 èéêë 705 s * slip out Fingers . . . friend. [7] missile Although modern connotations are more suggestive, this primitive simply refers to something thrown as a weapon. Its elements: wind . . . crotch. [4] r 706 IJ throw Fingers . . . missile. [7] V 707 drown Water . . . missile. [7] ö 708 establishment Words . . . missile. [11] Ü 709 beat Car . . . missile . . . hand. [15] ° 710 KLM husk Samurai . . . superµuous . . . missile. [11] t 240 Remembering the Kanji NOP 711 branch Needle . . . crotch. [4] † 712 QR Œ 713 skill Fingers . . . branch. [7] bough Tree . . . branch. Take a moment to focus on the differences between a bough, a branch, and a twig (frame 298). [8] ‹ 714 limb Part of the body . . . branch. [8] ™ * spool Here we see a simpli³ed drawing of a spool (the element for earth at the bottom) with threads being wound about it tightly (the crotch at the top). You may remember it either pictographically or by way of the primitives. [5] ¥ ST 715 stalk Flower . . . spool. [8] Ÿ lesson 23 241 716 suspicious State of mind . . . spool. [8] s 717 lightly Car . . . spool. [12] ¦ 718 d 719 uncle Above . . . little . . . crotch. [8] UVW coach Uncle . . . eye. [13] — 720 loneliness House . . . uncle. [11] ù 721 g 722 graceful Water . . . uncle. [11] ‚ 723 antiCliff . . . crotch. [4] slope Ground . . . anti-. [7] * 242 Remembering the Kanji 724 ‡ 725 plank Tree . . . anti-. [8] return Anti- . . . road. [7] ‘ 726 • 727 marketing Shells/money . . . anti-. [11] claw This character is a pictograph of a bird’s claw, and from there comes to mean animal claws in general (including human ³ngernails). [4] à XYZ[ * As a primitive, we shall use the graphic image of a vulture, a bird known for its powerful claws. It generally appears above another primitive relative primitive, where it is squeezed into the form e. 728 gentle Vulture . . . woman. [7] µ * µedgling The vulture and child combine to create the image of an aerie full of µedglings. [7] f ^ lesson 23 243 729 milk Fledglings . . . hook. [8] Ö 730 µoating Water . . . µedglings. [10] 4 731 µ 732 leader Turtle . . . vulture . . . glue. [10] ± 733 exhort Leader . . . St. Bernard dog. Do not confuse with urge (frame 282). [13] pick Unlike pick up (frame 667), this character is used for picking fruits from trees. Its elements: ³nger . . . vulture . . . tree. [11] ï 734 vegetable Flower . . . vulture . . . tree. [11] û * birdhouse The claw and crown of the roof of a house (whose chimney is displaced by the claw) combine to give us a birdhouse. [6] g _` 244 Remembering the Kanji 735 1 736 accept Birdhouse . . . crotch. [8] 4 737 impart Fingers . . . accept. [11] love Birdhouse . . . heart . . . walking legs. [13] ( * abc elbow This pictograph of an arm bent at the elbow is obvious. [2] M 738 de pay Finger . . . elbow. [5] Y 739 wide Cave. . . elbow. [5] b 740 broaden Fingers . . . wide. The connection with the previous character is very close. Beware. [8] ¬ lesson 23 245 741 mineral Metal . . . wide. [13] ˜ 742 valve Elbow . . . two hands. [5] – 743 masculine By one’s side . . . elbow . . . turkey. Its match is in frame 563. [12] Í 744 pedestal Elbow . . . mouth. [5] × 745 neglect Pedestal . . . heart. [9] Æ 746 reign Water . . . pedestal. [8] ¸ 747 commence Woman . . . pedestal. [8] x 748 womb Part of the body . . . pedestal. [9] Ì 246 Remembering the Kanji 749 window House . . . human legs . . . elbow . . . heart. [11] p 750 fghi É 751 gone Soil . . . elbow. [5] jk method Water . . . gone. [8] À * wall The elbow hanging under a ceiling will become our element for a wall. [3] h 752 ìíî meeting Meeting . . . wall. This is the full character for meeting, from which the abbreviated primitive that we met back in Lesson 12 gets its name. [6] l 753 lm climax Wall . . . soil. The key word allows for the full variety of connotations: to peak, to arrive at the end, and the like. [6] › lesson 23 247 no 754 room House . . . climax. [9] Ñ 755 arrival Climax . . . saber. [8] k 756 doth The archaic English form for “does” indicates a humble form of the verb “to do.” It is made up of climax and taskmaster. [10] O 757 mutually When you draw this character think of linking two walls together, one right side up and the other upside down. [4] 3 * ïðñò infant This primitive can be seen as an abbreviation of the full primitive for child, the second stroke dividing the head from the body much as it does in { and the other strokes condensing the long form so that it can be used atop its relative primitive. We change the meaning to infant to facilitate keeping the full form and its abbreviation distinct. [4] q pq 248 Remembering the Kanji 758 m 759 abandon Infant . . . buckle (see frame 415) . . . tree. [13] rst bring up Since the key word has to do with raising children to be strong both in mind and body, it is easy to coordinate the primitive elements: infant . . . meat. [8] p 760 remove Fingers . . . bring up . . . taskmaster. [15] ô 761 uvw X 762 allot Infant . . . human legs. [6] c 763 gun Metal . . . allot. [14] sulfur Rock . . . infant . . . µood. [12] L 764 current Water . . . infant . . . µood. Be sure to distinguish the two waterprimitives from one another in making your story. [10] H lesson 24 249 765 license Elbow . . . human legs. [4] { 766 tempt Mouth . . . license . . . walking legs. [10] × óôõ Lesson 24 After that long excursus into arm and hand primitives, we will take a breather in this lesson with a much easier group built up from the kanji for exit and enter. 767 m 768 exit The kanji for exit pictures a series of mountain peaks coming out of the earth. Learn it together with the following frame. [5] xyz{| mountain Note the clearer outline of a triangular mountain here. [3] [ ÌÍÎ 250 Remembering the Kanji 769 bungling Fingers . . . exit. [8] Ø 770 R 771 boulder Mountain . . . rock. [8] charcoal Mountain . . . ashes. [9] 0 772 c 773 branch off Mountains . . . branch. [7] mountain peak Mountain . . . above . . . below. [9] Œ 774 ÏÐÑ crumble Mountain . . . companion. [11] ¹ 775 secrecy House . . . invariably . . . mountain. [11] O ö÷ø lesson 24 251 776 honey House . . . invariably . . . insect. [14] P 777 storm Mountain . . . winds. [12] * 778 promontory Mountain . . . strange. Hint: you might save yourself the trouble of a story here simply by recalling the kanji for cape (frame 153) and toying around with the differing images suggested by the key words promontory and cape. [11] 2 779 enter This character is meant to be a picture of someone walking leftwards, putting one leg forward in order to enter someplace. Since the “in” side of a character is the left, it should be easy to remember the writing of this character. [2] × }‚ * As a primitive, the meaning of the key word is expanded to include: to go in, to put in, to come in, and the like. It generally appears atop its relative primitive, where, unlike the element for umbrella 3, the two strokes do not touch each other, making it virtually the same as the kanji for eight. When it appears in any other position, however, it retains its original form. 780 crowded Enter . . . road. [5] Á 252 Remembering the Kanji 781 part Go in . . . dagger. [4] _ 782 ùú ú 783 poverty Part . . . shells/money. [11] ™ 784 partition Part . . . head. [13] public Come in . . . elbows. Use the key word in its adjectival sense, not as a noun.[4] N 785 Ç 786 pine tree Tree . . . public. [8] venerable old man Public . . . feathers. [10] ø 787 â 788 sue Words . . . public. [11] valley Go in . . . an umbrella . . . a mouth. Because of space restrictions, the element for go in is shortened in this character. If you stand ú lesson 24 on your head and look at this kanji, the image of a valley stands out more clearly: the mouth of the river whose water µows down at the intersection of the two mountains, with the ³nal two strokes adding the element of perspective. Now get back on your feet again and see if the image still remains clear. If not, then return to the primitives and make a story in the usual way. [7] 253 ÒÓÔ 789 bathe Water . . . valley. [10] ô 790 contain This character depicts a house so large that it can contain an entire valley. [10] Ù 791 melt Water . . . contain. [13] â 792 longing Valley . . . yawn. Be sure to keep the key word distinct from pining (frame 633). [11] ò 793 abundant This character shows the typical cloak of valley folk, which, unlike the tailor-made, high-fashion overcoats of city folk, is loose-³tting and free-form. Hence the key word’s meaning of abundant. [12] È 254 Remembering the Kanji * gully As an abbreviation of the kanji for a valley, this primitive gets its meaning as a small valley or gully. [5] r 794 ƒ„ lead (metal) Metal . . . gully. [13] ç 795 run alongside Water . . . gully. The key word is meant to refer to things like rivers and railway tracks that run alongside something else. [8] Û Lesson 25 The following group of kanji revolve about primitive elements having to do with human beings. We shall have more to add to this set of primitives before we are through, but even the few we bring in here will enable us to learn quite a few new characters. We begin with another “roof” primitive. * outhouse The combination of the element for little, the basic “roof” structure here (in which the chimney was overwritten, as it was in the element for vulture), combined with the “window” (mouth) below, gives this element its meaning of outhouse. Although the window is not an essential part of an outhouse, I s lesson 25 think you will agree that its inclusion is a boon to the imagination, greatly simplifying the learning of the characters in which it appears. [8] 255 …†‡ 796 ç 797 prize Outhouse . . . shell³sh. [15] party Think of this key word as referring to a political party, not a gala affair. Its elements: human legs . . . sticking out of an outhouse window. [10] J 798 public chamber Outhouse . . . land. [11] } 799 ø 800 usual Outhouse . . . towel. [11] á 801 skirt The key word refers to an ancient skirt once used as part of a woman’s costume. The primitives you have to work with are: outhouse . . . garment.[14] Á manipulate Outhouse . . . hand. [12] 256 Remembering the Kanji 802 µ pelt The simplest way to remember this character is to see it as built up from that for branch. The ³rst stroke can then stand for something “hanging” down from the branch, namely its bark or pelt. The barb at the end of the second stroke is the only other change. Merely by concentrating on this as you write the following small cluster of characters should be enough to ³x the form in your mind. By way of exception, you might doodle around with the kanji’s form to see what you can come up with. [5] ˆ‰Š‹Œ 803 # 804 waves Water’s . . . pelt. [8] ( 805 old woman Waves . . . woman. [11] ° 806 expose Fingers . . . pelt. [8] & 807 rend Rock . . . pelt. [10] ¼ incur Garment . . . pelt. [10] ‘’ lesson 25 257 * bone This character is meant to be a pictograph of a bone attached to a piece of µesh (or vice versa.) The ³rst stroke serves to keep it distinct from the character for evening (frame 109). [4] c 808 “”•– remainder Bones . . . (parade) µoat. [10] m 809 { 810 martyrdom Bones . . . decameron. [10] % 811 particularly Bones . . . vermilion. [10] augment Bones . . . straightaway. [12] 1 812 ³le Bones . . . saber. The sense of the key word is of people or things lined up in a row. [6] – 813 split File . . . garment. [12] ™ 258 Remembering the Kanji 814 ardent File . . . oven ³re. [10] ˜ 815 death Bones . . . spoon. Note how the ³rst stroke is extended to the right, forming a sort of “roof” overhead. [6] ‘ 816 interment Flowers . . . death . . . two hands. Compare bury (frame 179).[12] w * sunglasses These two elements are actually the full form whose abbreviation we learned as the character for measuring box in frame 42. To the left, we see the familiar shape of evening, and to the right a completely new shape. The meaning we have assigned, sunglasses, is entirely arbitrary. [7] # —˜™šH›œ 817 s 818 wink Eye . . . birdhouse . . . sunglasses. [18] ear The pictograph for the ear looks much like that for eye, but note how the stroke order gives it a different look. [6] ¿ ÕÖ×ØÙÚ lesson 25 259 819 take Ear . . . crotch. [8] þ 820 + 821 gist Run . . . take. [15] utmost Sun . . . take. [12] è 822 snapshot Finger . . . utmost. This character is used for taking photographs. Not how, conveniently, the element for “take” is hidden in it. [15] K 823 shame Ear . . . heart. It is most rare to have the heart at the right, rather than at the bottom. Take advantage of this fact when you compose your story. [10] I 824 post The key word refers to one’s occupation, or position of employment. Its elements: ear . . . kazoo. [18] 4 825 holy Ear . . . mouth . . . king. [13] ¸ 260 Remembering the Kanji 826 # 827 daring Spike . . . ear . . . taskmaster. [12] listen Ear . . . needle . . . eye . . . heart. Compare frame 400 for this and the following kanji, and then again when you get to frame 885. [17] ‹ 828 pocket State of mind . . . needle . . . eyes . . . garment. [16] v * mandala Sun . . . eye . . . crotch. [11] R 829 Ÿ¡¢ ridicule State of mind . . . mandala. [14] E 830 loose Water . . . mandala. [14] G 831 C buy Eye . . . shell³sh. [12] lesson 25 261 832 placement Eye . . . straightaway. [13] N 833 r 834 penalty Eye . . . words . . . saber. [14] rather House . . . heart . . . eye . . . spike. [14] â 835 voiced The key word for this kanji connotes the “muddying” effect on a soft consonant brought about by vibrating the vocal chords. For example, in English a “j” is voiced while a “sh” is unvoiced. In Japanese, the ^ is changed to _ when it is voiced. The primitives are: water . . .eye . . . bound up . . . insect. [16] ê 836 0 837 ring Jewel . . . eye . . . ceiling . . . mouth . . . scarf. The number of elements is large here, so take extra care with this kanji. It is best to learn it in conjunction with the following frame, since these are the only two cases in this book where the combination of elements to the right appears. [17] B 838 send back Road . . . eye . . . ceiling . . . mouth . . . scarf. [16] husband The kanji for a husband or “head of the family” is based on the kanji for large and an extra line near the top for the “head.” Do & 262 not confuse with heavens (frame 428). [4] Remembering the Kanji £¤¥¦ 839 aid Fingers . . . husband. [7] 0 840 mountain stream Water . . . vulture . . . husband. [11] • 841 y 842 standard Husband . . . see. [11] exchange Two husbands . . . day. [12] É 843 approve Two husbands . . . shells. [15] h 844 submerge Water . . . exchange.[15] õ 845 lose ”To lose” here takes the sense of “misplace,” not the sense of defeat, whose kanji we learned in frame 63. It pictures a husband with something falling from his side as he is walking along, something he loses. [5] Ï lesson 25 263 §¨ * As a primitive, this character can also mean to drop. 846 iron Metal . . . to drop. [13] ÷ 847 alternate To drop . . . road. [8] ö 848 retainer This kanji is actually a pictograph for an eye, distorted to make it appear that the pupil is protruding towards the right. This may not be an easy form to remember, but try this: Draw it once rather large, and notice how moving the two vertical lines on the right as far right as possible gives you the pictograph of the eye in its natural form. The “pop-eye” image belongs to an Emperor’s retainer standing in awe before his ruler. [7] S ©ª«¬−°± * As a primitive, the meaning of the key word becomes slave. 849 Ü 850 princess Woman . . . slave. [10] storehouse Flowers . . . parade . . . slaves. [15] ‰ ûüý 264 Remembering the Kanji 851 entrails Part of the body . . . storehouse. [19] ˆ 852 þÿ intelligent Slave . . . crotch . . . shell³sh. [16] Ú 853 strict Slave . . . crotch . . . soil. [12] Ç 854 look to Slave . . . reclining . . . goods. The key word suggests both looking ahead to something and “seeing to” what is at hand. Consistent with everything we have learned about the role of the key word, this means that you must choose one meaning and stick to it. [18] r 855 perusal Slaves . . . reclining . . . µoor . . . see. [17] 1 856 Ë gigantic This kanji depicts a gigantic “pop-eye,” which accounts for its shape. Be sure not to confuse it with the slave (retainer) we just learned.[5] !#$%& lesson 25 265 857 Ì 858 repel Fingers . . . gigantic. [8] power With a little imagination, one can see a muscle in this simple, two-stroke character meaning power. [2] j ²³ * As a primitive, either muscle or power can be used. 859 male Rice ³elds . . . power. [7] C 860 labor Schoolhouse . . . power. [7] ± 861 recruit Graveyard . . . power. [12] ¥ 862 inferiority Few . . . muscles. [6] — 863 achievement Craft . . . power. [5] O 266 Remembering the Kanji 864 persuade Pegasus . . . power. [13] ð 865 toil Guy . . . muscle. [7]  866 encourage Cliff . . . ten thousand . . . power. [7] „ 867 add Muscles . . . mouth. This is the only case in which the primitive for muscle appears on the left; note should be taken of the fact in composing one’s story. [5] ; 868 congratulations Add . . . shells. [12] g 869 erect Add . . . trees. Hint: if you ever played with an “Erector Set” or “Tinker Toys” as a child, don’t pass up the opportunity to relate it to this kanji’s key word and the element for trees. [9] G 870 armpit Part of the body . . . muscles (three of which give us “triceps” or “muscles on top of muscles”). You will want to keep the kanji distinct from the one that follows by paying attention to the positioning of the elements. [10] Í lesson 25 267 871 õ 872 threaten Triceps . . . meat. [10] á 873 coThis pre³x should be kept distinct from inter- (frame 209) and mutual (frame 757). Its elements: needle . . . triceps. [8] going By joining the top four strokes, you should get a picture of the front current of a river, the stream trailing behind. Hence the character for going. [6] ‘ ´µ·¸¹º * As a primitive, this character has two forms. Reduced to the left side only, ‹ it can mean a column going, or a line of something or other. When the middle is opened up to make room for other elements, it means a boulevard. 874 rhythm This character depicts a calligrapher’s brush and its rhythmic sway as it µows down a column writing kanji on the way. [9] A 875 restore Going . . . double back. [12] P 876 gain Column . . . nightbreak . . . glue. [11] “ 268 Remembering the Kanji 877 Z 878 accompany Column . . . animal horns . . . mending. [10] junior Line . . . run. [10] 6 879 wait Line . . . Buddhist temple. [9] Å 880 journey Column . . . candlestick. This character has the special sense of journeying to someplace or other. [8] ð 881 subjugate Column . . . correct. [8] ¦ 882 diameter Line . . . spool. [8] ‡ 883 ª 884 he Going . . . pelt. This kanji refers to the third person singular personal pronoun, generally in its masculine form. [8] duty Going . . . missile. [7] ¤ lesson 25 269 885 benevolence Going . . . needle . . . eye . . . heart. See the note in frame 827. [14] ” 886 penetrate Line . . . bring up . . . taskmaster. [15] ó 887 indications Line . . . mountain . . . king . . . taskmaster. [14] ‚ 888 »¼½¾ penal Indications . . . heart. [18] ƒ 889 Æ 890 delicate Line . . . mountain . . . ceiling . . . human legs . . . taskmaster. [13] boulevard This is the character from which the sense of boulevard mentioned in frame 873 derives. Its elements: boulevard . . ivy. [12] š 891 equilibrium Boulevard . . . bound up . . . brains . . . St. Bernard dog. [16] ’ ¿ÀÁÂà Lesson 26 We return once again to the world of plants and growing things, not yet to complete our collection of those primitives, but to focus on three elements that are among the most commonly found throughout the kanji. Now and again, you will no doubt have observed, cross-reference is made to other kanji with similar key words. This can help avoid confusion if you check your earlier story and the connotation of its respective key word before proceeding with the kanji at hand. While it is impossible to know in advance which key words will cause confusion for which readers, I will continue to point out some of the likely problem cases. * wheat This primitive element will be made to stand for wheat. It connotes a special grain, more expensive than ordinary rice and so reserved for special occasions. Alternatively, it can mean cereal. Its form is like that for tree, except for the dot at the top to represent a spike of wheat blowing in the wind. [5] M ÄÅÆÇÈ 892 draft The key word connotes the preliminary composition of a plan or manuscript. Its elements: wheat . . . tall. [15] { 893 earnings Wheat . . . house. [15] N 894 extent Wheat . . . display . Do not confuse with extremity (frame 217) or boundary (frame 484). [12] Ý lesson 26 271 895 tax Wheat . . . devil. [12] Ä 896 immature Wheat . . . turkey. [13] M 897 harmony Wheat . . . mouth. [8] É 898 shift Wheat . . . many. [11] c 899 î 900 second The reference here is to a second of time. The elements: wheat . . . few. [9] E 901 autumn Wheat . . . ³re. [9] A 902 distress Autumn . . . heart. [13] private Wheat . . . elbow. Like the characters for I (frame 17) and ego (frame 640), this kanji is also representative of the subject, with the special connotation of privacy. [7] • 272 Remembering the Kanji 903 regularity Wheat . . . drop. [10] Y 904 ¸ 905 secret Cereal . . . invariably. [10] × 906 appellation Wheat . . . reclining . . . little. [10] pro³t Wheat . . . saber. Be careful not to confuse with gain (frame 876) or earnings (frame 893). [7] 2 907 pear tree Pro³t . . . tree. [11] 6 908 harvest Wheat . . . µowers . . . vessels. Compare frames 700 and 701 for the right side. [18] µ 909 ear of a plant Wheat . . . favor. [15] ¤ 910 rice plant Wheat . . . vulture . . . olden times. [14] w lesson 26 273 911 incense Wheat . . . sun. [9] ¡ 912 u 913 seasons Wheat . . . child. [8] committee Wheat . . . woman. [8] W 914  915 excel Wheat . . . ³st. [7] transparent Excel . . . road-way. [10] t 916 entice Words . . . excel. Compare beckon (frame 650), to urge (frame 282), seduce (frame 86), and encourage (frame 866) when choosing your connotation. [14] É 917 cereals Samurai . . . crown . . . wheat . . . missile. [14] ´ 918 germ Flowers . . . pent in . . . wheat. [11] ? 274 Remembering the Kanji 919 rice This kanji has a pictographic resemblance to a number of grains of rice lying on a plate in the shape of a star. [6] y ÉÊËÌÍÎ * As a primitive, it keeps its meaning of rice, and is meant to connote a very ordinary, commonplace grain, in contrast to the primitive for wheat that we just learned. (This meaning accords well with Japan, where the output of rice far exceeds that of wheat.) It occasionally takes the shape j when it stands on its own, or is joined to a line above. In this case, we shall have it refer speci³cally to grains of rice. This primitive is not to be confused with the similar-looking primitive for water. While the stroke orders are nearly alike, grains of rice has 5 strokes, while water only has 4 because it joins the second and third strokes into one. Finally, we may note that by itself the kanji for rice is an abbreviation used for the United States, which can then also serve as an alternate reading for the main primitive form, if you so wish. 920 µour Rice . . . part. [10] g 921 sticky Rice . . . fortune-telling. [11] ë 922 grains Rice . . . vase. [11] M lesson 26 275 923 Ú 924 cosmetics Rice . . . cave . . . soil. [12] astray Road . . . U.S.A. [9] i 925 chic Rice . . . game of cricket. (See frame 166.) [10] y 926 provisions Rice . . . quantity. [18] c 927 › 928 chrysanthemum Flower . . . bound up . . . rice. [11] core A drop . . . pent in . . . rice . . . St. Bernard dog. Notice that the horizontal line of the bottom primitive doubles up as the ³nal stroke for pent in. [12] ï 929 number Rice . . . woman . . . taskmaster. [13] ‰ 930 watchtower Tree . . . rice . . . woman. [13] · 276 Remembering the Kanji 931 sort Rice . . . St. Bernard dog . . . head. [18] { 932 lacquer Water . . . tree . . . umbrella . . . grains of rice. [14] Ô 933 Esq. The abbreviation Esq. will help associate this character with the honori³c form of address to which it belongs. Its elements are: tree . . .sheep . . . grains of rice. Note that the ³nal vertical stroke in the element for sheep is extended to form the ³rst stroke for grains of rice. [14] à ÏÐÑ 934 request Let the drop in the upper right-hand corner of this character close the right angle off to make an arrowhead. Whenever we ³nd the needle with that drop in an element that has no other special meaning, we will take advantage of this primitive meaning. At the bottom, we see the grains of rice, the vertical line doubling up for the two elements. Do not confuse with petition (frame 135). [7] ¼ 935 ball Ball . . . request. [11] À 936 salvation Request . . . taskmaster. [11] º lesson 26 277 937 bamboo Bamboo grows upwards, like a straight nail, and at each stage of its growth (which legend associates with the arrival of the new moon) there is a jointed rootstock (the ³rst stroke). Two such bamboo stalks are pictured here. [6] U ÒÓÔÕÖ× * As a primitive, the meaning remains the same, but the vertical lines are severely abbreviated so that they can take their place at the top where, like µowers, they are always to be found. 938 laugh Bamboo . . . heavens. [10] Ù 939 bamboo hat Bamboo . . . vase. [11] Å 940 bamboo grass Bamboo . . . generation. [11] E 941 muscle Bamboo . . . part of the body . . . power. Here we see how the primitive meaning of muscle was derived from the kanji for power. [12] : 942 a box Bamboo . . . inter-. [15] 278 Remembering the Kanji 943 Ù 944 writing brush Bamboo . . . brush. [12] cylinder Bamboo . . . monk. [12] h 945 etc. Bamboo . . . Buddhist temple. [12] f 946 calculate Bamboo . . . eyes . . . two hands. [14] d 947 solution Bamboo . . . ³t. [12] g 948 scheme Bamboo . . . belted tree (see frame 417). [12] @ 949 register Bamboo . . . water . . . acupuncturist. [19] « 950 fabricate Bamboo . . . craft . . . mediocre . . . wood/tree. [16] S Lesson 27 This lesson will take us beyond the halfway mark. From there on, it will all be downhill. The ³nal uphill push will involve what appears to be the simplest of primitive elements. It was withheld until now because of the dif³culty it would have caused earlier on. 951 person While the character for enter (frame 779) showed someone walking inwards (in terms of the direction of writing), the one for person, shown here, represents someone walking outwards. [2] ^ ØÙ * As a primitive, it can keep its kanji form except when it appears to the left (its normal position), where it is made to stand up in the form l. The primitive meaning is another matter. The abstract notion of person so often has a relation to the meaning of the kanji that confusion readily sets in. So many of the previous stories have included people in them that simply to use person for a primitive meaning would be risky. We need to be more speci³c, to focus on one particular person. Try to choose someone who has not ³gured in the stories so far, perhaps a colorful member of the family or a friend whom you have known for a long time. That individual will appear again and again, so be sure to choose someone who excites your imagination. 952 assistant Person . . . left. [7] Õ 953 however Person . . . nightbreak. [7] ñ 280 Remembering the Kanji 954 W 955 dwell Person . . . candlestick. [7] rank Person . . . vase. [7] R 956 go-between Person . . . in. [6] ` 957 body Person . . . book. [7] ¿ 958 remote Person . . . walking stick . . . taskmaster . . . heart. [11] ½ 959 affair Person . . . cow. [6] ¾ 960 attend Person . . . samurai. The key word means to wait on someone or serve them. [5] n 961 other Person . . . scorpion. [5] ¬ lesson 27 281 962 prostrated Person . . . chihuahua. [6] N 963 transmit Person . . . rising cloud. Hint: the Amerindians’ smoke signals can help provide a good image for this kanji, whose key word is meant to include transmissions of all sorts. [6] ) 964 Buddha Person . . . elbow. [4] [ 965 ³ 966 rest Person . . . tree. Be sure not to confuse with relax (frame 190).[6] provisional Person . . . anti-. [6] 6 967 L 968 chief Person . . . white dove. [7] vulgar Person . . . valley. The key word should be taken in its older sense of “popular” or “commonplace.” [9] š 282 Remembering the Kanji 969 faith Person . . . words. [9] = 970 excellent Person . . . ivy. To distinguish from excel (frame 914), eminent (frame 51), esteem (frame 184), and exquisite (frame 123), give the key word its own unique connotation. [8] : 971 reliant Person . . . garment. [8] S 972 example Person . . . ³le. [8] ‚ 973 individual Person . . . harden. [10] ñ 974 healthy Person . . . build. [11] Á 975 ÚÛÜ side Person . . . rule. See frame 88 for help. [11] ‘ lesson 27 283 976 waiter Person . . . Buddhist temple. The key word is deceptively modern, but the character itself is another way of writing “samurai.” Be careful not to confuse with the kanji for attend (frame 960).[8] ¬ 977 halt Person . . . pavilion. [11] É 978 price Person . . . straightaway. [10] E 979 emulate Person . . . set free. [10] − 980 overthrow Person . . . arrival. [10] I 981 spy Person . . . eminent. [11] Ê 982 Buddhist priest Person . . . increase. [13] R 983 hundred million Person . . . idea. [15] $ 284 Remembering the Kanji 984 ˆ 985 ceremony Person . . . righteousness. [15] ¦ 986 reparation Person . . . prize. [17] hermit Person . . . mountain. [5] ä 987 sponsor Hermit . . . turkey. Note what has happened to the mountain in the element for hermit. In order to make room for the turkey, it was raised and condensed. [13] æ 988 humanity To refer to the fullness of humanity that can only be achieved in dialogue with another (person . . . two), Confucius used this character. [4] _ 989 scorn Every . . . person. [8] B 990 use Person . . . of³cer. [8] q lesson 27 285 991 convenience Person . . grow late. Hint: this kanji also means that unmentionable material that one disposes of when one goes to the “conveniences.”[9] “ 992 : 993 double Person . . . muzzle. Do not confuse with the kanji for duplicate (frame 465). [10] tenderness Person . . melancholy. [17] ¸ 994 q fell Person . . . ³esta. Hint: recall the German legend of the English missionary, Saint Boniface, who felled the sacred oak tree dedicated to Thor at Geismar (in lower Hessia), occasioning a great ³esta for the Christians in the neighborhood to mark the defeat of their pagan competition. Be sure to ³t your special person into the story if you use it. [6] 995 f 996 inn House . . . person . . . hundred. [11] ¥ 997 wound Person . . . reclining . . . piggy bank. [13] protect Person . . . mouth . . . tree. [9] ˜ 286 Remembering the Kanji 998 praise Top hat and scarf . . . protect. [15] Ê 999 greatness Person . . . sunglasses . . . tree. [13] ´ 1000 adhere Person . . . glue. The few cases in which this character serves as a primitive should include some connotation of “adhering to” that distinguishes it from “glued to.” Two examples follow. [5] $ 1001 token Bamboo . . . adhere. [11] 6 1002 municipality Cave . . . adhere. [8] , 1003 responsibility Person . . . porter. [6] Û 1004 fare Responsibility . . . shells/money. [13] ¤ 1005 substitute Person . . . arrow. [5] Ö lesson 27 287 1006 sack Substitute . . . garment. [11] Ï 1007 lend Substitute . . . shells/money. [12] Ð 1008 change Person . . . spoon. [4] 5 1009 µower Flower . . . change. [7] P 1010 freight Change . . . shells. [11] Y 1011 lean Change . . . head. The key word has the sense of leaning on or toward someone or something. [13] z 1012 what Person . . . can. [7] 7 1013 baggage Flowers . . . what. [10] S 288 Remembering the Kanji 1014 p 1015 sagacious Person . . . license . . . walking legs. [9] bystander Person . . . stand . . . crown . . . compass. [12] Ô 1016 ± 1017 long time This character uses the diagonal sweep of the second stroke to double up for bound up and a person. Think of a mummy, and the key word will not be far behind. [3] ÝÞß furrow Think of the three kinds of furrows shown here in this character—a top hat’s rim, a rice ³eld’s ridges, and the wrinkles that show you’ve been around a long time. [10] Ÿ 1018 8 1019 captured Person . . . pent in. [5] inside Person . . belt. Note that we cannot use the primitive meaning of hood here because the person runs through the element, not under it. [4] » àá lesson 27 289 1020 third class Those no-frills µights the airlines offer to attract customers should help create an image from ceiling . . . person . . . belt. The kanji meaning “inside” should not be used because of its proximity to the element for “in.” [5] m 1021 design Tree . . . third class. [9] t 1022 meat Let this doubling of one of the elements for “inside” yield the sense of “insides” to approach the key word, meat. The abbreviated form of this character gave us the primitive meaning of µesh or part of the body for the kanji ½. [6] Ò 1023 rot Borough . . . meat. [14] 7 * assembly line The duplication of the kanji for person gives us this primitive for assembly line. Perhaps you can imagine clones of your chosen person rolling off an assembly line in a factory. [4] @ 1024 sit Cave . . . assembly line . . . soil. [10] ã 1025 graduate Top hat . . . assembly line . . . needle. [8] ¢ 290 Remembering the Kanji 1026 umbrella Umbrella . . . two assembly lines . . . needle. [12] Y Lesson 28 In this lesson we pick up a group of unconnected characters and elements that have fallen between the cracks of the previous lessons, mainly because of the rarity of the characters themselves, of their primitive elements, or of the way in which they are written. In a later lesson, near the end of the book, we will do this once again. 1027 monme This character obliges us once again to make use of a Japanese key word for want of an English equivalent. It refers to an old unit of weight, equal to about 3.75 grams. The word is only slightly more useful in modern Japanese than cubits and kites are in modern English. Its primitives, if you look closely, are: bound up . . . arm. [4] — âãä * plow Take this as a pictograph of a plow. [2] t GŸ lesson 28 291 1028 by means of Picture a person dragging a plow behind, and the drop of sweat which falls from his brow as he does his work. Think of him (or her, for that matter) making a living “by means of the sweat of their brows.” [5] P 1029 similar Be sure to keep this key word distinct from likeness (frame 100). Its elements: person . . . by means of. [7] « * puzzle Think of this element as a picture puzzle in which the pieces interlock. Its elements: horns . . . two hands. [6] W 1030 åæçè join The sense of the key word is one of joining things together that were previously separate. Its elements: person . . . puzzle. [8] n 1031 tile Ceiling . . . walking stick . . . ³shhook . . . ice. Note how the last stroke of the ³nal element, ice, is stretched out to close the bottom of the tile. [5] é 1032 /0123 µower pot Puzzle . . . tile. [11] ! 292 Remembering the Kanji 1033 · 1034 Shinto shrine Way back in Lesson 2 we learned the character for spine. The three characters in which it is used we can now learn together in this and the following frame. Here a Shinto shrine is composed of house and spine. [10] occupation Schoolhouse . . . spine. [12] · 1035 virtuous Sheep . . . horns . . . mouth. Pay special attention to the writing of this character. [12] 3 1036 4567 year In an odd fashion, the kanji for year joins together the element for horse, on the top, and the right half of the element for sunglasses. Think of it as a horse wearing sunglasses with one of the lenses popped out. We will use this latter image again, so learn it now and save yourself the trouble later. [6] æ 89:,;= 1037 night First of all, be sure not to confuse the connotations of night with those of evening (frame 109) and nightbreak (frame 30). Its elements: top hat . . person . . .walking legs . . . drop. [8] š ?@AB lesson 28 293 1038 µuid Water . . . night. [11] È 1039 hillock Soil . . . crown . . . sow. Compare frame 543. [12] ± * shredder The element on the left looks like rice with a belt running through it, but we would do best to think of it in terms of its writing order: little . . . belt . . . little. On the right, of course, the taskmaster. [12] u éêëì 1040 cash Shredder . . . towel. [15] q 1041 abuse Shredder . . . two hands. [15] s 1042 yell The mouth on the left is obvious. The rest is harder. Try this: four St. Bernard dogs bound up in a bunch. Together they should supply a clear enough portrait of a yell, provided you are careful to see all four of them. Note how the ³nal stroke of the four is supplied by the long horizontal stroke of the St. Bernard. [12] ò 294 Remembering the Kanji 1043 ! 1044 interchange Fingers . . . four St. Bernard dogs bound up. [12] dissolve Ceiling . . . mouth . . . hood . . . human legs . . . spike . . . insect. This is the maximum number of elements to any story in the book. [16] Î ¨©ª«íî Lesson 29 We come now to a rather simple group of primitives, built up from the three elements that represent banners, knots, and µags. * banner Here we have a unique enclosure made up of two elements: compass and reclining. Think of the banner as a standard for rallying around; then imagine a crowd reclining before a compass (presumably to give them a “direction” in life). [6] v ïð 1045 alms Banner . . . scorpion. [9] ‰ lesson 29 295 1046 rotation A banner . . . a zoo. Hint: think of a merry-go-round. [11] ø 1047 play Banners . . . children . . . road. [12] Ê 1048 trip Let the last 4 strokes, which are also the concluding strokes to the character for garment, represent a rag as its primitive meaning. We shall meet this only on one other occasion. This gives us as our elements: banner . . . person . . . rag. [10] S CDEFG 1049 not First take the primitive meaning of this character: knot. Think of it as the piglet minus its body (the horizontal stroke), that is, the curly tail that looks like a knot. As an exception, we will use the homonym to remember the abstract key word, not. [4] ‰ HIJK 1050 thing Cow . . . knot. [8] 1051 easy Sun . . . knot. [8] ^ 296 Remembering the Kanji 1052 grant Shells . . . easy. [15] ¦ * µag The pictographic representation of this element is obvious. Provided you can hold your imagination in check for the ³rst example, you might best imagine your own national µag in composing your stories. [3] Ô ñòó 1053 urine Flag . . . water. [7] Ù 1054 nun Flag . . . spoon. [5] Í 1055 mud Water . . . nun. [8] è 1056 fence Soil . . . µag . . . puzzle. [12] p 1057 footgear Flag . . . restore. [15] 4 lesson 29 297 1058 roof Flag . . . climax. Since this kanji has no relation to the primitive for roof, we cannot use it as a primitive in the next frame. [9] % 1059 grip Fingers . . . µag . . . climax. [12] 2 1060 yield Flag . . . exit. [8] a 1061 dig Fingers . . . yield. [11] b 1062 ditch Soil . . . yield. [11] ø 1063 Ê 1064 reside Flag . . . old. Do not confuse with dwell (frame 954). [8] set Fingers . . . reside. [11] ‘ 1065 stratum Flag . . . increase. [14] 298 Remembering the Kanji 1066 bureau Flag . . . phrase. Note how the µag’s long stroke doubles up for the ³rst stroke of phrase. [7] & 1067 slow Flag . . . sheep . . . road. [12] Q 1068 leak Water . . . µag . . . rain. [14] º 1069 printing Flag . . . towel . . . saber. [8] H 1070 shaku The key word shaku has actually come into English in the word shakuhachi, the ancient Japanese µute that measured “one shaku and eight sun” (the “sun” being about an inch in length). Since the shaku is about one foot in length, this makes about 20 inches. Let the ³nal sweeping stroke be like a tape measure added to the µag. [4] ñ ýþ * As a primitive, this will mean the shakuhachi µute. 1071 exhaust Shakuhachi . . . ice. [6] e lesson 29 299 1072 swamp Water . . . shakuhachi. [7] å 1073 translate Words . . . shakuhachi. [11] § 1074 choose Fingers . . . shakuhachi. [7] ã 1075 daytime Shakuhachi . . . nightbreak. [9] d 1076 door One . . . µag. [4] ú 1077 shoulder Door . . . µesh. [8] × 1078 tassel Door . . . compass. [8] Û 1079 fan Door . . . wings. [10] í 300 Remembering the Kanji 1080 hearth Heart ³re . . . door. [8] « 1081 reThe key word signals a “coming back” or return to some place or activity. Its elements: door . . . St. Bernard dog. [7] Œ 1082 tears Water . . . re-. Do not confuse with cry (frame 432). [10] y 1083 employ Door . . . turkey. Be sure to keep distinct from both employee (frame 56) and use (frame 990). [12] / 1084 look back Employ . . . head. [21] 0 1085 disclose Door . . . taskmaster . . . mouth. [11] } Lesson 30 In this lesson we pick up a series of primitives related pictographically to one another and based on the image of a seed. But ³rst we include a stray element that does not really ³t into any of our other categories but is very useful in lesson 30 301 forming some common and elementary kanji (in fact, 18 of them already at this point), namely, the altar. 1086 show Although the elements two and little are available for the using, it may be easier to remember this character as a picture of an altar. Something placed atop the altar is put on show for all to see. [5] * As a primitive, this kanji means altar. At the left, the abbreviated form that this element takes is made by chopping the altar in half and leaving only one dot behind to represent the right side. The new appearance of this primitive form, Q, should be kept distinct from that for cloak, 7, identical except for the one ³nal short stroke. ½ 1087 salutation This key word refers to the polite bows and ceremonious forms of salutation so important in Japanese culture. Its elements: altar . . . ³shhook. [5] ˆ 1088 Ö 1089 auspicious Altar . . . sheep. [10] h 1090 celebrate Altar . . . teenager. [9] blessing Altar . . . wealth. [13] S 302 Remembering the Kanji 1091 welfare Altar . . . footprint. [8] ” 1092 company Altar . . . soil. The company referred to here is that of the modern business world. [7] ç 1093 inspection Altar . . . see. [11] œ 1094 Nara We choose the city of Nara as the key word in this case because this kanji, frequently used in proper names, appears in Nara; and also because of Nara’s famed religious monuments, which help us with the primitives: St. Bernard dog . . . altar. [8] ¹ 1095 military of³cer Flag . . . altar . . . glue. [11] Y 1096 consolation Military of³cer . . . heart. [15] 1097 ( goodwill Samurai . . . altar . . . yawning. [12] lesson 30 303 1098 prohibition Grove . . . altar. [13] 8 1099 collar Cloak . . . prohibition. [18] A 1100 ; 1101 religion House . . . altar. [8] adore Mountain . . . religion. [11] ‡ 1102 ritual Flesh . . . crotch . . . altar. Note how the second element is cut short, giving a tent-like effect to the character. [11] ø 1103 guess “Guess” here has the sense of a measured conjecture. Its elements: house . . . ritual. [14] I 1104 grate Fingers . . . guess. [17] L 1105 wherefore The “wherefore” of this kanji explains the reason or origin of a thing. It does this graphically by depicting a seed in a rice ³eld Æ 304 Remembering the Kanji sending up a single sprout, which is the whole why and wherefore of the seed’s falling in the earth and dying. (When the µower appears, you will recall from frame 234, we have a full seedling.) [5] DE * As a primitive, in conformity to the explanation above, this kanji will be taken to mean shoot or sprout. 1106 pluck Fingers . . . sprout. [8] c 1107 oil Water . . . sprout. [8] ± 1108 sleeve Cloak . . . sprout. [10] £ 1109 mid-air House . . . shoot. [8] a 1110 deliver Flag . . . sprout. [8] ¥ 1111 µute Bamboo . . . sprout. [11] î lesson 30 305 1112 axis Car . . . shoot. [12] É 1113 armor This kanji reverses the element for sprout, giving the image of roots being sent down into the earth by a seed planted in the rice ³eld. From there you must invent a connection to the key word, armor. [5] x ôõ * The primitive meaning is roots. Important to that word is the image of “pushing downwards,” as roots do. 1114 push Fingers . . . roots. Compare and contrast with pluck (frame 1106). [8] ò 1115 headland Like the cape (frame 153) and the promontory (frame 778), the headland refers to a jut of land. Its elements: mountain . . . roots. [8] N 1116 insert Fingers . . . thousand . . . roots. Observe how the writing order does not follow the elements in order, because the ³nal stroke is used for two different elements. [10] c LMNO 306 Remembering the Kanji 1117 speaketh The olde English is used here to indicate a humble form of the third person singular of the verb “to speak.” It is written by a tongue wagging in the mouth with a walking stick rammed through it and coming out at both ends. [5] M ö÷ * While this kanji has obvious af³nities to the “seed” group, it also happens to be the zodiacal sign of the monkey (the one who speaketh no evil, among other things). We shall therefore take monkey as its primitive meaning. 1118 expand Person . . . monkey. [7] ; 1119 gods Altar . . . monkey. [9] P 1120 search Fingers . . . monkey . . . crotch. [10] a 1121 fruit The ³nal stage of the seed is reached when the plant has reached its full growth (the tree) and comes to fruition, producing fruit full of new seeds that can return to the earth and start the process all over again. The main thing to notice here is the element for brains at the top, which might prove more helpful than rice ³eld for creating an image. [8] F lesson 31 307 1122 candy Flowers . . . fruits. [11] U 1123 chapter Words . . . fruit. [15] W 1124 naked Cloak . . . fruit. [13] ú Lesson 31 By now you will have learned to handle a great number of very dif³cult kanji with perfect ease and without fear of forgetting. Some others, of course, will take review. But let us focus on the ones you are most con³dent about and can write most µuently, in order to add a remark about what role the stories, plots, and primitives should continue to play even after you have learned a character to your own satisfaction. This course has been designed to move in steps from the full-bodied story (Part one) to the skeletal plot (Part two) to the heap of bones we call primitive elements (Part three). This also happens roughly to be the way memory works. At ³rst the full story is necessary (as a rule, for every kanji, no matter how simple it appears), in that it enables you to focus your attention and your interest on the vivid images of the primitives, which in turn dictate how you write the character. Once the image has strutted through the full light of imagination, it will pass on, leaving its footprints on the interstices of the brain in some mysterious way. And those footprints are often enough of a clue about the nature of the beast to enable you to reconstruct the plot in broad outlines. Should you need to, you can nearly always follow the tracks back to their source and recall your whole story, but that is generally unnecessary. The third stage occurs when even the plot is unnecessary, and the key word by itself sug- 308 Remembering the Kanji gests a certain number of primitive meanings; or conversely, when seeing a kanji at once conjures up a speci³c key word. Here again, the plot is still within reach if needed, but not worth bothering with once it has ful³lled its task of providing the proper primitive elements. There is yet a fourth stage to be reached, as you have probably realized by now, but one you ought not trust until you have completed the full list of the kanji given here. In this stage, the primitive elements are suggested according to form without any immediate association to meaning. Quite early on, you will recall, we insisted that visual memory is to be discarded in favor of imaginative memory. It may now be clear just why that is so. But it should also be getting clear that visual memory deserves a suitable role of some sort or other, once it has a solid foundation. This is a process not to be rushed, however appealing its rewards in terms of writing µuency. Insofar as you have experienced these things in your own study, fears about the inadequacy of the key words should be greatly allayed. For in much the same way that the character slowly ³nds its way into the fabric of memory and muscular habits, the key word will gradually give way to a key concept distinct from the particular English word used to express it. Hence the substitution of a Japanese word—or even a number of words—will prove no stumbling block. Quite the contrary, it will help avoid confusion between key words with family resemblances. In short, the number of steps required to learn the Japanese writing system has not been increased by what we have been doing. It has simply become more pronounced than it is in traditional methods of drawing and redrawing the kanji hundreds of times until they are learned, and in that way the whole process has become much more ef³cient. Pausing to think about just what your mind has been doing through this book should make the ideas mentioned in the Introduction much more plausible now than they must have seemed way back then. But we must be on our way again, this time down a road marked “tools.” 1125 ax This character represents a picture of an ax, the two vertical lines being the handle and the horizontal strokes of the blade. Note the writing order carefully. [4] 4 øùúû lesson 31 309 1126 chop Tree . . . ax. [8] Ì 1127 ‹ 1128 place Door . . . ax. [8] t 1129 pray Altar . . . ax. [8] near Ax . . . road. Be careful not to confuse with draw near (frame 192) or bystander (frame 1015). [7] C 1130 fold Fingers . . . ax. Hint: make an image out of the Japanese art of “origami” (paper-folding). [7] Û 1131 philosophy Fold . . . mouth. [10] ò 1132 departed The connotation is of a “dearly departed” who has passed away. The elements: fold . . . road. [10] ¿ 1133 vow Fold . . . words. [14] ½ 310 Remembering the Kanji 1134 temporarily Car . . . ax . . . days. [15] l 1135 steadily Water . . . car . . . ax. [14] 4 1136 severance Fishhook . . . rice . . . ax. [11] ? 1137 substance Two axes . . . shells. [15] Ö 1138 reject Ax . . . a drop of. [5] Ê 1139 accusation Words . . . reject. [12] N * saw The saw in this primitive is distinguished from the primitive for ax by the extra “teeth” on the blade. [5] ¼ 1140 !#$%& yesterday Day . . . saw. [9] : lesson 31 311 1141 lie The lie in this character refers to falsehoods and ³bs. Its elements: words . . . saw. [12] ß 1142 make Person . . . saw. [7] 6 * broom The pictographic representation here is of the bristles on the head of a broom. [3] w 1143 üýþ snow Rain that undergoes a change so that it can be swept aside with a broom is snow. [11] à 1144 record Metal . . . broom . . . rice. Note how the ³nal stroke of the broom is extended slightly when an element below is attached directly to it. [16] Æ 1145 inquire Broom . . . craft . . . mouth . . . glue. [12] c 1146 ¹ hurry Bound up . . . broom . . . heart. [9] 312 Remembering the Kanji 1147 calm Wheat . . . vulture . . . broom . . . heart. [16] 2 1148 encroach Person . . . broom . . . crown . . . crotch. Gather the elements on the right into a composite image that can serve you in the next two frames. [9] ? 1149 immersed Water . . . broom . . . crown . . . crotch. [10] K 1150 lie down Do not confuse this key word with either the element for reclining or the character for prostrated (frame 962). Its primitive elements are: house . . . turtle . . . broom . . . crown . . . crotch. [13] B 1151 lady Woman . . . broom . . . apron. [11] ( 1152 sweep Fingers . . . broom . . . apron. [11] b 1153 hit Little . . . broom.[6] c lesson 31 313 * rake A single vertical stroke transforms broom into a rake. When an element comes above the rake, the vertical stroke is shortened, as we have seen before with other similar primitives such as sheep and cow. Moreover, when something comes above the rake and joins to it at the top, the vertical stroke begins at at the top horizontal stroke, as in the following two frames. [4] x þ()* 1154 contend Bound up . . . rake. [6] m 1155 þ 1156 clean Water . . . contend. [9] matter This key word here refers to abstract matters. The elements are: one . . . mouth . . . rake. Note how the rake handle reaches out the top and bottom of the character. [8] ª 1157 T’ang The key word here refers of course to the T’ang Dynasty in China (and not to the name of the drink astronauts take with them into outer space, though this could be useful for the next frame). Its elements: cave . . . rake . . . mouth. [10] N 1158 sugar Rice . . . T’ang. [16] i 314 Remembering the Kanji * sieve A rake and the grains of rice at the bottom give us a hint of winnowing, which relates clearly to the meaning of a sieve. [8] z 1159 +, sane Cave . . . sieve. [11] d 1160 apprehend Think of apprehending criminals. The elements are: sieve . . . road. [11] Ò * mop The only thing distinguiinges a mop from a rake is the bent handle that does not cut through the top horizontal stroke. It depicts the swish-swash motion of a mop. [4] Õ 1161 PQRS Italy Used chieµy in proper names, and given the sound “i,” this kanji can be remembered as an abbreviation of Italy, for which it is still used today in Japan. Its primitives: person . . . mop. [6] Q 1162 old boy The somewhat highbrow British term of address is chosen here to represent the kanji for a form of address used towards one’s juniors. It is composed of: mop . . . mouth. [7] p lesson 31 315 1163 µock Old boys . . . sheep. [13] s * comb The pictograph of a comb is clearly visible in this primitive element. [6] ¾ 1164 /01234 -proof The key word is a suf³x used to indicate “safe from” or “protected against,” as in the words rustproof, waterproof, and ³reproof. It is composed of: comb . . . glue. [9]  1165 7 1166 demand The sense of demand is best captured by thinking of the economic principle of “supply and demand.” The primitives: rain . . . comb. [14] 0 1167 Confucian Person . . . demand. [16] edge Vase . . . mountain . . . comb. [14] 2 * shovel This enclosure—which embraces its relative primitive from the bottom—is a pictograph of the scoop of a shovel. When room Ô 316 Remembering the Kanji permits, the arms are extended upwards to nearly the same height as the relative element it holds. [2] 56 1168 both Spike . . . belt . . . shovel. Note that the writing order follows the order in which the primitives are given here. [6] X 1169 full Water . . . µowers . . . both. Given the abstract nature of this last primitive, you may want to borrow the image from the previous frame. [12] F 1170 brush-stroke In forming an image for the key word, it is helpful to know that this kanji is used for artistic representations such as completed paintings, as well as for the number of brush-strokes in a character (as, for instance, in Indexes ii and iii at the end of this book). Its elements are: ceiling . . . sprout . . . shovel. [8] c OP789 1171 tooth Footprint . . . rice . . . shovel. [12] © 1172 bend Picture yourself grabbing hold of the two strokes poking out the top of the kanji and wrenching them apart, thus giving the sense of bend. If you think of them as deriving from the element for brains beneath (of course, the middle stroke has been reduplicated and pulled out to where it can be grabbed hold ( lesson 31 of), you can associate the key word with bending someone’s mind to your own point of view. [6] 317 1173 cadet This character is written in the order of its elements: one . . . bend . . . sun. [11] g 1174 encounter Cadet . . . road. [14] } 1175 rowing Water . . . cadet. [14] k 1176 vat Tree . . . cadet. [15] j 1177 Big Dipper The Big Dipper here is of course the constellation of Ursa Major, of which this kanji is a sort of pictographic representation. [4] 7 :;=? * Since we already have a primitive element for a “dipper”— namely, the ladle—we shall let this one stand for a measuring cup. By the way, it would make a rather large one, since the kanji is also used for a measure of about 18 liters! 1178 fee Measuring cup . . . rice. [10] [ 318 Remembering the Kanji 1179 department Think here of the faculty or department you entered in university, using the elements: measuring cup . . . wheat. [9]  1180 map Pent in . . . Big Dipper. Hint: among the songs dating from the days of slavery that have become part of American folklore is one called “Follow the Drinking Gourd.” It referred to the nighttime travel of runaway slaves (those pent in) who had no maps other than the stars to guide them, among them the bright and predominant Big Dipper, the “Drinking Gourd.” [7] o 1181 utilize Meat . . . walking stick. Be sure to keep this key word distinct from that for use (frame 990). The stroke order is exactly as you would expect it from the order of the primitive elements as given. [5] * As a primitive element, we shall substitute the image of a screwdriver, perhaps the most utilized of all tools around the house. ä 1182 comfortable Cave . . . rake . . . screwdriver. [11] Ú 1183 Ä equip Person . . . µowers . . . cliff . . . screwdriver. In cases like this you can jumble up the primitive into any order that seems best for the composition of a story, provided you feel con³dent about the relative position that those primitives take to one another in the completed character. [12] Lesson 32 In this lesson we pick up a few primitives of quantity to complement those we learned in Lesson 7, as well as some others related closely to elements learned earlier. * salad The element for µowers joins with the long horizontal stroke beneath it to create the picture of a bowl of salad. [4] { 1184 once upon a time Salad . . . days. This is the character with which Japanese fairy tales commonly begin. [8] Ë 1185 confused Metal . . . once upon a time. [16] B 1186 borrow Person . . . once upon a time. [10] ï 1187 pity State of mind . . . once upon a time. The sense of the key word is that of a lost opportunity or bad turn of affairs, as in the phrase “What a pity!” [11] È 1188 set aside Fingers . . . once upon a time. [11] @ 320 Remembering the Kanji 1189 scatter Salad . . . µesh . . taskmaster. [12] _ 1190 twenty The two tens joined at the bottom by a short line is actually the old character for twenty, which we might as well learn since we need its primitive form. It is written the same as salad, except for the shorter ³nal stroke. [4] Ô ()*+ * caverns The primitive for caverns differs from that for cave by the presence of the twenty, suggesting a maze of underground caves. [7] | 1191 “ 1192 commoner Caverns . . . oven ³re. [11] intercept Commoner . . . road. [14] ì 1193 seat Caverns . . . towel. [10] Ç 1194 degrees This key word refers to a gradation of measurement, not to academic diplomas. Its primitives: caverns . . . crotch. [9] E lesson 32 321 1195 transit Water . . . degrees. [12] 9 * haystack The three needles stacked up give us a haystack (in which it may be harder to ³nd the hay than the needles). In the rare case in which there is nothing underneath this element, as in the following frame, the last three strokes are written virtually the same as two hands—that is, the second stroke sweeps down slightly to the left. [5] ; @AB 1196 bustle The hustle and bustle of this character is depicted by a St. Bernard dog and a haystack. [8] ú 1197 erupt Mouth . . . haystack . . . clams. [15] a 1198 tomb Soil . . . haystack . . . clams. In order not to confuse this kanji with that for a grave (frame 231), something like the image of an Egyptian tomb should be adopted for its special connotations. [15] b 1199 aroused State of mind . . . haystack . . . clams. [15] c 322 Remembering the Kanji * straw man The two human legs added to the haystack (with the horizontal stroke to keep the two parts distinct from one another and avoid an ugly tangle) give us a straw man. [8] # 1200 ÃÄÅ Ï 1201 bake Hearth . . . straw man. Take care to distinguish this kanji from cook (frame 468) and burn (frame 510) when you compose your story. [12] daybreak Sun . . . straw man. [12] $ 1202 } half Although the writing order is different, one can remember the appearance of this character by seeing it as a little needle—the kind used for splitting hairs in half. (Again, according to rule, little takes a stroke beneath it in order to be placed over an element that has no horizontal line at the top.) [5] ¬−°±² 1203 { 1204 consort Person . . . half. [7] ‘ paddy ridge Rice ³eld . . . half. The key word here refers to the ridges that rise up between the sections of a rice paddy. [10] lesson 32 323 1205 | * judgment Half . . . saber. You might recall the famous judgment of King Solomon, who offered to slice a baby in two with a saber to give half to each of the mothers who claimed it as her own. [7] quarter This character simply splits the vertical stroke of a half in half once again, to get a quarter. In so doing, it spreads the split stroke out to form a sort of enclosure under which its main relative primitive will be placed. It can be used either in its substantive or verbal meaning. [6] } CDE 1206 ticket Quarter . . . dagger. [8] à 1207 scroll Quarter . . . snake. The key word refers to a manuscript rolled up into a scroll, not to a hanging scroll (frame 407). [9] ñ 1208 sphere This key word refers to a realm or orbit, not to a ball. Its elements: pent in . . . scroll. [12] Æ 1209 § victory Moon . . . quarter . . . muscle. [12] 324 Remembering the Kanji 1210 wisteria Flower . . . moon . . . quarter . . . rice grains. [18] n 1211 facsimilie Moon . . . quarter . . . words. [17] p 1212 one-sided This kanji is based on the pictograph of a tree with some branches going upwards and others hanging down, split right down the middle. When that picture’s right side is isolated, it becomes the kanji for one-sided, in the sense of only one part of a whole. [4] ‰ FGHI 1213 Š 1214 printing block Although this character also carries the sense of an “edition” of a publication, the elements, one-sided and anti-, more readily suggest its other meaning of a printing block. [8] of This character is now used chieµy in proper names, and is best learned as the character closest to the hiragana N, though in fact it has no relation to it. [3] * In order to give this kanji a more concrete meaning when it is used as a primitive element, think of it as referring to building blocks with the hiragana written on them, much the same as the A-B-C blocks you played with as a child. î lesson 32 325 1215 destitution Drop of . . . building blocks. [4] Ò 1216 turf Flowers . . . building blocks. [6] Ü 1217 negative You may play with the primitives of this kanji as you wish (ceiling . . . person . . . a drop of), but you will probably ³nd that its simplicity, and its frequency, make it easy to remember just as it is. [4] # TUVW 1218 § 1219 negate Negative . . . mouth. [7] 3 cupfuls Tree . . . negative. [8] Lesson 33 We turn now to the weapons that remain to be examined. To the saber, the dagger, and the arrow, we add three more primitives to complete the list: the spear, the snare, and the slingshot. 1220 dart When shot high into the heavens, the dart gets so small it looks like a mere drop. Although this character could as well mean “arrow,” it has no connection with the primitive of that meaning. Hence the new key word. [5] ¢ 1221 ó 1222 rectify Dart . . . angel. Compare your stories for correct (frame 379), revise (frame 339), and reformation (frame 528). [17] tribe Banner . . . dart. [11] Ÿ 1223 know Dart . . . mouth. [8] F 1224 wisdom Know . . . sun. [12] J 1225 halberd The halberd’s battle-ax head and long shaft are depicted here. Take care with the number and order of the strokes. [5] ^ lesson 33 327 JKLMN 1226 1227 tender Halberd . . . tree. [9] task Halberd . . . taskmaster . . . muscle. [11] Y 1228 fog Weather/rain . . . task. [19] _ * spear This weapon, which has the appearance of the long saber but is drawn slightly differently, depicts a spear. It appears only rarely—in this book, only twice, and both instances are given in the following frames. [2] ‚ 1229 Œ 1230 squad Spear . . . two balls. [10] o 1231 homecoming Spear . . . broom . . . apron. The character for lady (frame 1151) shares the same right side as this character, which does not bode for a very happy homecoming. [10] ¸ bow This character pictures the bent wooden bow. Later we will learn how to make the bowstring that goes with it (frame 1386). 328 Remembering the Kanji If you stretch this character out and see the indentation on the left as its handle, the pictography should be clearer. [3] —˜™ 1232 pull Bow . . . walking stick. [4] … 1233 condolences A bow . . . wrapped around a walking stick. [4] { 1234 vast Bow . . . elbow. [5] e 1235 è 1236 strong Vast . . . insect. Note how the elbow of vast is shrunken and elevated to make room for the insect beneath. [11] weak Two bows . . with ice on them. [10] ú * dollar sign Composed of two walking sticks running through a bow, this character is infrequent as a primitive, and yet easy to remember for what it looks like (which is also what the Japanese adopted it to mean in days gone by): the dollar sign, $. When it is written under another element, the ³rst vertical stroke is abbreviated to a short “tail” as the ³nal stroke, and the second vertical stroke is cut off at the top. Examples follow in frames 1239 and 1240. [5] X lesson 33 329 QRSTU 1237 seethe Water . . . dollar sign. [8] Z 1238 ¾ 1239 expense Dollar sign . . . shells/money. [12] No. The key word No. is the abbreviation for “number.” Its elements: bamboo . . . dollar sign. [11] Ù 1240 younger brother Horns . . . dollar sign. [7] Ô * snare The simple snare composed of a piece of vine and a bent twig is depicted here as a sort of abbreviation of the bow, to which it is related. [2] ! 1241 VW adroit Craft . . . snare. [5] _ 1242 nickname Mouth . . . snare. [5] ¦ 330 Remembering the Kanji 1243 » 1244 decay Tree . . . snare. Do not confuse with rot (frame 1023). [6] boast Words . . . St. Bernard dog . . . ceiling . . . snare. [13] * 1245 dirty Water . . . spike . . . snare. Take care: the writing does not follow the order of the primitives exactly. [6] ë * XYZ slingshot The slingshot differs from the snare by virtue of the ³rst stroke, which you may take as the strip of rubber you pull back on, to make the slingshot sling. [2] ƒ 1246 ÿ[ bestow Slingshot . . . one. Later we shall learn the character for give (frame 1897). But already here we can take care to distinguish this key word from impart (frame 736) and grant (frame 1052). [3] Ò 1247 copy Crown . . . bestow. [5] á Lesson 34 Although we still have a number of primitives left relating to human activities, we may at this point pick up what remain of those having to do speci³cally with people and parts of the human body. 1248 somebody The key word somebody was chosen to convey the double meaning of this kanji: body and person. Its composition is based on the nose (which, you will recall, is also the kanji for oneself). The extension of the bottom and far right strokes of that element, together with the unusual diagonal stroke, forms the pictograph of somebody with a prominent paunch. [7] X ^_`abcd 1249 shoot “I shot an arrow into the air, And it landed I know not where” goes the poem. (The poor poet obviously loses a lot of arrows.) This kanji, however, tells us where it did land. Its elements: somebody . . . glued to. [10] â 1250 apologize Words . . . shoot. [17] ê 1251 old man First, do not confuse this character with venerable old man (frame 786), which is far more rarely used. The character for an old man begins with an abbreviation of the character for somebody, the nose having been shortened into a simple crisscross of lines. But there is another, simpler way to remember it all: the soil drawn ³rst indicates that one has come close to the ¾ 332 Remembering the Kanji age when “dust to dust” begins to take on a personal meaning; the diagonal walking stick for getting around; and the spoon for being spoon-fed. [6] efg * As a primitive, the meaning is the same, but the ³nal two strokes are omitted so that they can be replaced with other elements: µ. 1252 consider Old man . . . slingshot. Remember: you already have kanji for discriminating (frame 482), deliberation (frame 642), and think (frame 605). [6] † 1253 ³lial piety Old man . . . child. [7] [ 1254 î 1255 teach Filial piety . . . taskmaster. [11] torture Fingers . . . consider. [9] © 1256 someone Old man . . . sun. This key word looks to be dif³cult because of its proximity to somebody, but in fact it is a very common kanji that will cause you no dif³culty at all. At any rate, its meaning should be seen as the human referent for the abstract noun “something.” [8] * As a primitive it means a puppet-on-a-string. é lesson 34 333 1257 boil Puppet . . . oven ³re. [12] æ 1258 renowned Flowers . . . puppet. [11] q 1259 • 1260 signature Eye . . . puppet. [13] Œ 1261 sultry The key word refers to the heat of summer. Its elements: sun . . . puppet. [12] ™ 1262 various Words . . . puppet. Do not confuse with miscellaneous (frame 562). [15] boar Pack of wild dogs . . . puppet. [11] o 1263 ’ 1264 strand The strand referred to here is the stretch of land along a beach or shoreline. Its elements are: water . . . puppet. [11] gamble Shells/money . . . puppet. [15] = 334 Remembering the Kanji * scissors This primitive is based on that for husband. The two extra strokes represent a pair of scissors he is carrying around. [6] „ 1265 hijk ç 1266 gorge Mountain . . . scissors. [9] ò 1267 cramped Pack of wild dogs . . . scissors. [9] í * sandwiched Fingers . . . scissors. Do not confuse with the kanji for pinch (frame 657). [9] maestro To go with this primitive meaning, you might picture a tuxedo-clad maestro waving his baton about wildly. The baton is seen in the drop at the top. And the two boxes attached to the long vertical stroke may represent his tuxedo tails, if you wish. [6] … lmnopq 1268 chase Maestro . . . road. [9] « lesson 34 335 1269 expert Maestro . . . ceiling . . . towel. [10] ‚ 1270 commander Maestro . . . towel. [9] t 1271 bureaucrat By replacing the maestro’s baton (the drop) with the roof of a house, we have his equivalent in the institutional world of big government: the bureaucrat. [8] ö 1272 & 1273 cof³n Wood . . . of³cial. [12] 5 1274 pipe Bamboo . . . of³cial. [14] father The kindness and hard work of the ideal father is seen in this abbreviation of the taskmaster that leaves off his rod or whip (the ³rst stroke) and replaces it with the sweat of the father’s brow (the two drops at the top). [4] 5 rstu 1275 mingle Top hat . . . father. [6] H 336 Remembering the Kanji 1276 merit Mingle . . . power. Note the distinct connotations that separate merit from achievement (frame 863). [8] P 1277 contrast Cars . . . mingle. [13] º 1278 exam Tree . . . mingle. [10] p 1279 leg Mouth . . . mending. Note that the last stroke of mouth and the ³rst of mending overlap. [7] * As a primitive on the left, it is amended to m. Its meaning remains leg, but should be thought of as a wooden leg in order to avoid confusion with other similar elements, namely human legs, animal legs, and walking legs. ˜ 1280 stimulate Person . . . leg. [9] Œ 1281 Ò 1282 long-distance Wooden leg . . . gigantic. [12] path Wooden leg . . . each. [13] − lesson 34 337 1283 dew Rain . . . path. [21] ° 1284 hop Wooden leg . . . portent. [13] – 1285 leap Wooden leg . . . feathers . . . turkey. [21] ¨ 1286 tread Wooden leg . . . parade µoat. [13] ) 1287 step The meaning of this character is virtually identical with that of the last frame. Be sure to come up with distinct connotations suggested by phrases in which each is commonly used. Wooden leg . . . water . . . sun. [15] r 1288 skeleton This kanji and primitive refers to the part of the body composed of the bones and their joints. The top part of the kanji, terminating in the element for crown, is a pictograph of a bone joint. I leave it to you to put the pieces together, so to speak. [10] ¿ vwxyz{ 1289 slippery Water . . . skeleton. [13] Ñ 338 Remembering the Kanji 1290 marrow Skeleton . . . possess . . . road. [19] † * jawbone The meaning of this primitive is taken from the combination of “the joint” above and the mouth in the cowl below. [9] ‚ 1291 XYZ^_ calamity Altar . . . jawbone. [13] L 1292 whirlpool Water . . . jawbone. [12] ¢ 1293 overdo Jawbone . . . road. [12] [ Lesson 35 The next group of primitives we shall consider has to do with topography and exhausts the list of those remaining in that category. * pinnacle This key word has been chosen because of its connotation of “the highest point,” thereby suggesting the image of the highest point in a village, that is, a hill or mountain on which sacred or festive events take place. If you have a clear image of the Athenian acropolis, you might use it to express this element for a pinnacle. Note that this primitive appears only on the left. On the right, as we shall see later, the same form takes a different meaning. [3] J |}‚ 1294 Heights This character is used for proper names, much as the English word “Heights” is. Its primitives: pinnacle . . . anti-. [7] + 1295 Africa This kanji, an abbreviation for Africa, is now used chieµy for its sound, “a,” not unlike the kanji for Italy and the sound “i” that we met earlier (frame 1161). Its composite elements are: pinnacles . . . can. [8] % 1296 occasion Pinnacle . . . ritual. [14] ! 340 Remembering the Kanji 1297 ì 1298 hinder Pinnacle . . . badge. [14] follow Pinnacle . . . possess . . . road. [12] „ 1299 F 1300 auxiliary Pinnacle . . . muzzle. [11] sunshine Different from the primitive for sun (which ³gures in the character) and the kanji for ray (frame 119), the key word sunshine is meant to convey the meaning of the masculine principle in nature, or “Yang.” (The dark is viewed mythically as the feminine principle; see frame 1592.) From there it comes to mean sun also. The elements are: pinnacle . . . piggy bank. [12] î 1301 line up Pinnacle . . . east. [11] ¦ 1302 ward off Pinnacle . . . compass. [7] è 1303 af³xed Pinnacle . . . adhere. [8] A lesson 35 341 1304 Inst. This key word, the abbreviation for Institution, represents the use of that word as a suf³x af³xed to certain buildings and organizations. Its primitive elements: pinnacle . . . perfect. [10] Š 1305 camp Pinnacle . . . car. [10] i 1306 regiment Pinnacle . . . animal horns . . . sow. [12] Ó 1307 crash Regiment . . . ground. [15] ¨ 1308 descend Pinnacle . . . walking legs . . . sunglasses with a lens popped out. Distinguish from fall (frame 299) and crash, which we considered in the previous frame. [10] œ 1309 story The story of this character refers to µoors in a building. The elements: pinnacle . . . all. [12] ‰ 1310 highness This key word indicates a title of address to royalty. Its elements: pinnacle . . . compare . . . ground. [10] x 342 Remembering the Kanji 1311 neighboring Pinnacle . . . rice . . . sunglasses. [16] t 1312 isolate Pinnacle . . . ceiling . . . mouth . . . glass canopy . . . human legs . . . spike. You might want to compare the kanji for dissolve (frame 1044). [13] ½ 1313 conceal Pinnacle . . . vulture . . . broom . . . heart. Compare the elements at the right to the kanji for calm (frame 1147). [14] Œ 1314 degenerate Pinnacle . . . possess . . . ground. [12] ´ 1315 G 1316 collapse Pinnacle . . . bound up . . . olden times. [10] hole House . . . eight. [5] * As a primitive, this kanji uses an alternate form: the primitive for eight is replaced with that for human legs. ¹ 1317 empty Hole . . . craft. [8] W lesson 35 343 1318 withdraw Fingers . . . empty. [11] j 1319 stab Hole . . . St. Bernard dog. [8] £ 1320 Á 1321 research Hole . . . baseball. [7] plug up Hole . . . room. [11] Z 1322 stealth Hole . . . cut. [9] Ý 1323 depression Hole . . . water . . . ivy. The depression referred to here is a sunken place in the ground, rather than in one’s spirits. [14] g 1324 squeeze Fingers . . . hole . . . saw. [13] 9 1325 kiln Hole . . . sheep . . . oven ³re. [15] å 344 Remembering the Kanji 1326  * hard up Hole . . . somebody . . . bow. [15] † 1327 paper punch This primitive simply discards the ³rst stroke of that for hole to become a paper punch. When found at the top of its relative primitive, it undergoes the same change, the eight becoming human legs (see frame 1316). [4] grope Fingers . . . paper punch . . . tree. [11] ) 1328 deep Water . . . paper punch . . . tree. [11] L 1329 ° 1330 hill Since this supposedly pictographic representation of a hill looks like anything but, picture a row of axes driven into the ground up to their heads, and see if that doesn’t present a more memorable image of hill—at least a riskier one sliding down! [5] Point Think of the key word as referring to proper names of mountains, but do not confuse with mountain peak (frame 773). The elements are: hill . . . mountain. [8] À 1331 soldier Hill . . . animal legs. [7] o lesson 36 345 1332 ø seacoast Water . . . soldier. [10] Lesson 36 The primitive for thread is one of the most common in all the kanji. This means that you are likely to be putting it where it doesn’t belong and forgetting to include it where it does—all the more reason to give it a vivid image each time. Fortunately, nearly all the thread-related kanji to be covered in this book will appear in this lesson, so you can learn them all at once. 1333 thread Remember when your granny used to ask you to bend your arms at the elbows and hold them out so that she could use them like a rack to hold a skein of string or yarn (here thread) while she rolled it up into a little ball? Now can you see the two elbows (with the second stroke doubling up) at the top, and the character for little below? [6] – ƒ„…†‡ˆ 1334 weave Thread . . . kazoo. [18] 3 1335 darning Thread . . . virtuous. [18] 8 346 Remembering the Kanji 1336 i 1337 shrink Thread . . . inn. [17] ’ 1338 luxuriant Cleverness . . . thread. [16] a 1339 vertical Thread . . . accompany. [16] line Thread . . . spring. [15] û 1340 tighten Thread . . . sovereign. [15] Þ 1341 ³ber Thread . . . turkey. [14] d 1342 gauze Eye . . . ³ber. [19] ø 1343 practice Thread . . . east. [14] £ lesson 36 347 1344 ” 1345 thong Thread . . . puppet. Although we usually think of a thong as coming at the end of a piece of string, this character’s meaning allows for it to come at the beginning as well. [14] continue Thread . . . sell. [13] ¡ 1346 picture Thread . . . meeting. [12] … 1347 overall Thread . . . allot. [12] j 1348 strangle Thread . . . mingle. [12] ƒ 1349 Æ 1350 salary Thread . . . ³t. [12] entwine Thread . . . each. [12] $ 1351 tie Thread . . . aerosol can. [12] º 348 Remembering the Kanji 1352 F 1353 end Thread . . . winter. [11] Ä 1354 class Threads . . . outstretched hands. [9] w 1355 chronicle Thread . . . snake. [9] crimson Thread . . . craft. [9] } 1356 settlement Thread . . . inside. [10] ó 1357 spinning For the kanji that means the spinning of thread and other ³bers we have the elements: thread . . . compass. [10] á 1358 distract Thread . . . part. [10] i 1359 Û introduce Thread . . . seduce. [11] lesson 36 349 1360 sðtra Thread . . . spool. [11] ™ 1361 sire Thread . . . monkey. [11] R 1362 promise Consider for a moment the etymology of the word “promise” in order to notice its roots in the activity of putting one thing (e.g., one’s word of honor) in place of another (e.g., the ful³llment of a task). For as it turns out, this character also means “to abridge, economize, and abbreviate”—all activities that involve putting one thing in place of another. With that in mind, we may now work with the elements: thread . . . ladle. [9] ¥ 1363 dainty Thread . . . brains. [11] ú 1364 accumulate Rice ³eld . . . threads. Make use of the position of the elements to distinguish this kanji from that of the previous frame. [11] z 1365 cord Needle . . . a crown . . . thread. [10] A 1366 general This kanji, meaning universal or widespread, is composed of three elements: thread . . . public . . . heart. [14] r 350 Remembering the Kanji 1367 cotton Thread . . . white . . . towels. [14] q 1368 silk Thread . . . mouth . . . µesh. [13] Õ 1369 winding Thread . . . goods . . . tree. [19] l 1370 inherit Thread . . . rice . . . ³shhook. Compare frame 1136. [13] š 1371 green Thread . . . broom . . . rice grains. [14] k 1372 af³nity Thread . . . broom . . . sow. [15] â 1373 netting Thread . . . glass canopy . . . animal horns . . . perish. [14] } 1374 tense Slave . . . crotch . . . thread. [15] ; lesson 36 351 1375 purple Footprint . . . spoon . . . thread. [12] ˜ 1376 [ 1377 truss Threads . . . acupuncturist. [16] straw rope Thread . . . eels. [15] Å * cocoon The two triangular shapes here and their ³nal stroke are intended as a pictograph of a cocoon, spun in circles and tied up at the end. It is like the character for thread, except that the silkworm’s actual product has not yet emerged clearly at the bottom. [3] X `ab 1378 infancy Cocoon . . . muscle. [5] × 1379 behind Line . . . cocoon . . . walking legs. [9] 9 1380 faint Two cocoons . . . mountain. Observe how the two vertical strokes of the mountain are extended upwards to serve as a kind of enclosure. [9] ¼ 352 Remembering the Kanji cdefg 1381 e how many Two cocoons . . . person . . . ³esta. [12] ‰Š‹Œ * As a primitive, this kanji will mean an abacus, the beadinstrument used in the Orient to calculate how many. 1382 n 1383 mechanism Tree . . . abacus. [16] mysterious Top hat . . . cocoon. [5] é 1384 livestock Mysterious . . . rice ³eld. [10] T 1385 amass Flowers . . . livestock. [13] W 1386 bowstring Bow . . . mysterious. [8] æ 1387 hug Fingers . . . mysterious . . . turkey. Note that the top hat is extended across both elements, though it belongs only to the Ý lesson 36 cocoon. This means that you may either use mysterious—as we did here—or take the three elements separately. [16] 353 1388 nourishing Fingers . . . double-mysterious. Note the doubling up of the element for top hat in the primitive for mysterious and assign it a special image, as it will come up in the next two frames. [12] · 1389 mercy Double-mysterious . . . heart. [13] ² 1390 magnet Stone . . . double-mysterious. [14] ¼ 1391 lineage The single stroke added to the beginning of the primitive for thread gives the image of threads woven into a single cord. Hence the meaning, lineage. [7] * As a primitive, we shall give this kanji the meaning of yarn, as the uniting of many threads into a single strand is most obvious with yarn. ˜ 1392 person in charge Person . . . yarn. [9] y 1393 grandchild Child . . . yarn. [10] § 354 Remembering the Kanji 1394 suspend Prefecture . . . yarn . . . heart. [20] Ë Lesson 37 Earlier we created an image for seal (frame 156). Here we come to a set of primitives based on the shape of a seal and deriving their meanings from the notion of stamping or sealing. * stamp This character is a kind of pictograph of a stamp that may best be imagined as a postage stamp to distinguish it from other stamp-like things to come up later. [2] A ‘’ 1395 © 1396 instead Gone . . . stamp. [7] « shins Part of the body . . . instead. This character has more or less the same meaning as that for legs learned back in frame 1279. It can also indicate the part of the legs from the shins down, which explains the choice of the key word. [11] lesson 37 355 1397 wholesale The left primitive is a union of a horse and footprint. To the right, the stamp. [9] / 1398 hijk honorable Line . . . wholesale. [12] : 1399 clothing Flesh . . . stamp . . . crotch. Note how the stamp is stretched out here. [8] R 1400 fate This character connotes life in general, but also the particular life that is fated one by virtue of the distinctive character with which one is born. Its elements are: ³t . . . stamp. The bottom portion of ³t is nudged to the left in order to make room for the stamp. [8] f * chop-seal The chop-seal is the engraved piece of wood or stone used in the Orient to certify documents. Unlike the stamp, the top stroke here reaches a good distance to the left of its vertical stroke. When it appears at the top of another primitive, it is abbreviated to n. [2] ‰ “” 356 Remembering the Kanji 1401 orders Meeting . . . chop-seal. [5] | 1402 zero Rain . . . orders. [12] Œ 1403 age This character is used to express the years of one’s age. Its elements: teeth . . . orders. [17] “ 1404 cool Ice . . . orders. [7] ƒ 1405 jurisdiction Orders . . . head. [14] i 1406 small bell Gold . . . orders. [13] Š 1407 courage Chop-seal . . . male. [9] ¹ 1408 traf³c Chop-seal . . . utilize . . . road. By combining the ³rst two primitives into a single image, you will be able to use that image in a few instances later, one of which comes immediately. [10] ° lesson 37 357 1409 jump Wooden leg . . . chop-seal . . . utilize. [14] ì 1410 ” 1411 doubt Spoon . . . dart . . . chop-seal . . . zoo. [14] ‘ 1412 mimic Fingers . . . doubt. [17] congeal Ice . . . doubt. [16] ! * ³ngerprint The primitive for ³ngerprint is like that for stamp except that the second stroke bends back towards the right, like an arm. [2] ‡ 1413 •– – 1414 pattern Bamboo . . . car . . . ³ngerprint. [15] ‹ 1415 crime Wild dogs . . . ³ngerprint. [5] unlucky Cliff . . . ³ngerprint. [4] £ 358 Remembering the Kanji 1416 [ * dangerous Bound up . . . unlucky. [6] mailbox Evening . . . ³ngerprint. [5] ˆ 1417 address House . . . mailbox. [8] = 1418 arm Part of the body . . . mailbox. [12] Ú 1419 garden Flowers . . . mailbox. [8] ä 1420 grudge Mailbox . . . heart. [9] Ø * receipt This primitive element is actually the mirror-image of that for stamp, but since Japanese does not permit a stroke to go to the left and bottom in one swoop, the visual similarity is not perfectly clear. If you play with the idea with pen and paper, its logic will become obvious. [3] Š š›œ lesson 37 359 1421 willow Tree . . . receipt . . . stamp. [9] ª 1422 egg Receipt . . . stamp . . . and a drop in each side to represent a little smear of egg yoke. The third stroke is drawn slightly higher to close the egg up tightly and keep the yoke inside. [7] ) 1423 detain Receipt . . . dagger . . . rice ³eld. [10] K 1424 trade Receipt . . . dagger . . . shells. Though the meanings are related, do not confuse with make a deal (frame 439) or wholesale (frame 1397). [12] æ * staples This primitive represents a number of small staples, like the kind commonly used in an of³ce and at school. [4] ‹ 1425 š›œŸ stamp At last we come to the general character meaning stamp. Its elements: staples . . . stamp. [6] | 1426 ö entertain Let this character represent a wheel of fortune that has been tampered with. On both sides you see the staples separating 360 Remembering the Kanji one number’s slot from the next, and between them the character for the same—indicating that it has been ³xed to repeat the same number. Beneath is the primitive for a tool, which refers to the wheel itself. All together, a ³tting symbol for entertainment, especially if you are the owner of the wheel. [16] Lesson 38 The next cluster of kanji has to do with primitives related to the activities of eating and drinking. 1427 sign of the bird Though we shall later encounter the kanji for bird, we introduce this one for the tenth sign of the zodiac mainly because of its use as a primitive, where it has a different meaning. [7] © ¡¢£¤¥¦§ * As a primitive, it means whiskey bottle. In its pictograph, you can see the loosely corked lid, the bottle and the contents (about one-third full). You might also hink of the Spanish “porrón,” a decanter shaped like a long-necked bird. 1428 , 1429 saké Water . . . whiskey bottle. [10] bartending Whiskey bottle . . . ladle. [10] õ lesson 38 361 1430 fermentation Whiskey bottle . . . ³lial piety. [14] — 1431 cruel Whiskey bottle . . . revelation. [14] µ 1432 S 1433 repay Whiskey bottle . . . state. [13] dairy products Whiskey bottle . . . each. [13] & 1434 vinegar Whiskey bottle . . . saw. [12] n 1435 drunk Whiskey bottle . . . baseball . . . needle. [11] } 1436 9 1437 distribute Whisky bottle . . . snake. [10] acid Whiskey bottle . . . license . . . walking legs. [14] i 362 Remembering the Kanji 1438 waver Wild dogs . . . animal horns . . . whiskey bottle. [12] Ä 1439 revered Animal horns . . . whiskey bottle . . . glue. [12] ¨ 1440 beans This kanji depicts a pot of beans, although it looks more like a table on which the pot is resting. [7] q ¨©ª« * As a primitive, this kanji will mean table. 1441 head Here we meet at last the full kanji on which the primitive for head is based. The elements: table . . . head. [16] w 1442 short Dart . . . table. [12] 1 1443 bountiful Bend . . . table. Think of a bountiful harvest, and you will not be far from the meaning of this character. [13] Ì * drum The element meaning drum shows a samurai over a table. The top stroke of the table is appears to be missing, but actually it Œ lesson 38 has simply doubled up with the ³nal stroke of the element for samurai. [9] 363 1444 drum The full kanji for the drum adds a branch, apparently to serve as a drumstick, to the primitive for drum. [13] 1 1445 1446 rejoice Drum . . . mouth. [12] 5 1447 timber-trees Trees . . . drum . . . glue. [16] dish The kanji for a dish is, clearly, the pictograph of a painted or carved bowl, seen from the side. [5] V 1448 ¬−°±² blood The drop in the dish is blood. It is similar to the drop we saw earlier on the dagger in the character for blade (frame 84). [6] » 1449 basin Part . . . dish. [9] ! 1450 alliance Bright . . . dish. [13] h 364 Remembering the Kanji 1451 steal Next . . . dish. [11] 1452 warm Water . . . sun . . . dish. [12] 1 1453 2 1454 oversee Slaves . . . reclining . . . µoor/one . . . dish. [15] overµow Water . . . oversee. [18] , 1455 C 1456 specimen Metal . . . oversee. [23] ³erce Wild dogs . . . child . . . dish. [11] { 1457 boom Here boom refers to something that is popular and prospering. Its elements: turn into . . . dish. [11] µ 1458 salt Ground . . . reclining . . . mouth . . . dish. [13] é lesson 38 365 * silver We give this element the meaning of silver from the kanji in the following frame. Both the original pictographic representation and the primitive elements that make it up are more trouble to hunt out than they are worth. It is best simply to learn it as is. In doing so, take careful note of the stroke order, and also the fact that when this element appears on the left, the penultimate stroke is omitted, giving us simply ·. [6] Ò ³´µ·¸¹ 1459 silver Metal . . . silver. [14] F 1460 º» resentment State of mind . . . silver. [9] É 1461 root Tree . . . silver. [10] Í 1462 instant Silver . . . stamp. [7] “ 1463 baron Vulture . . . eye . . . silver . . . glue. [17] ô 366 Remembering the Kanji 1464 node Bamboo . . . instant. [13] Þ 1465 retreat Road . . . silver. [9] Ñ 1466 limit Pinnacle . . . silver. [9] ï 1467 Q 1468 eyeball Eye . . . silver. [11] good Drop of . . . silver. [7] * As a primitive, use the image of a saint’s halo. As with silver, when this element is drawn on the left, the penultimate stroke is omitted, giving us ¸. d 1469 melodious Halo . . . moon. [10] µ 1470 wandering Water . . . halo. [10] ¹ 1471 daughter Woman . . . halo. [10] c lesson 38 367 1472 eat The obvious elements are halo and umbrella, and they should do well enough. But you might also try breaking the halo down into drop and silver, which would give you “silverware,” an additional primitive meaning that could come in useful later on. [9] * As a primitive, this kanji can mean either eating or food. As was the case with silver, when situated on the left the ³nal two strokes of this element are abbreviated into one. 7 1473 š 1474 meal Food . . . anti-. [12] drink Food . . . yawn. [12] † 1475 ƒ 1476 hungry Food . . . wind. [10] starve Food . . . ego. [15] i 1477 decorate Food . . . reclining . . . towel. [13] , 1478 I Bldg. The abbreviation of Building suggests that this kanji is used in proper names, as indeed it often is. Keep your connotation dis- 368 Remembering the Kanji tinct from Inst. (frame 1304) when working with the elements: food . . . bureaucrat. [16] 1479 foster Sheep . . . food. The key word has the sense of promoting the development of something, especially in a psychological or spiritual sense. [13] ï 1480 “ * sated Eat . . . wrap. [13] ý waitress If you draw this character once, you will see that its ³rst three strokes resemble the form for receipt (except that the second stroke ends more parallel to the ³rst), with its last stroke stretched to form the ³rst of the two human legs. From this we give it its meaning of a waitress (who should not be confused with the waiter back in frame 976). [4] ¼½¾¿ 1481 j 1482 previously Silver . . . waitress. Do not confuse this kanji’s key word with before (frame 248). [10] outline Roots . . . waitress. Note that the kanji meaning of the two primitives to the right is not used here because we shall later meet a primitive meaning beforehand and want to preempt any confusion. The same holds true in the following frame. [14] – lesson 39 369 1483 rue Regret . . . waitress. [13] • Lesson 39 A number of primitives relating to plant life remain to be considered, and we shall devote the next two pages to doing so. In the following pages, as indeed in the rest of the book, we shall meet several elements whose use is quite limited. Nevertheless, it is better to learn them as primitives both in order to acquaint yourself better with the way the Japanese writing system repeats certain combinations of elements, and in order later to facilitate the learning of characters outside the compass of these pages. 1484 even This character is easiest remembered as a pictograph of a water lily µoating on the surface of the water, which gives it its meaning of even. The fourth stroke represents the calm, smooth surface of a pond, and the ³nal stroke the long stem of the plant reaching underwater. [5] r ÀÁÂÃÄ * As a primitive, this kanji can keep its pictographic meaning of a water lily. 1485 call Mouth . . . water lily. Note: this is the one time that the “stem” has a barb at the end. Work this fact into your story. [8] ó 370 Remembering the Kanji 1486 two-mat area This kanji belongs to an old Japanese system of measurement and indicates an area of about 36 square feet, or the area taken up by two tatami mats. Its elements: ground . . . water lily. [8] ¿ 1487 é * evaluate Words . . . water lily. [12] sheaf These two strokes are a crude drawing of a bundle of stalks bound together into a sheaf. [2] ¤ 1488 ÅÆ reap Sheaf . . . saber. [4] ç 1489 d 1490 hope Sheaf . . . linen. [7] à 1491 villain Sheaf . . . shovel. [4] ÇÈ ô bosom Part of the body . . . bound up . . . villain. [10] lesson 39 371 1492 detach Top hat . . . villain . . . belt . . . elbow . . . turkey. This is potentially one of the most dif³cult characters to remember. Tackle it positively and let the image “sink in” by carrying it around with you today and calling it up in your spare moments. [18] ? 1493 kill Sheaf . . . tree . . . missile. [10] N * earthworm Drop of . . . shovel . . . ³shhook. [4] ¬ 1494 ÉÊËÌ „ 1495 genuine Thread . . . earthworm. [10] dull Metal . . . earthworm. [12] ¸ 1496 spicy This character pictures food whose taste is so hot and spicy that it makes the hairs on your body stand up as straight as needles. [7] * As a primitive, we shall use this meaning of spicy, except when the two extra strokes are added to the bottom, giving it the form of a tree: ¹. Then we take its alternate meaning of a red pepper plant. The connection is obvious. Y 372 Remembering the Kanji 1497 resign Tongue . . . spicy. [13]  1498 catalpa Tree . . . spicy. [11] 8 1499 superintend House . . . spicy. [10] ì * ketchup One way American children learn to cope with food they are forced to eat against their will is to smother it with ketchup. We can see this depicted in the mouth with the µag over it (in this case, the Stars and Stripes), set alongside the element for spicy (all of which is not far removed from the original meaning it had as a character on its own: “false”). [13] ÷ lmn 1500 wall Ketchup . . . ground. [16] | 1501 ¿ 1502 evade Ketchup . . . road. [16] new Red pepper . . . ax. [13] G lesson 39 373 1503 ³rewood Flowers . . . new. [16] U 1504 parent Red pepper . . . see. [16] V 1505 happiness Simply by turning the dot at the top of the last primitive into a cross shape, we move from things bitter and spicy to things happy. [8] a 1506 tenacious Happiness . . . fat man. [11] Î 1507 report Happiness . . . stamp . . . crotch. Compare frame 1399. [12] ³ * cornucopia Considering the lack of circular lines, this kanji is not a bad pictograph of a cornucopia. Despite the appearance of the printed form, what looks like the ³rst two strokes are actually written as one. [2] ¥ ÍÎ 1508 ä shout Mouth . . . cornucopia. [5] 374 Remembering the Kanji 1509 Å 1510 twist Thread . . . cornucopia. [8] 9 1511 income Cornucopia . . . crotch. Keep distinct from both fare (frame 1004) and salary (frame 1349). [4] ¦ 1512 lowly A drop of . . . brains . . . cornucopia. [8] · * tombstone Rock . . . lowly. [13] rice seedling As we mentioned back in frame 234, rice seedlings get an element all their own: soil and man legs becomes an ideograph of the spikelets of rice bunched together for implanting in the muddy soil of the paddy. [5] § 1513 land The sense of land carried by this kanji is distinct from soil (frame 150) and ground (frame 515) in that it is meant to represent land seen from a distance, that is, land as opposed to “water.” Its elements: pinnacle . . . rice seedlings . . . ground. [11] @ 1514 intimate Eye . . . rice seedlings . . . ground. [13] ò lesson 39 375 1515 forces Rice seedlings . . ground . . . fat man . . . muscle. [13] ¤ 1516 heat Rice seedlings . . . ground . . . fat man . . . oven ³re. [15] å 1517 Ô 1518 diamond Named after a diamond-shaped µower (the water caltrop), this key word refers to things shaped like a diamond. Its elements: µower . . . rice seedlings . . . walking legs. [11] mausoleum Pinnacle . . . rice seedlings . . . walking legs. [11] h 1519 sign of the hog This kanji is the 12th sign of the Chinese zodiac: the sign of the hog. It is best learned by thinking of an acorn-eating hog in connection with the primitive meaning given below. [6] n ÏÐÑÒÓÔ * The top hat represents the external shape of the acorn, and the unusual but easily written complex of strokes beneath it (which you might also see as distortions of an elbow and person) stands for the mysterious secret whereby the acorn contains the oak tree in a nutshell. 1520 nucleus Tree . . . acorn. [10] ± 376 Remembering the Kanji 1521 engrave Acorn . . . saber. [8] ± 1522 above-stated Words . . . acorn. [13] › 1523 censure Acorn . . . muscle. [8] Œ * resin This tree has become a pole (that is, a tree with its branches not touching) because most of its branches have been pruned off by a naive but greedy gardener anxious to siphon off its resin (the drop at the top, written as the final stroke) as quickly as possible. [5] “ M¿ÀÁ 1524 o 1525 mention Resin . . . road. [8] n * art Boulevard . . . resin. [11] celery This primitive looks very close to that for salad, except that an extra horizontal line has been included, reminiscent I should think of the long celery sticks in your salad. [5] ³ lesson 39 377 µA·¸¹ 1526 cold House . . . celery . . . animal legs . . . ice. [12] í * grass skirt This unusual looking grass skirt is composed of a top hat and scarf, and eight celery sticks. [13] ” 1527 º»¼½ brew Whiskey bottle . . . grass skirt. [20] ( 1528 defer Words . . . grass skirt. [20] & 1529 ö 1530 lot Ground . . . grass skirt. The lot of this key word refers to a portion of land. [16] ÷ lass Woman . . . grass skirt. [16] Lesson 40 The remainder of plant-related primitives are built up from combinations of vertical and horizontal lines, representing respectively plants and the earth from which they spring. Accordingly it would be a good idea to study the remaining elements of this section at a single sitting, or at least so to review them before passing on to the next grouping. * grow up As the plant grows up it sprouts leaves and a stalk, which are depicted here over a single horizontal stroke for the soil. Think of something (its relative primitive) growing up in a µash to many times its normal size, much like little Alice in Wonderland, who grew up so fast she was soon larger than the room in which she was sitting. [4] ¦ ×Ø 1531 poison Grow up . . . breasts. [8] š 1532 elementary Grow up . . . thread. [10] K 1533 _ 1534 barley Grow up . . . walking legs. [7] blue Grow up . . . moon. [8] Á lesson 40 379 1535 re³ned Rice . . . blue. [14] · 1536 solicit Words . . . blue. [15] ¾ 1537 ù 1538 feelings State of mind . . . blue. Do not confuse with emotion (frame 615). [11] clear up Take the key word in its associations with the weather (unless that tempts you to include the primitive for weather, which doesn’t belong here). Its elements: sun . . . blue. [12] ¬ 1539 pure Water . . . blue. [11] ² 1540 quiet Blue . . . contend. Do not confuse with calm (frame 1147). [14]  1541 blame Grow up . . . oyster. [11] Ò 1542 exploits Thread . . . blame. [17] Ð 380 Remembering the Kanji 1543 volume Wheat . . . blame. This key word has to do with measurement, and should be kept distinct from the kanji for quantity (frame 177)—even though the meanings are similar. [16] Î 1544 bond Person . . . blame. The key word refers to ³nancial bonds. [13] å 1545 pickling Water . . . blame. [14] · 1546 è 1547 surface Grow up . . . rags. This character represents the “outside” of a garment, just as the kanji for back (frame 399) depicted the “inside” or lining. [8] á 1548 bag Keep this kanji distinct from that for sack (frame 1006). Its elements are: person . . . surface. [10] unde³led Water . . . grow up . . . dagger . . . thread. Do not confuse with upright (frame 55). [15] ¸ 1549 pledge Grow up . . . dagger . . . St. Bernard dog. The connotation of this character should be kept distinct from that for vow (frame 1133) and promise (frame 1362). [9] … lesson 40 381 1550 ¢ 1551 consume Mouth . . . pledge. [12] harm House . . . grow up . . . mouth. [10] “ 1552 control Car . . . harm. Hint: the image of an auto going “out of control” may help keep this key word distinct from others like it, such as manipulate (frame 801). [17] Ô 1553 proportion Harm . . . saber. [12] Ë 1554 constitution The key word refers to the fundamental guiding principles of a government or other organization. Its elements: House . . . grow up . . . eyes . . . heart. [16] Ê 1555 life A single drop added to the element for grow up gives us the character for life. [5] * As a primitive, we may think of a microscopic cell, that miraculous unit that grows up to become a living being. ´ 1556 star Sun . . . cell. [9] « 382 Remembering the Kanji 1557 surname Woman . . . cell. [8] ¥ 1558 sex State of mind . . . cell. [8] § 1559 animal sacri³ce Cow . . . cell. [9] ³ 1560 products Vase . . . cliff . . . cell. [11] c 1561 hump This character, used for everything from little humps of hills to camel humps, easily suggests the hunch on the pig’s back and hind parts where the best cuts of meat are to be found (and hence the English expression for luxury, “living high off the hog.”) The elements we have to work with are: pinnacle . . . walking legs . . . cell. [11] N * bushes Whatever image you contrived for the character meaning hedge (frame 154), choose something different and clearly distinguishable for this primitive for bushes. The element itself differs from that for grow up only in the extension of the single vertical stroke beneath the ³nal horizontal stroke and in the order of writing. Though we shall meet only one instance of it in this chapter and one more later on, it is worth noting that when this element appears on the side, the ³nal stroke is sloped somewhat to the left: §. [4] 1 lesson 40 383 op 1562 summit Mountain . . . walking legs . . . bushes. [10] · 1563 sew Thread . . . walking legs . . . bushes . . . road. [16] Ä 1564 0 1565 worship Fingers . . . bush . . . suspended from the ceiling. [8] 3 1566 longevity Bushes . . . glue. [7] casting Metal . . . longevity. As you probably guessed from the elements, the key word refers to the casting of metals. [15] k * Christmas tree The addition of the ³nal two strokes to the element for bushes gives the sense of a tree that is also a bush. Hence, the Christmas tree. [6] ¦ 1567 ÜÝ enroll Bamboo . . . Christmas tree . . . once upon a time. [20] Ï 384 Remembering the Kanji * bonsai The element for bushes has an extra stroke added (drawn from the point where the second and ³fth strokes intersect when it “encloses” something beneath, otherwise from the point where the fourth and ³fth strokes intersect) to give the image of the crutches Japanese gardeners use to hold up a tree that is being bent into shape. From there it is but a short leap to the small bonsai plants that imitate this art in miniature. [5] ¬ ßàáâã 1568 r 1569 springtime Bonsai . . . sun. [9] camellia Tree . . . springtime. [13] ½ 1570 peaceful Bonsai . . . rice grains. [10] Ê 1571 play music Bonsai . . . heavens. [9] Y 1572 reality House . . . bonsai. [8] × * cornstalk The element for bushes extended the vertical stroke beneath the ³nal horizontal stroke; the cornstalk omits that ³nal stroke ¨ lesson 40 altogether, leaving only the stalk and the leaves bursting forth on all sides. [3] 385 ÙÚÛ 1573 dedicate Bonsai . . . cornstalk. Use a ritualistic, religious meaning. [8] ´ 1574 stipend Person . . . observance. [10] ° 1575 rod Tree . . . observance. [12] ß * cabbage The µower, the mouth, and the element for grow up combine here to create the primitive for cabbage. [10] Ÿ 1576 Þßà discreet Words . . . cabbage. [17] B 1577 diligence Cabbage . . . muscle. [12] 0 * scarecrow By twisting the ³nal two strokes of our cabbage into a pair of legs, we get a scarecrow with a cabbage for a head. [10] ¡ 386 Remembering the Kanji áâã 1578 + 1579 SinoWater . . . scarecrow. The key word has come to refer to things Chinese in general, including the kanji themselves (for which this character is used). [13] sigh Mouth . . . scarecrow. [13] % 1580 dif³cult Scarecrow . . . turkey. [18] Ê * silage The drawing of this element is dif³cult to do smoothly, and should be practiced carefully. It is a pictograph of all sorts of plants and grasses thrown together to make silage. The vertical stroke is drawn here with a broken line to indicate that it will always double up with another primitive element’s vertical stroke. [6] ™ äåæçèé 1581 splendor Flower . . . silage . . . needle. [10] T 1582 droop A drop of . . . silage . . . walking stick . . . µoor. The character is written in the order of its elements. [8] s lesson 41 387 1583 drowsy Eyes . . . droop. [13] x 1584 spindle Metal . . . droop. [16] ƒ 1585 ñ 1586 ride The simplest way to remember this character is by looking for the wheat in it, which doubles up with one stroke of silage. [9] ó surplus Ride . . . saber. [11] Lesson 41 Only a few of the primitives relating to time and direction remain. It is to these that we turn our attention in this lesson. 1587 now The ³nal stroke of this kanji is a rare shape, which we have not met before and will only meet in this character and others that include it as a primitive. We are more accustomed to seeing it straightened out as part of other shapes—for instance, as the second stroke of mouth. If you need any help at all with this character, you may picture it as two hands of a clock pointing Ä 388 Remembering the Kanji to what time it is now. The element above it, meeting, should easily relate to that image. [4] * We shall use clock as the primitive meaning of this character, in line with the above explanation. 1588 L 1589 include Clock . . . mouth. [7] versify As we have already learned characters for poem (frame 346), chant (frame 21), and song (frame 469), it is important to protect this key word with an image all its own. Its elements are the same as those above; only the position has changed: mouth . . . clock. [7] E 1590 wish Clock . . . heart. [8] ç 1591 harp A pair of jewels . . . clock. [12] 7 1592 shade Just as the sunshine (frame 1300) represents the masculine principle in nature (Yang), the shade stands for the feminine principle (Yin). Its elements are: pinnacle . . . clock . . . rising cloud. [11] ‹ 1593 beforehand Think of this character as identical to the halberd (frame 1225) except that the ³nal stroke has been omitted. Return to that Ð lesson 41 389 character and devise some image to take this difference into account. [4] 1594 Ÿ 1595 preface Cave . . . beforehand. [7] deposit Beforehand . . . head. [13] Õ 1596 plains This character refers to rustic life and rustic ³elds primarily, and from there gets derived meanings. Its elements: computer . . . beforehand. [11] Ÿ 1597 concurrently At the top we have the animal horns and the single horizontal stroke to give them something to hang onto. Below that, we see one rake with two handles. Finally, we see a pair of strokes splitting away from each of the handles, indicating that they are both splitting under the pressure. The composite picture is of someone holding down two jobs concurrently, using the same kit of tools to move in two different directions and ending up in a mess. Take the time to find this sense in the kanji and it will be easy to remember, despite initial appearances. [10]  êëìíîïðñ òó 1598 dislike Woman . . . concurrently. [13] È 390 Remembering the Kanji 1599 sickle Metal . . . concurrently. [18] à 1600 self-effacing Words . . . concurrently. [17] Ù 1601 bargain Cave . . . concurrently. [13] š 1602 west To our way of counting directions, the west always comes fourth. So it is convenient to ³nd the character for four in this kanji. But since we want only one of the four directions, the west adds the one at the top and sucks the human legs a bit out of their mouth in the process. [6] » ôõö÷ * As a primitive, the meaning of west can be expanded to refer to the Old West of cowboy-movie fame, just as the meaning of the character for east was expanded into the East. Note, however, that in its primitive form the legs are straightened out and reach down to the bottom of the mouth. Hence, we get the shape º. With the exception of one kanji, given in the following frame, this element always appears at the top of its relative primitives. 1603 value Person . . . Old West. [8] 9 lesson 41 391 1604 need Old West . . . woman. [9] ê 1605 loins Part of the body . . . need. [13] » 1606 ç 1607 ballot Old West . . . altar. [11] å 1608 drift Water . . . ballot. [14] ã 1609 signpost Tree . . . ballot. [15] chestnut Old West . . . tree. [10] k 1610 transition West . . . St. Bernard dog . . . snake . . . road. [15] + 1611 capsize West . . . restore. [18] V 392 Remembering the Kanji 1612 smoke Hearth . . . Old West . . . ground. [13] ß 1613 south Belt . . . happiness. Note how the belt runs through the middle of happiness. [9] Ç 1614 øùú camphor tree Tree . . . south. [13] È 1615 offering South . . . chihuahua. [13] Ò Lesson 42 This next collection of characters is based on the primitive for gates. From there we shall go on to consider other elements related to entrances and barriers in general. 1616 gates The pictograph of two swinging gates is so clear in this kanji that only its stroke order needs to be memorized. In case you – lesson 42 should have any trouble, though, you might doodle with the shapes on a piece of paper, taking care to note the difference in the stroke order of the two facing doors. The gates usually serve as an enclosure, and are written before whatever it is they enclose. [8] 393 !#$%&()* * As a primitive, we shall continue to give it the meaning of gates, but recommend the image of swinging doors (like the kind once common at entrances to saloons) to distinguish it from the primitive for door. 1617 question Gates . . . mouth. [11] “ 1618 review Gates . . . devil. Keep distinct from the notions of inspection (frame 1093), revise (frame 339), and perusal (frame 855). [15] Ï 1619 u 1620 clique Gates . . . fell. [14]  1621 interval Gates . . . sun/day. This interval applies to time and space alike, but the latter is better for creating an image. [12] 6 simplicity Bamboo . . . interval. [18] 394 Remembering the Kanji 1622 open Gates . . . two hands. [12] ˆ 1623 closed Gates . . . genie. [11] w 1624 tower Gates . . . each. [14] ¼ 1625 E 1626 leisure Gates . . . tree. [12] hear Gates . . . ear. Compare the story you invented for the kanji meaning listen (frame 827). [14] l 1627 ‚ 1628 wet Water . . . gates . . . king. [15] column Tree . . . gates . . . east. [20] + 1629 ³ght Gates . . . table . . . glue. Do not confuse with contend (frame 1154). [18] y lesson 42 395 1630 godown The single gate is used here not in order to represent one gate, but many of them, indeed a meeting of gates. Add mouth (as an entrance here) and you end up with godown. That should help keep this character distinct from storehouse (frame 589). [10] V 1631 genesis Godown . . . saber. [12] S 1632 À unThis key word, a negating pre³x, is a doodle of a heavy iron pole with bars extending in both directions, to create the picture of a jail cell. From there to “un-” is but a short step. [8] +,/01234 * As a primitive, we shall draw on the explanation above for the meaning of jail cell. 1633 , 1634 haiku This character is used for the haiku, the 17-syllable poem that is one of Japan’s best-known literary forms. Its elements: person . . . jail cell. [10] 1 1635 repudiate Fingers . . . jail cell. [11] « sad Jail cell . . . heart. [12] 396 Remembering the Kanji 1636 guilt Eye . . . jail cell. [13] & 1637 8 1638 comrade Jail cell . . . car. [15] ¬ * front door Door . . . jail cell. [12] key This element gets its name and meaning from its pictographic representation of a key. The shape should be familiar: it is none other than the third and fourth strokes of the kanji for ³ve. [2] © 1639 qr marquis Person . . . key . . . dart. Hint: the pun suggested by the pronunciation of the key word and the primitive for key may come in helpful. [9] J 1640 climate Marquis . . . walking stick. Note where the walking stick is positioned in this kanji. [10] K * guillotine This element depicts a large, sharpened key coming down on the head of a criminal St. Bernard. [4] ° lesson 42 397 stu 1641 decide The etymology of decide (de-cidere = cut off ) will help here; the elements are: water . . . guillotine. [7] · 1642 cheerful State of mind . . . guillotine. [7] r * locket The vertical stroke added here (the third stroke) turns the primitive element for a key into a locket. Below that, we ³nd a square container (the mouth) and sunglasses with one of the lenses popped out. Note that in the primitive element for locket the ³nal vertical stroke of sunglasses reaches all the way through to touch the mouth. [10] y ûüIý 1643 admirable Person . . . locket. [12] T 1644 difference Locket . . . road. [13] j 1645 horizontal Thread . . . locket. [16] e 398 Remembering the Kanji 1646 defense Boulevard . . . locket. Do not confuse with ward off (frame 1302), protect (frame 997), guard (frame 186), or safeguard (frame 700). [16] Å 1647 H Korea As with Italy (frame 1161) and Africa (frame 1295), this character simply abbreviates the full name of Korea. Its elements: mist . . . locket. [18] Lesson 43 The next few primitives are only loosely related in the sense that they all have to do with qualities of material objects in one way or another. 1648 dry It is best to see this kanji as a pictograph of a revolving circular clothesline (viewed from the side). Spin it around quickly in your mind’s eye to give it the connotation of to dry. [3] ø 567 * The primitive meaning is clothesline. 1649 : liver Part of the body . . . dry. [7] lesson 43 399 1650 publish Dry . . . saber. [5] î 1651 * 1652 sweat Water . . . dry. [6] µats This kanji, a counter for houses, is made up of cars . . . dry. [10] Û 1653 M 1654 beach Mountain . . . cliff . . . dry. [8] tree trunk Mist . . . umbrella . . . dry. The meaning of this key word extends beyond tree trunks to represent the main stem or line of anything from railway lines to managerial staffs. This should help distinguish it from the stories used earlier for book (frame 211) and body (frame 957), both of which made use of the image of a tree trunk, as well as the kanji for trunk (frame 182). [13] ù * potato Note how this element differs from dry in virtue of the small hook at the end of the third stroke. [3] 6 1655 vwx potato Flowers . . . potato. [6] y 400 Remembering the Kanji 1656 eaves House . . . potato. [6] ” 1657 too much Umbrella . . . potato . . . little. The last stroke of potato and the ³rst of little coincide in this character. [7] * Since the phrase “too much” is overly abstract, we shall take the image of a scale whose indicator spins round and round on the dial because too much weight has been set on it. It will help to use this image in learning the kanji itself. Ñ 1658 ¤ 1659 exclude Pinnacle . . . scale. [10] ¡ 1660 gradually Line . . . scale. [10] › 1661 confer Scale . . crotch. The key word has to do with conferring ranks, titles, and awards. It should not be confused with bestow (frame 1246) or impart (frame 736). [9] route Scale . . . road. [10] ? 1662 diagonal Scale . . . measuring cup. [11] å lesson 43 401 1663 paint Water . . . scale . . . ground. [13] 3 1664 bundle In the same way that we saw the sun in the tree in the kanji for east, here we see a square container in the shape of a mouth. [7] – 1665 trust Bundle . . . head. [16] þ 1666 rapids Water . . . bundle . . . head. [19] œ 1667 imperial order In order to keep this character distinct from that for an imperial edict (frame 342), we must draw again on a pun. Think of the order here as a mail order or an order of pizza phoned in by the Emperor for delivery to the imperial palace. Then it will not be hard to put together bundle and muscle to form a story about an imperial order. [9] › 1668 alienate Zoo . . . bundle. Note that the element for zoo is µattened out on the left just as leg (frame 1279) had been. This is the only time we will meet this form in this book. [12] F 1669 quick Bundle . . . road. [10] ™ 402 Remembering the Kanji 1670 organize Bundle . . . taskmaster . . . correct. [16] ª * awl We include this element here because of its visible similarity to the element for bundle. Be sure to make a distinct image out of its composite ingredients: meeting . . . mouth . . . person. The stroke order follows the order of the elements exactly, but note how the person runs through the mouth. [8] ¢ yz{| 1671 saber Awl . . . saber. As we promised way back in frame 83, here at last is the kanji on which the primitive element of the same name is based. [10] Ä 1672 precipitous Pinnacle . . . awl. [11] Þ 1673 examination Tree . . . awl. [12] Î 1674 frugal Person . . . awl. [10] ¿ 1675 b heavy Thousand . . . ri. Note how the long vertical stroke doubles up to serve both elements. [9] lesson 43 403 89:;=?@ AB 1676 move Heavy . . . muscle. [11] { 1677 meritorious deed Move . . . oven ³re. So as not to confuse this kanji with the general character for merit (frame 1276), you may associate the key word with military decorations and medals of distinction, both of which it is used for. [15] o 1678 work Person . . . move. Do not confuse with labor (frame 860). [13] z 1679 ) 1680 species Wheat . . . heavy. [14] à 1681 collide Boulevard . . . heavy. [15] fragrant Flowers . . . heavy . . . oven ³re. Do not confuse with incense (frame 911) or perfumed (frame 493). [16] q Lesson 44 We may now pick up the remainder of the enclosure primitives, leaving only a few related to animals, which we will take up toward the end of the book, in Lesson 55. This lesson should give you a chance to review the general principles governing enclosures. * sickness The enclosure shown in this frame is composed of a cave with ice outside of it. It is used for a number of kanji related to sickness. If you want to picture a caveman nursing a hangover with an ice-pack, that should provide enough help to remember the shape of this element and its meaning. [5] ¿ CDE 1682 í 1683 ill Sickness . . . third class. [10] stupid Know . . . sickness. [13] L 1684 pox Sickness . . . beans. [12] d 1685 Ò symptoms Sickness . . . correct. [10] lesson 44 405 1686 rapidly Be sure to keep this character distinct from quick (frame 1669) and swift (frame 280). Picture a succession of poison darts (the sort that inµict sickness) µying out rapid-³re from a blowgun, so that “rapid-³re” can conjure up the proper image. [10] Õ 1687 diarrhea Sickness . . . pro³t. [12] 9 1688 ´ 1689 tired Sickness . . . pelt. [10] epidemic Sickness . . . missile. [9] É 1690 pain Sickness . . . chop-seal . . . utilize. [12] − 1691 mannerism Sickness . . . ketchup. [18] } * box This enclosure, open at the right, represents a box lying on its side. When it is not used as an enclosure, its form is cramped to look like this: ». You may distinguish its meaning by picturing it then as a very small box. [2] 1 FG 406 Remembering the Kanji 1692 hide Box . . . young. [10] ’ 1693 HI ¨ 1694 artisan Box . . . ax. [6] doctor Box . . . dart. [7] l 1695 Ï 1696 equal Box . . . human legs. [4] ward The ward referred to here is a subdivision of a large city. Its elements: box . . . sheaves. When used as a primitive element, it may be helpful at times to break it up into these same composite elements. [4] J 1697 hinge Tree . . . ward. [8] Š 1698 assault Ward . . . missile. [8] ö lesson 44 407 1699 Europe Ward . . . yawn. Like the kanji of frame 1647, this character is an abbreviation of the name of a geographical region. [8] õ 1700 repress Fingers . . . box . . . stamps. [7] ñ 1701 þ 1702 faceup This character is used both for lying on one’s back faceup, and for looking up to someone with respect and awe. Its elements: person . . . box . . . stamps. [6] welcome Box . . . stamps . . . road. [7] ª * teepee The dots at the top of this tent are the wooden poles protruding outside the canvas walls of a teepee. [5] ‰ 1703 JKLMN ascend Teepee . . . table. Do not confuse with rise up (frame 43). [12] : 1704 lucidity Water . . . ascend. [15] ˜ 408 Remembering the Kanji 1705 n 1706 discharge This key word refers to the discharging of guns, trains, people, and even words. The elements: teepee . . . two . . . human legs. Contrast the writing with frame 59. [9] / * abolish Cave . . . discharge. [12] pup tent The St. Bernard dog and its overlapping with the element for teepee are enough to suggest the meaning of this primitive element: a pup tent. The combination of sun and little at the bottom can mean a little opening or µap through which the sun shines in the morning to let you know it’s time for getting up. [12] r OPQR 1707 colleague Person . . . pup tent. Choose some connotation of the key word that will keep it distinct for you from companion (frame 19), friend (frame 704), consort (frame 1203), and comrade (frame 1637). [14] W 1708 dormitory House . . . pup tent. [15] Z 1709 heal Sickness . . . pup tent. [17] ` Lesson 45 We come now to a class of elements loosely associated with the notion of shape and form. We then append what remains of elements having to do with color. * shape The three simple strokes of this element actually represent the form or shape of the hair of one’s beard. But we keep the simple sense of a shape, or its verb “to shape,” in order to avoid confusion later when we meet an element for hair. When using this element, be sure to visualize yourself shaping the thing in question, or better still, twisting it out of shape. [3] ‰ 1710 carve The two primitives here, circumference and shape, belong naturally to the special connotations that differentiate carving from engraving (see frame 1521). [11] } 1711 shape Two hands . . . shape. [7] † 1712 shadow Scenery . . . shape. [15] ¹ 1713 cedar Tree . . . shape. [7] ’ 410 Remembering the Kanji 1714 coloring Fledgling . . . shape. [11] í 1715 ½ 1716 patent Badge . . . shape. The key word is synonymous with “clear” or “openly expressed.” [14] Ò 1717 lad Vase . . . cliff . . . shape. [9] STU W 1718 face Lad . . . head. [18] ought Shape . . . head. This is the only time that shape is placed to the left of its relative element, the head. [12] m 1719 swell Part of the body . . . drum . . . shape. Compare expand (frame 1118). [16] ã 1720 visit Elbow . . . St. Bernard dog . . . shape. [8] Z lesson 45 411 1721 wretched A state of mind . . . nonplussed. [11] 1722 @ 1723 discipline Person . . . walking stick . . . taskmaster . . . shape. [10] rare Jewel . . . umbrella . . . shape. [9] £ 1724 checkup Words . . . umbrella . . . shape. The key word refers to a medical examination. [12] W 1725 sentence Under the familiar top hat we see a crisscross pattern or design, like that found on woodwork or garments. This should make an ugly enough image to help remember it. It can be associated with sentence by thinking of a sentence as a grammatical pattern. [4] k ÛÜÝÞ * The primitive meaning for this character will be plaid, the familiar crisscross pattern frequently used in textiles. 1726 vis-à-vis Plaid . . . glue. [7] Á 412 Remembering the Kanji 1727 family crest Thread . . . plaid. [10] • 1728 mosquito Insect . . . plaid. [10] ^ * fenceposts This element means just what it looks like: two fenceposts. They enclose whatever comes between them, as distinct from a pair of walking sticks (see frame 250). [2] i 1729 adjusted Plaid . . . fenceposts . . . two. Do not confuse with just so (frame 388). [8] à 1730 dose Adjust . . . saber. Think of this as a dose of medicine. [10] # 1731 ³nish Water . . . adjust. Do not confuse with complete (frame 97), end (frame 1352), or perfect (frame 187). [11] ò 1732 puri³cation Plaid . . . fenceposts . . . altar. This is a “religious” puri³cation, which distinguishes it from the simple kanji for pure (frame 1539). [11] ù lesson 45 413 1733 j * solemn Sieve . . . fenceposts. Take special care in writing this character, even though it follows the general rules we learned back in frame 4. [11] VWXY sparkler As the pictograph itself immediately suggests, this element depicts spreading out or scattering from a focal point. To capture this meaning, we choose the image of a sparkler. It will often have another primitive put at its center point. [4] ª Z^ 1734 bases The kanji of this frame refers to the four bases that are placed at the corners of a baseball in³eld. The elements: ³eld . . . sparkler . . . ground. [12] x 1735 music Dove . . . sparkler . . . tree. [13] Á 1736 medicine Flowers . . . music. [16] ¦ 1737 ratio Mysterious . . . sparkler . . . ten. Do not confuse with proportion (frame 1553). [11] B 414 Remembering the Kanji 1738 _ 1739 astringent Water . . . footprint . . . sparkler. [11] vicarious Fingers . . . ear . . . sparkler. Do not confuse with substitute (frame 1005). [13] Ú 1740 center The elements depict a St. Bernard with its head and paws keeping their stick-like form, but with the middle or center of its body ³lled out in a box-like shape. [5] î 1741 England Flowers . . . center. This is another abbreviation used to identify a country by the pronunciation of the kanji. [8] Ä 1742 reµect Sun . . . center. [9] º 1743 red Ground . . . dagger . . . little. The two strokes of the dagger take the place of the middle stroke of little. [7] Ó _`ab * As a primitive on the left, this kanji keeps the same form. Elsewhere, the ³rst two strokes are abbreviated to a single dot, giving us 8. This latter form will take the meaning of an apple. lesson 45 415 1744 pardon Red . . . taskmaster. [11] ä 1745 unusual Apple . . . walking legs. [9] ˆ 1746 tracks Wooden leg . . . apple. [13] Ô 1747 ¤ 1748 barbarian Apple . . . insects. [12] romance Apple . . . heart. [10] › 1749 gulf Water . . . apple . . . bow. [12] Ø 1750 yellow Salad . . . sprout . . . animal legs. [11] ü 1751 sideways Tree . . . yellow. [15] ô 416 Remembering the Kanji * mosaic This element is shaped roughly like the snake, but pay attention to the difference when writing it. [4] ú 1752 cdef grasp Fingers . . . mosaic. [7] û 1753 color Bound up . . . mosaic. [6] 5 1754 discontinue Thread . . . color. [12] á 1755 glossy Bountiful . . . color. [19] ã 1756 » fertilizer Flesh . . . mosaic. [8] Lesson 46 A number of containers of various sorts can be gathered together here. Most of them have limited use as primitives, but none of them should cause any particular dif³culty. 1757 1 sweet This kanji is a pictograph of a small wicker basket. (The extra short stroke in the middle helps keep it distinct from the character for twenty.) All one needs to add is some image of sweet cakes or breads carried in the basket, and the union of picture and meaning is complete. Take care not to confuse with candy (frame 1122). [5] ghijk * As a primitive, the pictograph’s meaning of a wicker basket is used, a small one like the kind used for picnics. 1758 navy blue Thread . . . wicker basket. [11] Ñ 1759 so-and-so The key word here refers to the adjective for an unspeci³ed person or thing. Its elements: wicker basket . . . tree. [9] Þ 1760 conspire Words . . . so-and-so. [16] ä 418 Remembering the Kanji 1761 = * mediator Woman . . . so-and-so. [12] bushel basket As the two legs at the bottom suggest, this bushel basket is a large container, standing on the µoor. Its ³rst four strokes indicate that it is made of wicker, much like the small wicker basket treated immediately above. To put something inside of the bushel basket, the legs at the bottom are attached to the ³nal horizontal stroke and extended to make a kind of enclosure. [8] ¤ lmn 1762 ’ 1763 deceit Bushel basket . . . yawn. [12] l 1764 chess piece Tree . . . bushel basket. [12] i 1765 national µag Banner . . . bushel basket. [14] k period Bushel basket . . . month. As the month indicates, this has to do with periods of time. [12] lesson 46 419 1766 Go Bushel basket . . . stones. The key word refers to the Japanese game played with black and white colored stones on a lined board. [13] A 1767 _ 1768 fundamentals Bushel basket . . . soil. [11] tremendously Bushel basket . . . equal. Note how the ³rst stroke of equal doubles up with the sixth stroke of the bushel basket, and how the animal legs of the bushel basket are dropped to make room for the human legs of equal. [9] d 1769 intuition Tremendously . . . muscle. [11] ï 1770 withstand Soil . . . tremendously. [12] ó * purse By adding a single stroke at the bottom of the kanji for in, we get a sort of pictograph of a purse. [5] — 1771 { precious Purse . . . shells. [12] 420 Remembering the Kanji 1772 bequeath Precious . . . road. [15] k 1773 dispatch This kanji takes away the maestro’s baton and replaces it with a purse. The road represents his being dispatched on his way as an obvious mis³t. You will remember that when he did have his baton, he was being chased down the road by his fans. All of which shows what a difference a single stroke can make! [13] Ü 1774 dance The top two strokes show someone reclining, and the next six are a pictograph of an oaken tub ribbed with metal strips, like the kind once used for bathing. At the bottom, the sunglasses round off the character. [15] E opqrs 1775 nothingness This character is the Japanese character for the supreme philosophical principle of much Oriental thought: nothingness. Make use of the oaken tub from the previous frame, and add to that the oven ³re at the bottom. [12] [ Lesson 47 The several primitives we turn to next are all related to the position and disposition of things. The classi³cation is somewhat arbitrary since we are getting hard pressed to organize the leftover primitives into tidy categories. In addition, from this lesson on, most references to key words with possibly confusing similarities will be omitted. Try to think of them yourself as you are going through these characters. * shelf The pictographic representation in the primitive shown here is a small stand with horizontal shelves. Thus we give it the general meaning of a shelf. It differs from the kanji and primitive for an eye only in its ³nal stroke, which extends beyond the two vertical strokes at both ends. Think of it as a shelf for special keepsakes or a glass bureau for knickknacks, keeping it distinct from the kanji we learned in frame 202. [5] Õ 1776 association Thread . . . shelf. [11] L 1777 coarse Rice . . . shelf. [11] J 1778 tariff Wheat . . . shelf. [10] I 1779 ancestor Altar . . . shelf. [9] H 422 Remembering the Kanji 1780 thwart Pinnacle . . . shelf. [8] O 1781 investigate Tree . . . shelf. [9] Û 1782 š 1783 help Shelf . . . power. The reason why the shelf appears on the left here is that the right side is the normal position for power, the stronger primitive. Indeed, the only exception in all the kanji is the character for add (frame 867). [7] Š 1784 best regards This kanji, a polite way of expressing one’s best regards to another. Its elements: house . . . shelf. [8] tatami mat Rice ³eld . . . crown . . . shelf. [12] # 1785 row This character represents a slightly stylized duplication of the kanji for stand. By lengthening the sixth and seventh strokes, you will see how this is done. [8] u tuvwxyz{ * The primitive meaning remains the same as that of the kanji, but special attention has to be given to the varieties of shape this element can undergo. It is the most dif³cult one you will meet in this book. When it appears beneath its relative lesson 47 423 primitive, the top two strokes are omitted, and the ³rst horizontal stroke is doubled up with the bottom horizontal stroke of the element above it, wherever possible: o. atop its relative primitive, it can keep its kanji shape. When it does not, the top three strokes are removed and all of them are replaced below the primitive’s bottom line: p. We shall acknowledge this latter transformation by changing its meaning to upside down in a row. 1786 universal Row . . . sun. [12] 3 1787 musical score Words . . . universal. [19] : 1788 damp Water . . . sun . . . row. [12] Ó 1789 appear Sun . . . row . . . heads. [18] ß 1790 slender Thread . . . Thanksgiving . . . row. [17] ü 1791 spirits Rain . . . two . . . row. This character will refer only to the inhabitants of the “spirit world,” and not to moods or temperaments, for which we will learn another character in frame 1885. [15] ‘ 424 Remembering the Kanji 1792 profession In a row upside down . . . not yet. [13] % 1793 ûüý slap Fingers . . . upside down in a row . . . husbands. [15] ï 1794 me This key word is yet another synonym for “I,” somewhat more familiar in tone. As a rule, it is a word that boys and men use to refer to themselves. Its elements: person . . . husbands . . . in a row upside down. [14] ì 1795 ß together Salad . . . animal legs. [6] * The primitive retains the meaning of together. Imagine things strung together like ³sh on a line, beads on a thread, or whatever. The main thing is to avoid putting them in a straight row, which would confound this element with the previous one. As we saw with bushel basket, this primitive can join its legs to the ³nal horizontal stroke and stretch them to form an enclosure. 1796 Ú submit Submit here is a transitive verb, meaning to offer or present. Its elements: person . . . strung together. [8] lesson 47 425 1797 uncommon Brains . . . together. [11] b 1798 wing Feathers . . . uncommon. [17] ö 1799 deluge Water . . . strung together. [9] t 1800 harbor Deluge . . . snakes. [12] v 1801 outburst Sun . . . strung together . . . rice grains. [15] Ü 1802 Z 1803 bomb Fire . . . outburst. [19] ì 1804 respect Strung together . . . valentine. [10] elect Two snakes . . . strung together . . . road. [15] * 426 Remembering the Kanji 1805 Mr. Flags . . . strung together . . . missile. [13] * Lesson 48 This next lesson is composed of characters whose primitives are grouped according to shape rather than meaning. Each of them makes use, in one way or another, of squares and crossing lines. While this might have brought confusion earlier, we know enough primitives at this stage to introduce them together without risking any confusion. 1806 well Recalling that there are no circular strokes, and that the shape of the square and the square within a square (frame 586) have already been used, it should be relatively easy to see how this character can be consider a pictograph of a well. [4] m }‚ƒ„ 1807 surround Well . . . pent in. [7] U 1808 till Christmas tree . . . well. [10] … lesson 48 427 1809 Asia In this kanji, the abbreviation for Asia, you should be able to see the character for mouth behind the Roman numeral ii. [7] ! 1810 …†‡ˆ bad Asia . . . heart. [11] 1 1811 circle This kanji, also used for Yen, is one you are not likely to need to study formally, since you can hardly get around in Japan without it. The connection is that the yennies, like pennies, are circular in shape. In any case, the elements are: glass canopy . . . walking stick . . . one. [4] Ò |}‚ƒ 1812 angle Bound up . . . glass canopy . . . walking stick . . . two. If you write the character once, you will see why we avoided using the element for soil, which would prompt you to write it in improper order. [7] ¸ „…†‡ * As a primitive, imagine the tool used by draftsmen and carpenters to draw right-angles. 1813 contact Angle . . . insect. [13] 6 428 Remembering the Kanji 1814 unravel Angle . . . dagger . . . cow. [13] m 1815 again Jewel . . . with a belt hung on it. Note how the belt is drawn right after the ³rst stroke of jewel. [6] ç * ˆ‰Š‹Œ funnel Celery . . . again. [10] ½ 1816 ‘’“”• lecture Words . . . funnel. [17] “ 1817 subscription Shells . . . funnel. The key word is meant to suggest magazine subscriptions and the like. [17] • 1818 posture Tree . . . funnel. [14] r 1819 gutter Water . . . funnel. [13] w lesson 48 429 * scrapbook Glass canopy . . . µower. It is most rare to see the µower come under its relative element. Note how it is straightened out to ³ll the space available. [5] « 1820 –—˜™š argument Words . . . meeting . . . scrapbook. The argument connoted by the key word is a process of academic reasoning, not a personal quarrel or spat. [15] Ç 1821 ethics Person . . . meeting . . . scrapbook. [10] l 1822 wheel Car . . . meeting . . . scrapbook. [15] s 1823 partial Person . . . door . . . scrapbook. [11] ‡ 1824 everywhere Door . . . scrapbook . . . a road. [12] ’ 1825 compilation Thread . . . door . . . scrapbook. [15] ‹ 430 Remembering the Kanji 1826 tome This key word is a counter for books. It differs from scrapbook both in the writing order and in the extension of the second horizontal stroke. [5] G 1827 ›œŸ code We introduce this character here because of its connection to the book-related kanji treated above. It is based on the character for bend (frame 1172), whose last stroke is lengthened to coincide with the ³rst stroke of the element for tool. [8] ø Lesson 49 A few primitives having to do with groupings and classi³cations of people remain to be learned, and we may bring them all together here in this short lesson. 1828 family name Pay close attention to the stroke order of the elements when learning to write this character. The elements: a long drop . . . ³shhook . . . a one (here written right to left) . . . ³shhook. [4] ’ ¡¢£¤ lesson 49 431 1829 paper Thread . . . family name. [10] — 1830 marriage Woman . . . family name . . . day. [11] È * calling card Family name . . . µoor. [5] O 1831 lower Person . . . calling card. [7] È 1832 resist Fingers . . . calling card. [8] Ö 1833 bottom Cave . . . calling card. [8] Ñ 1834 people In place of the drop at the start of the character for family name, we have a mouth, which makes you think of the “vox populi.” [5] W 1835 ¥¦§¨© sleep Eyes . . . people. [10] X 432 Remembering the Kanji * dog tag This primitive refers to all sorts of identi³cation tags, but dog tag is chosen for its descriptiveness. On the top we see the arrowhead, joined to the screwdriver below by the lengthened vertical stroke. [7] ¡ ª«¬−° 1836 catch Flowers . . . dog tag. [10] œ 1837 bay Water . . . dog tag. [10] ª 1838 bullrush Flowers . . . bay. [13] Þ 1839 shop Cottage . . . dog tag. The key word refers to the noun, not the verb. [15] ™ 1840 supplement Cloth . . . dog tag. [12] ¢ * city walls On the left, and rather more pressed in its form, this element meant the high spot of a village, or its pinnacle. On the right side, in the form shown here, it means the lowest part of the J lesson 49 city, around which its walls rise up as a protection against invaders. Hence we nickname this element: city walls. [3] 433 1841 residence Calling card . . . city walls. [8] ä 1842 enclosure Receive . . . city walls. [11] » 1843 county Old boy . . . city walls. [10] u 1844 outskirts Mingle . . . city walls. [9] – 1845 section Muzzle . . . city walls. [11] H 1846 metropolis Someone . . . city walls. [11] @ 1847 mail Droop . . . city walls. [11] Ì 1848 home country Bushes . . . city walls. [7] Í 434 Remembering the Kanji 1849 ø 1850 hometown Cocoon . . . silver . . . city walls. [11] ú 1851 echo Hometown . . . sound. [20] son Halo . . . city walls. [9] Á 1852 corridor Cave . . . son. [12] ³ Lesson 50 In this lesson we simply present an assortment of leftover primitives that were not introduced earlier for want of a proper category or because we had not enough elements to give suf³cient examples of their use. * drag Althoughnot a pictograph in the strict sense, this primitive depicts one stroke pulling another along behind it. Note how it differs from cliff and person because of this dragging effect,not to mention the fact that the ³rst stroke is written right to left, almost as if it were a long drop. When this element comes under a different element, the strokes are drawn apart like this: ¼. [2] ± lesson 50 435 ±² 1853 ƒ 1854 shield Dragging . . . ten eyes. [9] x 1855 sequential Line . . . shield. [12] $ 1856 faction Water . . . drag . . . rag. Back in frame 1048 we indicated that this latter radical would come up once again, as it does in this and the following two frames. [9] vein Part of body . . . drag . . . rag. [10] T 1857 L 1858 masses Blood . . . drag . . . rag. [12] parcel post Drag . . . cornstalk . . . belt . . . road. [10] ã 1859 grade The kanji connoting rank or class shows us a new element on the left: the familiar primitive for staples with an additional stroke cutting through the vertical stroke. It is easiest in these cases to make a primitive related to what we already know. Hence, we call it a staple gun. To the right, missile. [9] B 436 Remembering the Kanji ´µ·¸¹º» ¼½ 1860 forge Metal . . . grade. [17] 9 1861 empress Drag . . . one . . . mouth. [6] U * clothes hanger This element, which looks something like a backwards hook, we will call a clothes hanger. Used as an enclosure, it begins further to the left. [1] ‘ 1862 phantasm Cocoon . . . clothes hanger. [4] å 1863 director Clothes hanger . . . one . . . mouth. [5] s 1864 pay respects This honori³c form of call on (frame 495) is made up of: person . . . director. [7] p 1865 parts of speech The key word, parts of speech, refers to nouns, verbs, adjective, adverbs, and so on. The elements: words . . . directors. [12] Ÿ lesson 50 437 1866 domesticate Eat . . . director. The sense is of rearing of animals. [13] ¨ 1867 heir Mouth . . . scrapbook . . . director. [13] u 1868 J boat After the drop and the glass canopy, we come to a combination of three strokes that we met only once before, in the character for mama (frame 101). The pictographic meaning we gave it there has no etymological relationship to this character, but use it if it helps. [6] ¾¿ÀÁÂà 1869 U 1870 liner The type of boat connoted by this key word is a large oceangoing liner. The important thing here is to work with the elements boat and dove to make an image distinct from that of the former frame. Don’t count on size alone to distinguish the boat from the liner. [11] navigate Boat . . . whirlwind. [10] ‹ 1871 “ carrier Boat . . . missile. [10] 438 Remembering the Kanji 1872 ¡ 1873 tray Carrier . . . dish. [15] … 1874 conveyor Fingers . . . carrier. [13] ship Boat . . . gully. [11] $ 1875 ; 1876 warship Boat . . . oversee. [21] rowboat Boat . . . courts. [13] ß 1877 melon The only thing that distinguishes this from the claw is the addition of the elbow (drawn with 3 strokes) in the middle. [5] « 1878 ÄÅÇÈÉ arc Bow . . . melon. [8] ù 1879 orphan Child . . . melon. [8] ö Lesson 51 As we said we would do back in Lesson 28, we now leave the beaten path to gather up those characters left aside because they form exceptions to the rules and patterns we have been learning. The list is not large and has a number of repeating patterns. Aside from the few others we shall interpose in the next section where they belong, and three characters appended at the very end, this will complete our collection of special characters. This is probably the most dif³cult lesson of the book. 1880 cocoon Though it’s a good thing that the primitive for cocoon has been radically abbreviated from this, its full form as a kanji, the story it holds is a charming one. The silkworm (insect) eats the leaves of the mulberry bush (the µowers), digests them and transforms them into thread with which it spins about itself, in mystic wisdom, its own cof³n (the hood). The dividing line that separates the two elements helps the picture of the little worm cutting itself off from contact with the outside world, but as a character stroke, it is a clear exception. [18] B ÊËÌÍÎ 1881 bene³t What we have poised over the dish here is a pair of animal horns that are attached to a pair of animal legs by a single horizontal stroke. [10] Ê 1882 ÏÐÑ spare time The element for day on the left is logical enough. Next to it we see staples being held in mouth (one stroke is doubled up), E 440 Remembering the Kanji indicating working in one’s hobby or handicrafts at home on one’s spare time. The small box at the top right is facing backwards, or more properly “inside out.” Finally, we have the crotch at the bottom. [13] ÒÓÔÕÖ 1883 spread At the top we have the arrowhead whose vertical line joins it to the rice ³eld (or brains) below it. Beneath it, the compass; and to the right, the taskmaster. [15] 1 ×ØÙ 1884 come This odd but common kanji is built up of the character for not yet into which a pair of animal horns has been inserted. [7] û 1885 ÚÛÜÝÞßà q 1886 spirit The spirit in this character refers to the changeable moods and airs of one’s personality as well as to the more essential combination of vital forces that distinguish things and individuals one from the other. Its elements are: reclining . . . µoor . . . ³shhook . . . sheaf. Do not confuse with spirits (frame 1791). [6] r vapor Think of this character as a sibling of that for spirit. Simply replace sheaves with drops of water on the left in order to get vapor. [7] lesson 51 441 1887 Á µy The two large hooks have little propellers (the two drops on each hook) attached to them for µying. Beneath is the measuring box, which serves as the body of this µying contraption. The stroke order will cause some problems, so take care with it. [9] áâãäåæç èé 1888 sink The technique for sinking used in this kanji is unique. Rather than the biblical image of tying a millstone about the victim’s neck, here we see a crown tied about one leg before the unfortunate party is tossed into the water. [7] ¢ 1889 wife Ten . . . rakes . . . woman. [8] ë 1890 ìíîïðð decline Let this key word connote the decline and fall of the Roman Empire. It shows a fellow in a top hat and scarf, trying hard to look happy by putting a walking stick in his mouth sideways to twist his face into a grotesque but semipermanent smile. [10] { ‰Š‹Œ‘’ 1891 inmost Between the top hat and the scarf you will see the character for in which is truncated at the bottom so as not to interfere with h 442 Remembering the Kanji the scarf. You can think of this character forming as a pair with that of the former frame: there the in (the walking stick in the mouth) was set on its side; here it is set upright. [10] OPQRSTU 1892 mask Imagine a mask over your head with eyes not only peeping out of the normal place, but all over the head, a hundred in all (the element for eye displacing the ³fth stroke of that for eye). [9] s !#$%&() *+ 1893 leather After the µowers at the top (painted on the leather for decoration), we see the element for car with the middle stroke left out. Think of the seats having been taken out so that they can be reupholstered with this decorated leather. [9] ¾ ,/01234 56 1894 shoes Leather . . . change. [13] e 1895 hegemony Old West . . . leather . . . moon. [19] þ lesson 51 443 1896 voice The samurai at the top is familiar enough. The combination beneath, which looks like a µag with a line running through it, is not. Try to devise some way to take note of it, and pay attention to the writing. [7] ¹ 789:; 1897 give The complex of strokes in this kanji is unusual and dif³cult, because of the fourth stroke, which is rare (see frames 33 and 34). The mouth and tool are already familiar. [7] 6 =?@ 1898 recreation Woman . . . give. [10] 8 1899 mistake Words . . . give. [14] C 1900 steam The µower at the top and the µoor with the oven ³re beneath are familiar. The problem is what comes in between. It is formed by the character for complete, whose vertical stroke doubles up as the ³rst stroke of water. [13] % ABCDE 444 Remembering the Kanji 1901 ¾ acquiesce The sense of passive acceptance or reception of information is contained in this key word. The form is based on the middle portion of the preceding character, with three additional strokes, best thought of as the kanji for three. [8] FGHIJKLM 1902 ` 1903 bin This is the character from which the element for box derives. Within it comes the element for snare, with the sparkler surrounding it. [8] OPQRSTUV poles The poles this key word refers to are the extremities of the earth or the terminals of an electric ³eld. The elements are: tree . . . snare . . . mouth . . . crotch . . . µoor. [12] ) `WXYZ ^_ Lesson 52 The final grouping of kanji revolves about elements related to animals. It is a rather large group, and will take us all of four lessons to complete. We begin with a few recurring elements related to parts of animal bodies. lesson 52 445 1904 tusk If you play with this primitive’s form with pencil and paper, you will see that it begins with a box-like shape, and ends with the ³nal two strokes of the halberd, a convenient combination for the tusk protruding from the mouth of an animal. [4] b “”•– 1905 bud Flowers . . . tusk. [7] e 1906 wicked Tusk . . . city walls. [7] î 1907 graceful Tusk . . . an old turkey. [12] h * — 1908 animal tracks Having already met the primitive for human footprints, we now introduce the one for animal tracks. Its elements are simply: a drop of . . . rice. [7] explanation Animal tracks . . . shakuhachi. [11] ö 1909 Ÿ turn This key word has been chosen for its overlay of several meanings similar to those of the kanji: a turn of duty, a round, a 446 Remembering the Kanji number, and so forth. Its composite elements: animal tracks . . . rice ³eld. [12] * As a primitive element, we choose the image of a pair of dice which it is your turn to throw. 1910 hearing The hearing referred to in this character relates to trials in the courts. The elements: house . . . dice. [15] C 1911 µip Dice . . . feathers. [18] ü 1912 ” 1913 clan Flowers . . . water . . . dice. [18] fur This character simply reverses the direction of the ³nal stroke of hand to produce fur. If you reverse your hand and put its palm down, you will have the side on which fur grows. [4] z 1914 bcde decrease Christmas tree . . . fur. [10] ‚ 1915 Å tail Flag . . . fur. [7] lesson 52 447 * lock of hair This element is clearly derived from that for fur. By leaving out the second stroke, we get simply a lock of hair. [3] 6 1916 home House . . . lock of hair. [6] á 1917 consign Words . . . lock of hair. [10] è * tail feathers So as not to confuse this primitive element with the character for feathers, think of the extravagant tail-feather plumage of the peacock. The form itself is too pictographic to need breaking down further. [5] ˜ fg 1918 do This character rightly belongs to the previous lesson, but we held it until now because of the ³nal element, the tail feathers. After the drop at the outset, the next three strokes are completely novel and should be given special attention. [9] ` hijk™l 1919 ‡ falsehood Person . . . do. [11] 448 Remembering the Kanji * hairpin Here we have a quasi-pictograph of the colorful and decorated clips used to bind up long hair. Note its similarity to the scarf, which differs only by the addition of one stroke. [4] › 1920 mnop long In line with the story of the preceding frame, the hair that needs the hairpin is long. [8] ˜ #$%&()*+ * The primitive of this kanji has two more shapes in addition to that of the kanji itself. Above its relative primitive, it is abbreviated to the form À and will mean hair. Further abbreviated to ½, it will mean the long, mangy mane of an animal. 1921 lengthen Bow . . . long. [11] | 1922 notebook Towel . . . long. [11] y 1923 dilate Flesh . . . long. [12] Œ 1924 p hair of the head Hair . . . shape . . . friend. [14] lesson 53 449 1925 unfold Flag . . . salad . . . hairpin. [10] û 1926 miss Soil . . . two mouths . . . hairpin. Hint: see spit (frame 151). The key word carries the wide range of meanings readily associated with it: error, loss, absence, and so on. [12] W Lesson 53 We turn now to the animals themselves, beginning with the smaller animals. Because we shall meet a fair number of limited-use primitives, this lesson will supply a larger than normal number of stories in complete or semicomplete form. * owl We have already met these three strokes before. When they come under another stroke, they represent a claw, and thence a vulture. And when placed atop a roof structure, they create a schoolhouse. The owl has something to do with both: it is a bird of prey, and it has come to be associated in the popular imagination with learning. [3] š 1927 nest Owl . . . fruit. [11] h 450 Remembering the Kanji 1928 simple Owl . . . brain . . . needle. The key word does not connote easy or facile, but rather simple as the opposite of complex. Note how the stroke order of the last two elements is different from what you might expect just by reading the ingredients. [9] $ uvw 1929 war Simple . . . ³esta. [13] ì 1930 Zen Altar . . . simple. [13] 7 1931 bullet Bow . . . simple. [12] = 1932 cherry tree Tree . . . owl . . . woman. [10] C 1933 ` 1934 animal Owl . . . rice ³eld . . . one . . . mouth . . . chihuahua. [16] brain Part of the body . . . owl . . . villain. Unlike most elements whose meaning is identical with that of a character, the full kanji for brain has no connection with the element for brains. [11] õ lesson 53 451 1935 trouble State of mind . . . owl . . . villain. [10] ñ 1936 stern Owl . . . cliff . . . daring. [17] ä 1937 chain Metal . . . little . . . shells. We have saved this character until now in order to draw attention to the visual difference between the owl and little. By now your eyes should be so accustomed to these apparently in³nitesimal differences that the point is obvious. [18] à 1938 Î 1939 raise Owl . . . tool . . . hand. [10] reputation Owl . . . tool . . . speaking. [13] Ó 1940 game hunting Pack of wild dogs . . . owl . . . wind . . . cornstalk. [11] _ 1941 bird Dove . . . one . . . tail feathers. This is, of course, the character from which we derived the primitive meaning of dove. Note the lengthening of the second stroke. [11] š xyz{| 452 Remembering the Kanji 1942 chirp Mouth . . . bird. [14] k 1943 crane Turkey house . . . bird. The ³rst element appears on only one other occasion, back in frame 567. [21] Æ 1944 crow The only thing that distinguishes this character from that for bird is the omission of the one stroke that makes it white. Which is logical enough, when you consider that there are no crows of that color. [10] • 1945 vine Flower . . . bird. [14] º 1946 v 1947 pigeon Baseball . . . bird. [13] chicken Vulture . . . husband . . . bird. [19] ¨ 1948 island The bird’s tail is tucked under here, because it has come to stop on a mountain to rest from its journey across the waters. Thus the kanji comes to mean an island. [10] S lesson 53 453 * migrating ducks This primitive is simplicity itself. It depicts bird claws that are joined to one another. Note the extra horizontal stroke in friendship, which gives the appearance of a “two” in the middle of the kanji, further emphasizing the togetherness of the migrating ducks. [9] £ }‚ƒ„ 1949 warmth Unlike the character for warm weather learned earlier (frame 1452), this kanji and its key word can also refer to the warmth of human congeniality. Its elements are: sun . . . migrating ducks. [13] @ 1950 Ý 1951 beautiful woman Woman . . . migrating ducks. [12] abet Fingers . . . migrating ducks. [12] Ú 1952 7 1953 slacken Thread . . . migrating ducks. [15] belong Flag . . . gnats (see frame 524) . . . with a belt. [12] › …†‡ˆ‰ 454 Remembering the Kanji 1954 entrust Mouth . . . belong. [15] * 1955 accidentally The person on the left is familiar. As for the right side, we may combine the insect with a brain (observe the writing) and a belt to create the Talking Cricket who served as Pinocchio’s conscience. (The belt is there because he pulls it off to give unrepentant little Pinocchio a bit of “strap” now and again.) [11] X Š‹Œ‘’ 1956 interview Talking Cricket . . . road. [12] Z 1957 foolish Talking Cricket . . . heart. [13] T 1958 corner Pinnacle . . . Talking Cricket. [12] [ * mountain goat The animal horns and mountain unite, quite naturally, to give us a mountain goat. The extension of the ³nal stroke indicates its tail, which only shows up when it has something under it. In an overhead enclosure, it is to be pictured as standing still, so that its tail droops down and out of sight. [6] • “”• lesson 53 455 1959 − 1960 inverted Mountain goat . . . road. [9] model This kanji depicts the art of modeling clay or wood into a ³gure of something else. The elements: mountain goat . . . moon . . . soil. [13] = 1961 Mount Here we see a a mountain goat “mounted” under a glass canopy. In this and the following frames, think of a particular Mount you know. [8] þ 1962 steel Metal . . . Mount. [16] š 1963 hawser Thread . . . Mount. [14] „ 1964 sturdy Mount . . . saber. [10] ¤ 1965 8 tin can Though the meaning has no reference to animals, the parts do: horse with a mountain underneath. [6] 456 Remembering the Kanji 1966 pottery Pinnacle . . . bound up . . . tin can. [11] v * condor Vulture . . . king . . . mountain. By now you should be used to ³nding two elements double up on a stroke, as is the case here with king and mountain. [9] œ 1967 –—˜ swing Fingers . . . condor. [12] Ü 1968 Noh chanting Words . . . condor. [16] ë 1969 = * concerning Capital . . . chihuahua with a human leg in place of one of its paws. [12] skunk This primitive represents a skunk by combining the claw with the ³rst part of the element for a sow. Note how the ³nal stroke of claw is turned and lengthened to double up with the ³rst stroke of the sow. [7] _ ¡¢£¤¥¦§ lesson 53 457 1970 sociable Skunk . . . silver . . . heart. [17] Ê 1971 groundbreaking The groundbreaking referred to here is not for the erection of new buildings but for the opening of farmlands. The elements: skunk . . . silver . . . soil. [16] Ç 1972 excuse This character is used for excusing oneself for a failure of courtesy. The elements are: bound up . . . sun (oddly enough, laid on its side) . . . human legs. [8] o Ÿ¡¢£¤ * For the primitive meaning, we shall refer to this character as a rabbit, for which the old form of the character is −. [8] 1973 elude Rabbit . . . road. [11] v 1974 œ 1975 nightfall Sun . . . rabbit. [12] exertion Rabbit . . . muscle. Notice how the last stroke of rabbit is stretched out to underlie the element for muscle. [10] ” 458 Remembering the Kanji 1976 æ 1977 elephant A rabbit’s head with the body of a sow represents an elephant. Little wonder that the kanji also means “phenomenon”! [12] statue Person . . . elephant. [14] … Lesson 54 Now that we have come as far as the elephant, we may continue on with more of the larger animals. Fortunately, this group will cause us much less of a headache than the preceding series, since there are fewer new primitives and their use is more frequent. 1978 + horse Let the extra vertical stroke in the mane combine with the ³rst vertical stroke to give an image of the horse’s long neck. The only odd thing is the tail feathers at the end, but that should present a good image to remember the character by. The fact that the last stroke of mane and the ³rst of tail feathers coincide should no longer surprise you. [10] ¥¦§¨©ª«¬ −° * As a primitive, this kanji will mean a team of horses as distinct from the single horse whose primitive we met earlier. lesson 54 459 1979 pony Team of horses . . . phrase. In American slang, a pony is an underground translation of a classical text, which students who cannot manage the dif³cult phrases of the original language consult and pass on from one generation to the next. [15] R 1980 veri³cation Team of horses . . . awl. [18] à 1981 „ 1982 equestrian Team of horses . . . strange. [18] parking Team of horses . . . candlestick. [15] l 1983 drive Team of horses . . . ward. [14] P 1984 station Team of horses . . . shakuhachi. [14] Ë 1985 boisterous Team of horses . . . crotch . . . insect. [18] „ 1986 burdensome Team of horses . . . fat. [14] ½ 460 Remembering the Kanji 1987 ü 1988 wonder Awe . . . team of horses. [22] fervent Bamboo . . . team of horses. [16] ™ 1989 inµation Meat . . . quarter . . . team of horses. [20] x 1990 tiger The kanji in this frame recalls the famous Bengali fable about the group of magicians (the magic wand) who decided to make a tiger. It seems that each of them knew how to make one part of the beast, so they pooled their talents and brought all the pieces (diced into pieces) together, at which point the fabricated tiger promptly ate its makers up (the bodiless human legs). Whatever the parable’s signi³cance for modern civilization and its arsenals, it should help with this kanji. Oh yes, we should not forget that cliff-like element. Think of it as an abbreviation of the primitive for zoo (the ³rst and fourth strokes, actually), in order to ³t the tiger somewhere into the picture. In fact, the abbreviation is perfectly logical, since the bottom elements usurp the room for the rest of the primitive for zoo. [8] ) ±²³´µ·¸¹ * As a primitive element itself, the human legs are also swallowed up, but the meaning of tiger is kept, and the whole serves as a roof for what comes beneath, ¾, giving the tiger something else to eat. lesson 54 461 1991 captive Tiger . . . male. [13] T 1992 skin Tiger . . . stomach. [15] 8 1993 Ð 1994 void Tigers . . . row. [11] ‹ 1995 frolic Void . . . ³esta. [15] uneasiness Tiger . . . give. [13] U 1996 prudence Tiger . . . think. [15] R 1997 drama Tiger . . . sow . . . saber. [15] ¬ 1998 ¬ tyrannize Tiger . . . box with a one in it (or a backwards broom, if that makes it easier). [9] 462 Remembering the Kanji 1999 deer Drawn on the walls of a complex of caves near Niaux in southern France are a number of animal likenesses dating from the Upper Paleolithic period. Among them we ³nd pictures of deer, some of them showing men in deer masks. By comparing their drawings to real deer, Stone Age people hoped to acquire power over the animal in the hunt; and by comparing themselves to the deer, to take on that animal’s characteristics. But time has “double-locked” (the extra stroke through the element for lock) the real secret of this art form from us, and we can only surmise such meanings. But more important than the enigmas of the troglodytic mind is the way in which caves, a double-lock, and comparing gives us the kanji for deer. [11] Ä º»¼½¾ * As a primitive, this kanji is abbreviated much the same as the tiger was: the lower element is dropped to leave room for a replacement: ¿. Its meaning, however, remains the same. There are a very few cases (see frame 2002) in which there is no abbreviation. When this happens, we may keep the image suggested by the above explanation: painting of a deer. 2000 recommend Flowers . . . deer . . . slingshot . . . tail feathers. Note the doubling up in these last two elements. [16] % 2001 jubilation Deer . . . crown (note the doubling up) . . . heart . . . walking legs. You may recall that we met the relative primitives at the bottom here before, in the kanji for melancholy (frame 616). [15] ‰ 2002 lovely The painting of a deer itself with its form and color is enough to ³ll the bill for an image of something lovely. But to give a bit ’ lesson 55 463 of contrast, we see two mediocre drawings from a later age on two patches of ceiling above. Note that the drop in mediocre has been lengthened somewhat and the second stroke drawn down straight. [19] 2003 bear Elbow . . . meat . . . spoon atop spoon . . . oven ³re. [14] h 2004 ability Try relating this kanji to that of the previous frame. For instance, you might imagine that the test of ability envisioned here is removing the bear from the oven ³re. [10] ô 2005 attitude Ability . . . heart. [14] Ç Lesson 55 The final grouping of kanji is based on primitives related to fantastical animals and beings. We begin with two animals belonging to the zodiac. 2006 sign of the tiger House . . . ceiling . . . sprout . . . animal legs. Compare frame 1750. [11] ¨ 464 Remembering the Kanji 2007 performance Water . . . sign of the tiger. [14] Ü 2008 sign of the dragon Cliff . . . two . . . hairpins. [7] ó 2009 embarrass Sign of the dragon . . . glue. [10] 9 2010 quake Weather . . . sign of the dragon. [15] 2011 shake Fingers . . . sign of the dragon. [10] F 2012 with child Woman . . . sign of the dragon. The key word is a synonym for pregnant, whose character we met earlier (frame 507). Although the two kanji are often used together, they should be kept distinct. [10] A 2013 lips Sign of the dragon . . . mouth. [10] @ 2014 agriculture Bend . . . sign of the dragon. [13] ÷ lesson 55 465 2015 concentrated Among other things, the key word refers to the thick consistency of liquids. Its elements: water . . . agriculture. [16] ò * golden calf The story is told of the people of the Exodus that, in their distrust of Moses’ leadership, they gathered together and melted down their gold ornaments to fashion a golden calf for an idol. The animal horns and heavens here represent that god of theirs. [6] − 2016 send off Road . . . golden calf. [9] | 2017 F 2018 connection Gates . . . golden calf. [14] blossom Mouth . . . golden calf. [9] 1 2019 … 2020 ghost Drop of . . . brains . . . human legs . . . elbow. [10] U ugly Whiskey bottle . . . ghost. [17] 466 Remembering the Kanji 2021 soul Rising cloud of . . . ghosts. [14] Ó 2022 witch Hemp . . . ghost. [21] % 2023 fascination Ghost . . . not yet. [15] K 2024 clod Soil . . . ghost. [13] o 2025 M attack Vase . . .meat . . . slingshot (doubled up with) snake . . . three . . . garment. The top half of this character is the old form for the kanji in frame 536. [22] ¿ÀÁÂÃÄÅ ÆÇ Lesson 56 This final lesson is intended to complete preparations for learning new kanji not treated in these pages. A group of 14 such kanji has been reserved for this purpose and arranged in four groups typifying the kinds of problems you lesson 56 467 can run into. Aside from help with unusual stroke order and the indication of the total number of strokes in square brackets, no hints will be given. The ³rst and simplest group will be composed of those whose parts you will recognize immediately from characters already learned. We list seven examples, each representing one of the principles governing primitives. 2026 upbraid [17] © 2027 majestic plural [10] ¡ 2028 atmosphere [12] j 2029 item [14] O 2030 tempering [16] § 2031 † 2032 abide by [15] º quit [15] 468 Remembering the Kanji Secondly, you may run into characters that you learned as primitives, but whose meaning is completely unrelated to the primitive meaning we adopted. In learning the meaning of the kanji, be careful not to forget what it stands for when used as a primitive element. 2033 barracks [4] ¬ 2034 moreover [5] Õ In the third place, you will meet kanji using combinations of elements that you can make into a new primitive with its own particular meaning. Recall a previous kanji in which this combination appears and adjust your story to reinforce your new invention. 2035 seaweed [19] y 2036 slave [16] ‹ 2037 healing [18] ² Finally, there are shapes that were not covered in this book. You are on your own here, but it may help to consult a kanji dictionary to see whether any lesson 56 469 of the parts might not be a character with a speci³c and useful meaning. The cluster of strokes forming ¡ in frame 2039 is a perfect illustration of this. 2038 cinnabar [4] # 2039 lagoon [15] Ê Scattered here and there throughout the foregoing 55 lessons several ³gures of the Sino-Japanese zodiac were introduced. We conclude this lesson, and the book, with the remaining ³gures. In all, there are twelve animals, several of which take their writing from other characters quite unrelated in meaning. So far, then, we have learned the following: rat ({), tiger (¨), dragon (ó), horse (5), ram (J), monkey (M), bird (©), dog (R), and hog (n). This leaves three for the learning. 2040 sign of the cow [4] œ 2041 ÈÉÊË sign of the hare [5] ™ 2042 sign of the snake [3] L Valeant bene³ci, Poenas dent male³ci! Indexes index i Kanji The following Index includes all the kanji presented in this book, in the order of their appearance. They are printed in one of the typical block-form type styles currently used in Japan to teach children the proper form for drawing kanji by hand with a pen or pencil. You will ³nd it helpful to consult this Index when you are unsure about the ³nal form your hand-drawn kanji should take. !$(/379;?A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 DH 11 12 21 22 MRWahqy… 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 ”£¬µ ¾ÄÊÏØÝ æìñöý(/59= 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 DHPSV`Cgjm 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 u…—¡ª·¾ÅÉÒ 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 ßþèëðþ(ˆ2; 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 474 index i: kanji =EMXchmrx‰ 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 —¦¨«±·ÀÉÝä 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 æíòý$)+06= 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 CNSZ^bempv 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 {…Š •¤−¹ÂÈÌ 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 Ûäëôý*/5OS 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 X^gqˆ”œ¦¬³ 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 ÃÐÙãëóû0=A 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 GLXbhq|†”› 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 ¢ªºÅËÔÛáê÷ 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 þ2þ/?Q^gqy 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 †”š¥°·¾ÇÑ× 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 index i: kanji 475 áìø0ü8FPYb 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 my„’¡ª²ºÃÉ 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 ÎÓáëü&,6@H 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 NXdmu†Ÿ¬ÇÔ 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 áïý*86CGN^ 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 jt}Œ”¡¨°º¿ 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 ÈÑÛçëðø,9B 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 KRXcnývƒ‹Ÿ 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 270 −¾ÉÓáóIX^d 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 nvƒˆ’™¦±ÂË 281 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 290 ÔÞéò6ü;DPT 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 300 ^`be”#‡psW 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 476 index i: kanji {}ƒøúþ˜¦©« 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 320 ³½ÄÑÝæöŒ*, 321 322 323 324 325 326 327 328 329 330 9CLX`bdgik 331 332 333 334 335 336 337 338 339 340 moqsuwy{}ƒ 341 342 343 344 345 346 347 348 349 350 …‡‘›¨¬³ÄÎÓ 351 352 353 354 355 356 357 358 359 360 Ùâäóù™ûý)/ 361 362 363 364 365 366 367 368 369 370 7DFNTW`bgs 371 372 373 374 375 376 377 378 379 380 |‡‰‹‘š©´·¹ 381 382 383 384 385 386 387 388 389 390 ¾ÀÂÊÍÓßëîñ 391 392 393 394 395 396 397 398 399 400 ô÷ú&/;IK´ 401 402 403 404 405 406 407 408 409 410 NSUWacmuw} 411 412 413 414 415 416 417 418 419 420 ƒ‹‘“•—›¢¦¨ 421 422 423 424 425 426 427 428 429 430 index i: kanji 477 −±³·º¼¾ÀÄÉ 431 432 433 434 435 436 437 438 439 440 ËÍÏÑÖØÚÜÞ¹ 441 442 443 444 445 446 447 448 449 450 ãåçéëíðòôö 451 452 453 454 455 456 457 458 459 460 øúü&)/13·5 461 462 463 464 465 466 467 468 469 470 79;?BFHJLN 471 472 473 474 475 476 477 478 479 480 P_cegiknqœ 481 482 483 484 485 486 487 488 489 490 uwy{}ƒ‡‹‘“ 491 492 493 494 495 496 497 498 499 500 –˜š¥§©−±Àà 501 502 503 504 505 506 507 508 509 510 ÇËÍÐÕ×ÛÝàâ 511 512 513 514 515 516 517 518 519 520 åç!êíïñóõ÷ 521 522 523 524 525 526 527 528 529 530 ùûý( * ,1:=A 531 532 533 534 535 536 537 538 539 540 CEHQSUXZ]_ 541 542 543 544 545 546 547 548 549 550 478 index i: kanji adgkmwy{}ƒ 551 552 553 554 555 556 557 558 559 560 …ˆ‹œ”—›¡£§ 561 562 563 564 565 566 567 568 569 570 ©«±³µ¹¼çÉ, 571 572 573 574 575 576 577 578 579 580 /0123Ì4Ñ56 581 582 583 584 585 586 587 588 589 590 78&Ó×9:;=? 591 592 593 594 595 596 597 598 599 600 @AÚBCDEFGH 601 602 603 604 605 606 607 608 609 610 IJKLMNãOPQ 611 612 613 614 615 616 617 618 619 620 RSTUVWXYZ[ 621 622 623 624 625 626 627 628 629 630 ^è_í`ñóaú 631 632 633 634 635 636 637 638 639 640 bcdefghijk 641 642 643 644 645 646 647 648 649 650 lmnopqrstu 651 652 653 654 655 656 657 658 659 660 vwxyz{|}‚ƒ 661 662 663 664 665 666 667 668 669 670 index i: kanji 479 „…†‡ˆ)‰Š‹Œ 671 672 673 674 675 676 677 678 679 680 ,‘’2“4”7•– 681 682 683 684 685 686 687 688 689 690 =A—D˜F™š›œ 691 692 693 694 695 696 697 698 699 700 Ÿ¡¢ë$¤¥¦MP 701 702 703 704 705 706 707 708 709 710 R§¨©ª«¬W−® 711 712 713 714 715 716 717 718 719 720 ¯°±²³´[%·¸ 721 722 723 724 725 726 727 728 729 730 ¹º»¼½¾c¿ÀÁ 731 732 733 734 735 736 737 738 739 740 ÂÃÄÅÆÇÈÉik 741 742 743 744 745 746 747 748 749 750 ÊmoËÌÍòtÎw 751 752 753 754 755 756 757 758 759 760 ÏÐ!ÑÒõ|ÎÓÔ 761 762 763 764 765 766 767 768 769 770 ÕÖÑ×øØÙÚ‚Û 771 772 773 774 775 776 777 778 779 780 úÜÝÞßàáÔâã 781 782 783 784 785 786 787 788 789 790 480 index i: kanji äåæçèéêëìí 791 792 793 794 795 796 797 798 799 800 îŒïðñò’óôõ 801 802 803 804 805 806 807 808 809 810 ö÷øùúûüÚ!# 811 812 813 814 815 816 817 818 819 820 #()*+,/012 821 822 823 824 825 826 827 828 829 830 3456789¦:; 831 832 833 834 835 836 837 838 839 840 =?@A¨BC±Dý 841 842 843 844 845 846 847 848 849 850 ÿEFGH&I³JK 851 852 853 854 855 856 857 858 859 860 LMNOPQRSTU 861 862 863 864 865 866 867 868 869 870 V`ºWXYZ^ 871 872 873 874 875 876 877 878 879 880 _`abcd¾efg 881 882 883 884 885 886 887 888 889 890 Ãhijklmnop 891 892 893 894 895 896 897 898 899 900 qrstuvwxyz 901 902 903 904 905 906 907 908 909 910 index i: kanji 481 {|}‚ƒ„…†Î‡ 911 912 913 914 915 916 917 918 919 920 ˆ‰Š‹Œ‘’“”• 921 922 923 924 925 926 927 928 929 930 –—ј™š×›œŸ 931 932 933 934 935 936 937 938 939 940 ¡¢£¤¥¦§¨Xª 941 942 943 944 945 946 947 948 949 950 Ù«¬−°±²³´µ 951 952 953 954 955 956 957 958 959 960 ·¸¹º»¼½¾¿À 961 962 963 964 965 966 967 968 969 970 ÁÂÃÜÄÅÆabÇ 971 972 973 974 975 976 977 978 979 980 ÈÉÊËÌÍÎÏÐÑ 981 982 983 984 985 986 987 988 989 990 ÒÓÔÕÖ×ØÙÚÛ 991 992 993 994 995 996 997 998 999 1000 ÜcÝÞßàáâãä 1001 1002 1003 1004 1005 1006 1007 1008 1009 1010 åæçèéßêdáì 1011 1012 1013 1014 1015 1016 1017 1018 1019 1020 íîïðñòäóôõ 1021 1022 1023 1024 1025 1026 1027 1028 1029 1030 482 index i: kanji 3ö÷ø7=Bùúû 1031 1032 1033 1034 1035 1036 1037 1038 1039 1040 üýþî$%&GK( 1041 1042 1043 1044 1045 1046 1047 1048 1049 1050 )*+,/01234 1051 1052 1053 1054 1055 1056 1057 1058 1059 1060 56789:;=?þ 1061 1062 1063 1064 1065 1066 1067 1068 1069 1070 ABCDEFGHIJ 1071 1072 1073 1074 1075 1076 1077 1078 1079 1080 KLMNOPQRST 1081 1082 1083 1084 1085 1086 1087 1088 1089 1090 UVWXYZ^_ 1091 1092 1093 1094 1095 1096 1097 1098 1099 1100 `abcdefghi 1101 1102 1103 1104 1105 1106 1107 1108 1109 1110 jkõlmOnoep 1111 1112 1113 1114 1115 1116 1117 1118 1119 1120 qrstûuvwxy 1121 1122 1123 1124 1125 1126 1127 1128 1129 1130 z{|}‚ƒ„…†‡ 1131 1132 1133 1134 1135 1136 1137 1138 1139 1140 ˆ‰Š‹Œ‘’“”• 1141 1142 1143 1144 1145 1146 1147 1148 1149 1150 index i: kanji 483 –—˜™š›œŸ¡¢ 1151 1152 1153 1154 1155 1156 1157 1158 1159 1160 £¤¥¦§¨©ª«9 1161 1162 1163 1164 1165 1166 1167 1168 1169 1170 ¬−°±²³?´µ· 1171 1172 1173 1174 1175 1176 1177 1178 1179 1180 ¸¹º»¼½¾¿À+ 1181 1182 1183 1184 1185 1186 1187 1188 1189 1190 ÁÂfÃÄYÅÆÇÈ 1191 1192 1193 1194 1195 1196 1197 1198 1199 1200 ɲÊËÌÍÎÏÐÑ 1201 1202 1203 1204 1205 1206 1207 1208 1209 1210 ÒIÓÔÕgWÖ×Ø 1211 1212 1213 1214 1215 1216 1217 1218 1219 1220 ÙÚÛÜNÝÞßàá 1221 1222 1223 1224 1225 1226 1227 1228 1229 1230 ™âãäåæçèéê 1231 1232 1233 1234 1235 1236 1237 1238 1239 1240 ëìíîZïðdñò 1241 1242 1243 1244 1245 1246 1247 1248 1249 1250 góôõö÷øùúû 1251 1252 1253 1254 1255 1256 1257 1258 1259 1260 üýþ!#%&()* 1261 1262 1263 1264 1265 1266 1267 1268 1269 1270 484 index i: kanji +,/u012345 1271 1272 1273 1274 1275 1276 1277 1278 1279 1280 6789:;={?@ 1281 1282 1283 1284 1285 1286 1287 1288 1289 1290 ABCDEFGHIJ 1291 1292 1293 1294 1295 1296 1297 1298 1299 1300 KLMNOPQRST 1301 1302 1303 1304 1305 1306 1307 1308 1309 1310 UVWXYhijkl 1311 1312 1313 1314 1315 1316 1317 1318 1319 1320 mnopqrstuv 1321 1322 1323 1324 1325 1326 1327 1328 1329 1330 wxˆyz{|}‚ƒ 1331 1332 1333 1334 1335 1336 1337 1338 1339 1340 „…†‡ˆ‰Š‹Œ‘ 1341 1342 1343 1344 1345 1346 1347 1348 1349 1350 ’“”•–—˜™š› 1351 1352 1353 1354 1355 1356 1357 1358 1359 1360 œŸ¡¢£¤¥¦§¨ 1361 1362 1363 1364 1365 1366 1367 1368 1369 1370 ©ª«¬−°±²³g 1371 1372 1373 1374 1375 1376 1377 1378 1379 1380 Œ´µ·¸¹º»¼½ 1381 1382 1383 1384 1385 1386 1387 1388 1389 1390 index i: kanji 485 ¾¿ÀÁÂÃkÄÅÆ 1391 1392 1393 1394 1395 1396 1397 1398 1399 1400 ÇÈ)ÉÊËÌÍÎÏ 1401 1402 1403 1404 1405 1406 1407 1408 1409 1410 ÐÑÒÓÔÕÖ×ØÙ 1411 1412 1413 1414 1415 1416 1417 1418 1419 1420 ÚÛÜÝÞߧàáâ 1421 1422 1423 1424 1425 1426 1427 1428 1429 1430 ãäåæçèéêë« 1431 1432 1433 1434 1435 1436 1437 1438 1439 1440 ìíîïðñ²òóô 1441 1442 1443 1444 1445 1446 1447 1448 1449 1450 õö÷øùûúü»ý 1451 1452 1453 1454 1455 1456 1457 1458 1459 1460 þ!#$%&(*+, 1461 1462 1463 1464 1465 1466 1467 1468 1469 1470 /012345678 1471 1472 1473 1474 1475 1476 1477 1478 1479 1480 9:;Ä=?@ABÈ 1481 1482 1483 1484 1485 1486 1487 1488 1489 1490 CDEFGHIJKL 1491 1492 1493 1494 1495 1496 1497 1498 1499 1500 MNOPQRSTUV 1501 1502 1503 1504 1505 1506 1507 1508 1509 1510 486 index i: kanji WXYZ^_Ô` 1511 1512 1513 1514 1515 1516 1517 1518 1519 1520 abcdefghij 1521 1522 1523 1524 1525 1526 1527 1528 1529 1530 klmnopqrst 1531 1532 1533 1534 1535 1536 1537 1538 1539 1540 uvwxyz{|}‚ 1541 1542 1543 1544 1545 1546 1547 1548 1549 1550 ƒ„…†‡ˆ‰Š‹Œ 1551 1552 1553 1554 1555 1556 1557 1558 1559 1560 ‘’“”•–—˜™š 1561 1562 1563 1564 1565 1566 1567 1568 1569 1570 ›œŸ¡¢£¤¥¦§ 1571 1572 1573 1574 1575 1576 1577 1578 1579 1580 ¨©!ª«¬−°±² 1581 1582 1583 1584 1585 1586 1587 1588 1589 1590 ³#$%&(ó)*+ 1591 1592 1593 1594 1595 1596 1597 1598 1599 1600 ,÷/0123456 1601 1602 1603 1604 1605 1606 1607 1608 1609 1610 ´µú·¸*¹º»¼ 1611 1612 1613 1614 1615 1616 1617 1618 1619 1620 ½¾¿ÀÁÂÃÄÅÆ 1621 1622 1623 1624 1625 1626 1627 1628 1629 1630 index i: kanji 487 Ç4ÈÉÊËÌÍÎÏ 1631 1632 1633 1634 1635 1636 1637 1638 1639 1640 ÐÑÒÓÔÕÖ×ØÙ 1641 1642 1643 1644 1645 1646 1647 1648 1649 1650 ÚÛÜÝÞ7ßàáâ 1651 1652 1653 1654 1655 1656 1657 1658 1659 1660 ãäåæçèéêëì 1661 1662 1663 1664 1665 1666 1667 1668 1669 1670 íîïðBñòóôõ 1671 1672 1673 1674 1675 1676 1677 1678 1679 1680 ö÷øùúû89üý 1681 1682 1683 1684 1685 1686 1687 1688 1689 1690 þI:;=?@ABC 1691 1692 1693 1694 1695 1696 1697 1698 1699 1700 DEFGHIJKLM 1701 1702 1703 1704 1705 1706 1707 1708 1709 1710 NOP$QURSTU 1711 1712 1713 1714 1715 1716 1717 1718 1719 1720 VWXYÞZ^_ 1721 1722 1723 1724 1725 1726 1727 1728 1729 1730 `aYbcdefgh 1731 1732 1733 1734 1735 1736 1737 1738 1739 1740 ijbklmnopq 1741 1742 1743 1744 1745 1746 1747 1748 1749 1750 488 index i: kanji rstuvwkxyz 1751 1752 1753 1754 1755 1756 1757 1758 1759 1760 {|}‚ƒ„…†‡ˆ 1761 1762 1763 1764 1765 1766 1767 1768 1769 1770 ‰Š‹sŒ‘’“”• 1771 1772 1773 1774 1775 1776 1777 1778 1779 1780 –—˜™{š›œŸ¡ 1781 1782 1783 1784 1785 1786 1787 1788 1789 1790 ¢£%¤¥¦§¨©ª 1791 1792 1793 1794 1795 1796 1797 1798 1799 1800 «¬−°±„²³ˆ´ 1801 1802 1803 1804 1805 1806 1807 1808 1809 1810 ƒ ‡µ·Œ¸¹º»¼ 1811 1812 1813 1814 1815 1816 1817 1818 1819 1820 ½¾¿ÀÁŸÂ¤ÃÄ 1821 1822 1823 1824 1825 1826 1827 1828 1829 1830 ÅÆÇ©ÈÉÊËÌÍ 1831 1832 1833 1834 1835 1836 1837 1838 1839 1840 ÎÏÐÑÒÓÔÕÖ× 1841 1842 1843 1844 1845 1846 1847 1848 1849 1850 ØÙÚÛÜÝÞß½à 1851 1852 1853 1854 1855 1856 1857 1858 1859 1860 áâãäåæçÃèé 1861 1862 1863 1864 1865 1866 1867 1868 1869 1870 index i: kanji 489 êëìíîïÉðñÎ 1871 1872 1873 1874 1875 1876 1877 1878 1879 1880 ÑÖÙàòóéôð’ 1881 1882 1883 1884 1885 1886 1887 1888 1889 1890 U+6õö;@÷øE 1891 1892 1893 1894 1895 1896 1897 1898 1899 1900 MV_–ùúûüýþ 1901 1902 1903 1904 1905 1906 1907 1908 1909 1910 !#e&()*l+, 1911 1912 1913 1914 1915 1916 1917 1918 1919 1920 /01234−w67 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 89:;=?@ABC 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 1940 |DEFGHIJKL 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 1950 MN‰O’PQRST 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 UVWXYZ^_ 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 `¤abcde°fg 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 hijklmnop¹ 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 490 index i: kanji qrstuvwxyz 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 {|}‚ƒ„…†‡ˆ 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 ‰Š‹Œ‘’“”•– 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 —˜™šÇ›œŸ¡¢ 2021 2022 2023 2024 2025 2026 2027 2028 2029 2030 £¤¥¦§¨°©ªË 2031 2032 2033 2034 2035 2036 2037 2038 2039 2040 «¬ 2041 2042 Primitive Elements The primitive elements listed in this Index do not include those treated as kanji in this book, unless there is a change in the writing form and meaning. If you do not ³nd a particular element, consult Index iv. The primitive elements here are arranged according to the number of strokes. The numbers beneath them refer to the number of the page on which the primitive element is ³rst introduced. 1c a 28 )´³ 28 46 46 È 436 2c b 33 60 [YŠŒÓ 36 36 37 37 37 87 116 137 139 172 ’eÔ 37 48 51 175 175 gs¼Rke™ ; 9e 236 244 þ 183 354 Ï 279 Ÿ6 290 315 Õ 326 396 W[’ 326 326 405 405 ” 355 N 355 – 357 Æ 370 ÎrG 373 Z Ö 412 ² 434 [ 434 3c PêÊ 47 59 67 Ë 67 ͨ[ 67 89 103 Ñ 110 Ò 112 492 index ii: primitive elements Õ;Ί¼$Ó¿Ï 117 130 134 153 165 169 201 218 220 É 221 225 ý Ð î Ç ó þ ) ‚. 234 246 267 296 311 311 339 œ Û 7 Æ ..‚ × Ì 384 399 409 432 447 449 b 351 358 4c èíë¥l(¢½÷ 57 79 93 114 139 146 154 154 167 {ü«ì%Jîq– 173 176 196 221 233 239 242 247 257 ÎJ! 289 292 295 359 368 371 û 301 378 *SØfÙ 313 314 319 332 344 382 382 396 413 416 Ÿ¿ÌØp]u^f p 448 5c ñùÉÊ…Ç ý 20 139 144 156 162 166 ïY 167 171 166 _ðMT„Èÿ&B 172 187 222 254 267 282 286 321 331 Uòà 338 338 366 úÚ¹ãE 373 374 384 385 392 412 index ii: primitive elements 493 NÜÝšÞ F g( 415 427 428 435 438 442 454 455 6c üìòºêLøhà 142 145 145 155 157 158 167 209 216 `èð4Ekq ¹ 243 291 294 315 323 334 334 365 383 386 390 414 420 423 454 460 ^ 366 465 Ýé_ô¾:•·â ó 469 7c ‰þ8i^œÛ°ß 194 203 207 211 242 258 320 432 445 $§½ 447 456 462 8c }öáŒDu‡, Å 35 69 181 174 188 211 254 314 322 |nü 402 418 423 9c Òã$O_áç„ä 52 133 185 208 338 362 371 453 454 ˜ 456 494 index ii: primitive elements 10 c å¹æàãý• 33 105 214 385 385 397 428 11 c Ç›¥¢ 178 190 215 260 12 c ¤]ìR 176 189 293 408 13 c n½ 372 377 index iii Kanji Arranged in Order of Strokes The following list contains all the kanji treated in this book, grouped by the number of strokes and ordered according to standard dictionary “radicals.” By the time you are finished with Part Two of this book, you should be pro³cient at counting strokes. Becoming familiar with the order and assignation of the radical elements, however, will take time and experience. 1c s + 1 71 3c œ 2c s Ì ì G U Ì ^ k × M j 0 Y : 91 7 686 9 97 2 951 8 779 83 858 444 10 696 S ^ Y  ï X î 4 Ò K ± î F { Ó þ ` ð æ ´ S F w 64 691 3 49 50 1246 44 1016 1214 462 95 485 62 84 68 40 688 11 150 319 Ï Ø œ š · [ ë ^ ÷ L ø ¸ î 109 107 98 45 105 768 127 76 525 2042 1648 1231 681 Ì l k 4c # œ _ # Ò Ð 1217 2040 39 2038 1215 1593 M 0 3 2 m _ Ä k [ { â N  » Ò ò à _ × ç ‰ — 5 Ï J 757 5 1806 988 1587 250 964 765 59 784 6 1019 1811 300 1490 781 85 1488 1049 1027 1008 1695 1696 Y : Ø X © 5 £ º T ‚ 9 ú ° & Z ¸ ñ ¬ å Ô … {  ú # † k 42 568 1415 704 697 722 1510 428 120 838 96 106 1070 2033 1862 1190 1232 1233 595 1076 637 711 1725 496 7 index iii: kanji in stroke order 1177 1125 490 12 578 13 195 466 370 447 1913 1828 130 161 727 1274 1212 1904 245 238 255 S § Ô ² ‰ ÷ 7 4 ¾ Õ Q ½ … µ Œ ² z ’ v J à 5 ‰ b È Ñ ÷ 5c ß l ¿ Õ › ° m ü P n ¬ $ ä Ö | | G á K 2034 28 1329 1020 266 1028 960 961 1000 986 1005 1401 103 1826 1247 427 2 Ø ‰ ¢ m í î O ; ± ë } ç ™ É ò I ï ä ª = × ¦ t “ s 8 v 9 ‘ î Ï G Í Ù _ Ë } + r × z b 297 34 767 33 1650 863 867 530 445 1202 48 2041 750 16 65 53 1508 86 93 744 1242 692 78 1863 1018 4 152 111 1740 845 702 1054 77 1241 856 412 405 1484 1378 591 739 Í ´ t Œ … − – e × ¸ Y Ê * Ç J = û M ± ª W ä ½ ^ « ‹ é * é 1 ´ ä , Æ x M R µ V ‡ ^ ¢ Í ½ ˆ ¹ C 742 1234 635 653 738 1138 30 35 216 217 211 212 379 101 1834 131 132 140 1877 1414 1383 256 1031 1757 1555 1181 14 1105 1113 1117 37 802 1447 15 1225 1220 113 1086 1087 1316 431 ; Œ ¹ Á 284 279 780 6c ß @ l © § A S X m Ò H n 6 þ ` ¾ Û Y Q N q ³ l ) X t å M 6 ß ç { – — ¨ | [ ª § Ÿ | 1168 1154 32 1275 1519 966 1701 956 959 1003 375 1161 962 994 965 752 963 761 235 248 119 263 1795 1815 679 812 862 1693 1425 1416 291 253 320 180 O v w š º { œ F e U 3 1 T µ n ƒ : $ ‚ G X − Y Ø ¨ x ° ¦ á ” ! H ± e ? c „ æ Å Î Ú ¨ ; Š f y 4 ( h 112 1861 693 151 183 689 586 583 582 685 155 515 321 108 99 100 527 487 185 684 1916 1656 186 190 158 1071 128 1153 406 1036 353 355 618 361 690 455 26 67 27 1172 66 index iii: kanji in stroke order 497 24 262 1897 247 579 1807 1180 723 160 492 306 1896 457 323 507 123 728 491 1253 187 1726 1565 1915 1066 1053 772 1489 1594 592 508 1240 1711 884 599 597 600 596 607 1642 640 676 – M t J Y … ½ ß − … c Y J 4 ; À $ ð h » µ ‘ , q à * ë s K a ‚ ß U y – 8 æ – ¾ † ¿ Ò À › â J 5 y Ü g » ‘ h » … h 79 221 207 + 7c ( ! L { ; p « R È W Õ ¿ ñ 7 Ñ 6 ° − o ƒ Š | ƒ 2 š  „ ± l “ © ) p E § L r 7 603 72 1809 967 1203 1118 1864 1029 955 1831 954 952 957 953 1012 1657 1142 104 58 1331 1404 404 1205 90 906 1782 865 866 860 1694 1462 1395 1422 1162 1589 1218 1588 467 17 O ° ¸ Z [ š { w F ß 210 1243 471 815 458 1885 110 1651 1245 139 516 165 168 38 937 919 1333 1965 547 573 1251 1252 818 1022 36 753 41 1868 1753 1655 1216 517 1448 873 396 1602 285 280 S A j Å © Ì l ¨ Í 6 ² Å U o * 1 Ö W ¹ t  Ü U µ × [ õ Á 3 Å & Ù c d Ÿ » Ó Ô † ¤ f Ý ƒ Ù ñ r a w Œ 0 − Œ ¿ û ñ V h Û s ã y k n Ü : ’ O % ª – û û ¼ r · ¢ ! ö å ó ! ñ C ‰ ç  • Á ˜ 1081 839 649 712 647 1752 1700 706 648 1130 705 1074 528 330 694 114 1649 1713 203 683 208 1664 298 1884 934 1886 1641 1888 138 707 1072 167 239 260 859 92 1092 914 902 1320 1391 l @ J J ; 4 d P Æ © S Ø ¸ í ú q Š Ó { ˜ X ë Y ó ª C ‘ Í î © = _ + è 1468 1009 493 421 848 57 1812 335 788 1440 54 1743 384 1279 1248 286 1496 2008 1702 1129 725 1848 1906 1429 173 1533 1294 1302 8c u Ö ª Ø Ù : n q ‚ 1785 729 1156 308 312 970 1030 990 972 498 index iii: kanji in stroke order 976 1796 971 1603 989 74 1827 1972 1902 755 418 1069 1206 417 1521 1276 1523 1511 1025 51 872 1720 718 819 735 317 219 1485 1400 897 580 581 1486 1582 1037 126 1094 1573 1196 220 1889 ú ° ‹ ø Z [ Ô º { k § j Y M : S F Ø œ ¬ Ú S 9 B S ø o ` k £ H à r ± P Œ ¦ ¢ ß á Z d þ 1 : I ó f É ô ³ ¿ s š ` ¹ ´ ú ) ë y x ¥ W u ö ¿ ; ö a Ï = Š µ × ¹ Ê a ¥ þ R N À M a Ñ ü , × æ ù ª ð ¦ ‡ b ç / § s Û 413 747 1557 913 912 1879 324 1100 1271 1109 382 1417 1783 257 1572 184 1063 1060 1110 1961 770 1115 1330 1653 1505 1833 588 1002 392 1386 1878 883 880 881 882 602 1590 623 1558 716 1078 … ½ Õ ß − ‹ ¾ ° » Ö ; ò c ( O x Ì ä i Ø À 0 Í ¬ ½ Ã Ì Ã Ä g ^ Ë ¿ R ™ » × â ‡ p 3 X Ç ‡ Ì n 1127 1901 805 645 1832 644 1114 1106 668 652 656 857 651 654 769 650 1564 669 740 496 1729 448 43 25 20 1051 1184 19 1399 714 1756 1077 494 374 759 1219 504 785 724 1126 196 7 ‡ , È J Y µ + F ‹ Ï Š õ  Ÿ ö š ? I Z ± ¸ Ë Û ð Q ³ À Á # ¾ è f ¾ « w Ý Š ñ ] c í | Ÿ F t ” £ 332 1121 713 200 1697 1699 377 371 1698 1531 218 146 1237 1107 746 137 795 145 147 636 751 533 803 432 1055 267 136 1080 468 162 1213 329 1050 1170 69 486 73 1223 1128 1091 1319 l J ; 4 W Å é à e ä ï ø N Ä w Ÿ ) è W ö o ä  ˜ – O % A ˜ Á À 1317 1509 1256 316 1905 1419 234 223 225 1741 360 715 1990 1546 282 847 1524 1841 269 1920 1616 1780 1295 1303 422 1534 1632 9c ñ Ç y J p ? “ Œ š ˜ 1585 311 1392 1639 1014 1148 991 1280 968 997 index iii: kanji in stroke order 499 1226 268 1421 514 1859 133 549 249 181 328 1799 143 1855 1155 369 461 771 1918 169 1559 1266 243 522 1723 1768 251 166 1689 1705 449 261 1449 638 513 1853 124 209 117 675 116 1779 ¾ = J ; ë í ¾ 4 Ë ¹ – M · § j F S F Ø œ º š [ X ‹ = à ì ’ 7 2 › ¹ Ç / m R › 1 & õ „ ¤ ô ˆ … „ z X ª Ñ è é $ % I Œ ç ñ t Ð ¼ E É Ò Å 969 18 304 88 118 290 1667 1407 1613 1397 178 125 1660 2018 401 23 680 154 362 1745 1549 584 474 364 294 754 188 46 1928 1058 156 773 1265 1207 1270 435 1380 1194 391 1716 879 … ½ Õ ß − ° A 9 H „ Æ ¹ Ø f É t Î © B ³ … „ í © û ‰ « º r : Å ¡ d 7 f 6 6 Ì Å ¼ ü Û G t P Þ ô 874 1379 703 605 745 1146 1420 620 1460 625 661 1255 667 660 659 658 1267 381 333 1045 1556 1742 1568 1140 87 388 1075 414 29 31 446 748 531 326 206 1781 869 1021 199 1759 509 Q Í ‡ R ¿ 1 , t J Y e ª Ÿ B ñ á ó … § t Ï $ þ ò } 0 ` ( ³ ò & › £ d ƒ i É n „ y ! 3 Ö ƒ Ó o Þ Ó ö H h P E  î Q Ý w ¥ } Ä Ë Â I x [ u Œ v ¬ Ó ê à £ Ì ; ? } t i « Ñ | s − – Á ï b s ¾ 1089 1119 900 1179 899 1571 1322 1354 1362 1355 1353 548 1164 122 472 252 224 488 322 1998 520 1604 339 337 55 63 386 288 301 924 1268 1465 2016 283 1959 1844 1851 1466 1675 1892 1893 S j § k Å l 3 z K Á 7 / ¡ 479 60 524 1887 1472 70 911 10 c @ , á ° V ñ : I K ï − E l ¿ J  w L Õ ¤ Ä # ” ’ ã ‚ × ò @ N 1722 1633 1547 1574 1630 973 992 980 1640 1186 979 978 1821 1674 797 1597 560 506 478 1964 1671 1730 1975 1692 134 56 766 1131 2013 1157 500 index iii: kanji in stroke order 179 296 849 1471 2012 1898 1393 1033 1499 1551 191 189 541 790 1249 731 1925 1562 1948 554 1193 415 1230 1024 589 590 1236 1659 878 877 1748 619 613 823 606 1803 610 612 622 1935 1079 c … ½ 7 Õ ß − W œ º š [ 2 Z ¸ ‹ ° ( @ Ü c A 8 § · ì “ Ö ´ B Ù â µ û · S Ú Ç Ä o ã ø Ò ú ¡ 6 Z › Ì ë I 0 ì ” ˆ ; ñ í Î F c œ a þ S j [ ´ – ô Ý õ Í š ¡ ˆ ô T µ L C ± ° ” p Í ð ` Û ï m Y + ? k m % { N 1938 2011 1116 1836 1120 459 1048 1481 1178 159 327 1491 489 871 870 456 2027 182 2004 1856 1469 214 1932 1520 292 198 1278 1461 358 367 222 264 698 236 204 460 1609 808 810 809 1493 Y ½ , ¿ Í M y – Ê Ì K ø 4 ª ô H y ¹ • ˜ – ( Œ T ‘ Ÿ K Õ Ò ´ í Ê O X & Ã Ö × I ¸ Y O Ù y g A — „ K 1570 144 1149 1332 730 1837 789 764 1082 1470 1944 814 246 258 1229 1384 1204 1017 1423 1686 1685 1688 1682 1881 75 1835 806 532 1088 905 1778 904 903 536 938 925 920 1365 1829 1494 1532 J © ó ; Š … í 7 g 4 › ¦ ó • á i ø … ‚ O ‹ “ T S # f ^ { h £ ¼ ‚ z r è o ” ( Û | 9 ¿ ‹ ™ X ° ã ? t ¦ u õ , 1356 1727 1357 1358 786 1808 1914 756 1870 1871 1581 1013 242 523 1728 1890 1891 1108 807 1269 529 341 1917 340 81 682 1652 526 2009 1132 281 1669 539 1408 1858 1661 915 287 1843 1429 1428 F S j § + l @ J 9 [ Š G œ ¤ i x Æ ƒ + ¿ ¢ … 1436 274 1304 1315 1308 1658 1305 1310 699 1475 1978 1288 307 2019 11 c ê ‡ É Á ‘ Ê X ‡ O ó { ï Y µ − ¬ “ } Ì o Î ; _ 463 1823 977 974 975 981 1955 1919 89 1586 1676 1769 1227 556 21 439 1617 1085 454 356 1506 477 1767 index iii: kanji in stroke order 501 313 1262 244 1456 1940 1737 935 259 265 1032 1560 1797 293 1457 1451 1467 237 1102 1606 433 749 1321 898 1239 1111 1001 939 940 1777 921 922 1360 1758 1363 1352 1359 1361 1776 1364 574 575 — J ; Ó ë Š í 7 Ø ¾ g 4 ¿ œ º [ 2 ¸ ‰ ° − 3 ø } ( È ( f ù b ¨ O Y h ‡ 2 ¹ y ø d “ Ú | è í } “ ½ ú 1 U ù È ] ã ‘ b 4 1 b Ä ï 153 1062 798 804 1830 1151 995 720 192 2006 775 1095 1927 1101 778 774 1922 799 1159 1191 1182 1921 1235 1714 1710 876 958 604 1810 621 1537 1187 1721 655 1064 1152 736 1634 1061 674 733 Y … ½ Õ ¾ ß ) Ù @ j u ì Œ º î 2 ù å ? ø Ÿ g B õ « õ ² 8 È 6 | ò t È — Ð • Ï ò _ g ’ Í L ² , þ 1327 672 1188 1318 663 670 673 936 1254 331 1732 1662 1136 1046 1222 1173 501 498 1396 1934 538 1498 201 907 677 792 710 1038 157 451 840 450 1731 1738 721 1263 372 1328 1539 164 634 – – y U ¹ Q ‡ V , é ÷ t ^ o ä { _ B À ê 7 ! c b F µ ] Q Š ø ç Ø p Z c Ù î 6 Å E J ë M ™ Ñ ú F Û R L z H õ j $ U U › ? û q Ô Ð ¢ í n Ï y œ Ñ â Ü Ë § Y A Ò • ú ä É % v Z Q Ò » ø @ H Ì } ö Ÿ 1733 1874 1869 1122 927 918 734 1258 1517 1993 518 519 1525 1006 841 1093 569 787 708 495 1073 1010 102 1541 726 782 1744 470 420 1973 561 318 1160 1842 1849 1846 1845 1847 1435 1908 1596 ß F S j § l ˜ J Å w ‹ Þ ¦ v F @ N h à ™ Ö š Ä & ü ¸ † 273 1623 1592 1672 1301 1966 1299 1513 1561 1518 1143 94 171 1941 1999 593 1750 174 534 12 c Ô Y Ä T Ë S § ¥ 0 N 3 ò ] W ¢ · Æ ´ 1015 1026 1183 1643 1553 1631 1209 861 1577 47 1035 1042 1445 1926 1550 1034 1208 1314 502 index iii: kanji in stroke order 390 1770 1507 545 1056 1734 254 1039 853 928 395 1761 1950 193 1526 1439 1145 1969 1953 777 408 407 1381 1706 1852 1931 1857 1398 875 1854 1635 614 629 624 628 1638 801 665 664 1043 1059 Y µ … ½ Õ ß Ø œ º š ‹ Ô 2 Z ¸ ‹ ° − Î ó ³ õ p x O ± Ç ï b = Ý ) í ¨ c = › * Ø Q e / ³ = L : P x « Î · g − ¬ Á Ø Û ! 2 g Ú Ü W # _ ’ 3 $ “ ¬ è Æ É J œ Œ Ú † k Œ l ß ù [ I Î & 0 ) ’ ( 1 1 ¢ ç þ v · Ó — 662 1951 1967 646 826 1189 334 1786 1201 314 1538 821 22 842 1224 1974 1260 1418 52 1765 1923 1763 1575 202 505 197 1673 1272 205 1903 1762 1097 811 1452 1292 366 148 1800 1388 1788 149 y – U M Í ‰ ¿ , t J 9 _ F Ø Ï æ Ð 5 [ Ä 7 # Ÿ F − d 9 : ^ 1 z Ô L Ä Ý ‡ : @ f h g Ù Ú … Æ º ƒ ˜ á j $ 1195 546 1169 1749 1200 1257 557 241 1775 1438 1591 1784 1909 1668 1690 1684 1687 1703 555 1442 695 115 763 895 894 436 941 948 945 944 947 943 923 1346 1349 1351 1348 1375 1754 1347 1350 4 ‘ 7 Ø í Š { ë ; % w è ¤ š ü z ™ ¢ È · Æ ß ã ä Ÿ W N é æ g { Ð r C ¾ æ Î • Ò ¦ É ± [ Z | ò Q Š Ê ’ 299 816 228 1747 890 397 398 813 1840 793 325 345 1141 380 342 1865 1724 1139 1487 1976 868 1771 1007 194 831 1238 1424 387 385 1281 717 1112 303 1293 1956 540 552 1067 277 1047 1824 F S j l z ˜ @ J =  – n g ¸ ˆ E  ‰ [ „ Ó î T / h Í ² j Œ Ÿ m ˆ † š © 1434 177 1495 1622 1625 1620 1309 1958 1298 1306 1300 559 1083 1907 743 423 2028 1402 82 1718 129 1474 1473 1171 13 c æ ´ å ¥ z z R ¤ ð u % Ó o 987 999 1544 996 1011 1678 982 1515 864 1867 1579 585 2024 index iii: kanji in stroke order 503 832 1163 641 553 825 1876 1900 1385 1995 1991 399 453 1124 1814 1813 1522 343 1244 354 346 550 363 1939 344 1497 1443 473 357 1004 80 1746 1286 1284 1282 1277 359 2014 402 1773 1644 1432 ° ‹ Ô Ø S F l š ¾ z ˜  Ï œ º 2 ø ° O − † Õ ½ … = 3 é ¦ Z ± A È ÷ B ù 1 ù š Æ A ` [ T ( û ² E • ‡ ì © … ‘ 9 Ú 1 ‰ G E @ K ‘ T » Á 1960 1663 1458 231 305 732 542 1598 226 1150 410 409 1654 1601 889 901 609 608 1957 737 615 1389 630 1483 626 1929 666 1873 687 1324 1739 1444 929 1502 1882 1949 480 544 464 1605 1735 { U – Q Í ¿ J Y Œ m % ½ È · ñ * Ñ + è w } Ë Y n Þ â Ý ß ˜ Ñ Ò á L h x — ò A · 8 L 7 S M Þ š Õ ¡ & • 758 1792 1569 1614 930 512 1805 1289 1578 142 1819 564 416 230 365 1838 791 537 1612 163 170 1615 403 1683 1450 1583 719 1514 1766 1512 1098 1291 1930 1090 896 1464 1370 1368 1345 1636 1259 © ó ; ë m Y q Š í ¸ 7 ¾ 4 ¿ Ë N s – þ ¸ ß % W U T : Ó ú m 6 › ¥ * ¢ ¡ å ¼ Ó Ê Â Ì ¥ œ ¤ Ì Ô ) – − º þ ÷ æ Ü j S & ç ˜ ÷ l “ Š / ! ½ e V ™ Õ ¨ , Ï v 1433 794 741 846 271 1480 1406 535 425 1312 1894 61 783 1595 1866 1477 1480 1946 Y Œ … Õ − 14 c … ì W k k æ † î ô ] C â P ] ½ ” ‚ Ç § 1977 1794 1707 1942 309 484 502 175 566 440 617 834 776 1065 1715 885 887 2005 633 y – ¹ C { U M Ð E ü é H i © ” 2 – v r à • ´ Ü Ô · Ô 4 k ì å G º h ¹ ” ¼ I ) w g 2 r O 5 d · d „ ” 829 627 657 469 1764 232 213 233 1482 229 1818 933 376 917 2007 172 1545 932 1135 1175 442 1607 830 1068 2003 338 1410 1390 1103 1679 910 1323 1167 833 2029 1273 946 1535 1341 1963 1344 504 index iii: kanji in stroke order 1366 1367 1373 1371 1343 1626 1023 1945 800 419 465 347 1899 601 1133 499 348 598 916 543 1409 1192 1174 441 1430 1431 1437 1459 762 368 270 272 275 1624 2017 1619 1313 1296 1297 562 563 − ° š F S l … + Á r q } k £ l Ò 7 4 º 7 á º U í B C £ ½ ß œ Þ É [ « m ì ; ì } ï © — µ i  F c , / ‹ j – ¼ F u J. Œ ! ì @ P § 7  i Ë P ½ p Ó Ì 1165 1540 1405 1984 1983 1986 1924 2021 678 ß … µ Y 15 c ˆ $ ¬ * ^ a ¨ b Ÿ C Z ‚ 4 q s ¹ ó ] ‰ ¾ R c ‹ ° # K ô ï 984 983 1997 1954 121 1197 1307 1198 430 1910 1708 278 1057 1040 1041 1712 886 1096 2001 616 1996 1199 1994 709 639 822 760 1793 4 – U ¹ M V ½ ë 1 l Ü ô j Ï ã ) ¸ ‚ Ê õ ‡ ˜ l o å 2 ¡ ´ N { ¤ Â å º a – â 7 ; Å û Þ ‹ E ™ ‰ 8 ’ 443 1883 1134 1801 1751 1176 571 1608 570 1548 1627 2039 844 141 1704 310 1677 1516 1453 1872 567 893 892 909 1326 1325 2032 942 1413 1372 1952 1374 1377 1339 1340 1825 1774 1839 850 1992 521 ‘ í Š m ë ;  ˜ + ¸ à Ê Í W ™ ¾ ë 8  “ Ç h ¦ = Ö ç E û = + r ‚ 8 s k † + * Ç k Ï ] ‘ ï i R l K † 1680 998 452 1123 1261 1536 351 393 350 349 1820 843 1052 1264 1137 796 − œ ° l Å F 16 c 0 ! Ç | ö ; p f ÷ ‹ Ê & v þ e Ý ª · n ï ± ê ò ã 5 ê ` ³ $ 2 Î S ™ i a [ ’ Ä ö 1166 1412 1971 1500 1529 587 400 565 1530 611 1554 632 828 631 671 1387 1670 424 1382 429 497 835 2015 1719 1446 510 1933 701 594 1147 1543 950 1988 1158 1338 1376 1337 1563 1426 476 511 378 820 1287 302 1637 1822 1772 2031 1610 1804 500 1566 1618 2010 1791 1479 1476 1979 1982 2023 240 ¡ – U t J Y … ß M index iii: kanji in stroke order 505 q U % V ¦ g Î ’ Å V Š Ú í ¤ ä ³ ë ´ ; B ¿ e  3 š B ) ƒ § Æ t ‹ z w þ I 4 1681 1503 2000 227 1736 1044 891 1646 1504 852 475 1760 352 1968 289 837 1501 1645 411 1962 1185 383 1584 2030 1144 1311 2036 1441 1665 1478 ë í – ÷ ° 17 c ¦ 985 z ¸ ä © Ê L ‘ æ l ô “ 0 ` † ó Õ ö i Ð ü ‹ 1 p Ù “ ê B • Ô U 9 ƒ ü 1 “ 993 1936 2026 1970 1104 1411 ¿ 18 c + 577 215 1463 643 836 1709 437 1221 558 1798 1336 1542 1790 827 855 1211 1600 1816 1250 1576 1817 1552 2020 1860 426 373 551 1403 z  S 4 U ƒ Þ , ² } s G µ 6 c 3 8 ü B 4 n ” A V r ? Š à à ¥ y ? Ê H Û Â W 888 576 1454 2037 1691 817 394 908 1621 926 1334 1335 1911 1880 824 1210 1912 1099 1611 854 572 503 1599 1937 276 1629 1492 1580 1647 389 295 1717 z  4 U ß { „ „ à G 1789 931 1981 1985 1980 176 í 19 c  œ Z « l ø ˆ ã y þ Æ : ¥ ù _ ‘ X † « ¨ ’ 1666 1802 949 1369 1342 851 1755 2035 1895 482 1787 336 483 1228 481 135 1290 315 1947 2002 z + Þ Ï ™ &  ( ë ú x 1628 434 1567 642 1528 700 1527 438 1850 1989 21 c ; ¨ ° 0 Æ % 1875 1285 1283 1084 1943 2022 22 c M ü 2025 1987 20 c Ë 1394 23 c C 1455 index iv Key Words and Primitive Meanings This ³nal Index contains a cumulative list of all the key words and primitive meanings used in this book. Key words are listed with their respective kanji and frame number. Primitive meanings are listed in italics and are followed only by the number of the page (also in italics) on which they are ³rst introduced. i (one) ii (two) t Î 457 355 A abacus abandon abbreviation abdomen abet abide by ability abolish above above-stated abundant abuse accept accidentally accompany accomplished accumulate accusation accustomed achievement 352 m 758 F 293 T 464 Ú 1951 † 2031 ô 2004 / 1706 î 49 › 1522 È 793 s 1041 1 735 X 1955 Z 877 ò 552 z 1364 N 1139 ü 627 O 863 acid acknowledge acorn acquiesce acupuncturist add address adhere adjusted admirable admonish adore adroit advance aerosol can affair af³nity af³xed afµicted Africa again again, or age aggression agreement i Þ ¾ ; = $ à T ¥ ‡ _ Z ¾ â A ú % ç : “ k ‡ 1437 598 375 1901 33 867 1417 1000 1729 1643 336 1101 1241 561 143 959 1372 1303 604 1295 1815 696 1403 330 374 agriculture aid alienate all alliance allot alms altar alternate amass ambition ancestor angel angle angling angry animal legs animal sacri³ce animal tracks animal annexed antiantique anxiety apologize ÷ 0 F „ h X ‰ ö W Ý H ¸ Å H ³ ` þ ‚ ˜ ê 2014 839 1668 449 1450 761 1045 301 847 1385 489 1779 176 1812 273 703 36 1559 445 1933 634 722 178 163 1250 index iv: key words and primitive meanings appear appellation apple apply apprehend approve apricot apron arc ardent argument arm arm armor armpit army aroused arrest arrival arrow arrowhead art arti³cial artisan ascend ashes Asia aside, set assault assembly line assets assistant association assurance astray astringent atmosphere attack attend attire attitude attractive audience augment auspicious authority autumn 507 bell bell, small belong below belt bend bene³t benevolence bequeath best regards bestow Big Dipper bin bird bird, sign of the bird, white birdhouse black ink black bladder, gall blade blame Bldg. blessing blind block, printing blocks, building blood blossom blow blue blue, navy boar board boast boat body boil boisterous bomb bond bone bonsai book boom borrow bosom ß × ñ Ò h O ù ˜ Ç Ú x Í t c i k n ¨ : ‚ ! @ ö ¥ Õ L ´ i _ j M n z Ç Ÿ Í 1 Ö Ï E 1789 905 414 607 1160 843 203 171 1878 814 1820 236 1418 1113 870 301 1199 654 755 153 276 1525 48 1693 1703 168 1809 1188 1698 289 473 952 1776 567 924 1738 2028 2025 960 398 2005 430 452 811 1088 571 900 auxiliary awe awl ax axis F ’ 4 É 1299 334 402 1125 1112 ë Š › 4 ( Ê ” k Š Ò 7 ` š © î ¸ 6 ` Ò I S | Š » 1 r Á Ñ o W * J ¿ æ „ Z å û µ ï ô B babe, newborn back bad badge bag baggage bake ball ballot bamboo grass bamboo hat bamboo banner banquet barbarian bargain barley baron barracks bartending baseball (team) bases basin bathe bay beach beans bear beat beautiful woman beauty beckon bed before beforehand beg beginning beguile behind − : 1 Ø á S Ï À ç E Å U Ö ¤ š _ ô ¬ õ x ! ô ª M q h ° Ý Ë À » å Ð F â Î 9 58 399 1810 433 1547 1013 1200 935 1606 940 939 937 294 191 1747 1601 1533 1463 2033 1429 18 1734 1449 789 1837 1653 1440 2003 709 1950 548 650 592 248 1593 462 59 614 1379 438 1406 1953 50 172 1172 1881 885 1772 1783 1246 1177 1902 1941 1427 29 243 175 174 31 84 1541 1478 1090 486 1213 324 1448 2018 467 1534 1758 1262 646 1244 1868 957 1257 1985 1802 1544 257 384 211 1457 1186 1491 508 both bottom bough boulder boulevard boulevard bound up boundary bountiful bow bowl bowstring box box box, measuring boy brain brains branch off branch brandish breasts breath breed brew briar bribe bridegroom bridge bright bring up broaden brocade broom brother, elder brother, younger brown brush brush, writing brush-stroke bubble buckle bud Buddha Buddhist priest Buddhist temple build index iv: key words and primitive meanings X Ñ ‹ R š æ Ì ¸ l æ a © Ö õ c † g ” ñ ( x Ì b ï g p ¬ 3 | Ô Ó Ù c Á e [ R ± É 1168 1833 713 770 267 890 37 484 1443 1231 271 1386 405 942 42 492 1934 20 772 711 662 57 610 329 1527 472 80 395 429 20 759 740 411 311 103 1240 453 145 943 1170 533 172 1905 964 982 158 391 building blocks bull’s eye bullet bullrush bundle bungling burdensome bureau bureaucrat burglar burn bury bushel basket bushes bustle busy but of course butcher butterµy buy by means of by one’s side bystander í = Þ – Ø ½ & ö œ ê ( ú Ú ð ’ C P Ô 324 69 1931 1838 1664 769 1986 1066 1271 357 510 179 418 382 1196 618 145 133 521 831 1028 48 1015 C cabbage cadet calamity calculate calendar calf, golden call on call calling card calm camellia camp camphor tree can can, aerosol can, tin candle candlestick candy cannon canopy g L d ” Ë ó 2 ½ i È = 8 U à ù 385 1173 1291 946 213 465 495 1485 431 1147 1569 1305 1614 93 143 1965 63 122 1122 532 410 87 canopy, glass cap Ø 408 cape 3 153 capital Ù 312 capsize V 1611 captive T 1991 captured 8 1018 car ë 286 carp G 176 carrier “ 1871 carry ± 303 132 cart carve } 1710 cash q 1040 casting k 1566 castle ô 362 cat ä 244 8 1498 catalpa catch œ 1836 79 cauldron cause ƒ 583 220 cave 320 caverns cavity Z 96 cedar ’ 1713 15 ceiling celebrate h 1089 376 celery 381 cell censure Œ 1523 center î 1740 270 cereal cereals ´ 917 ceremony ˆ 984 chafe # 639 37 chain chain à 1937 challenge „ 658 chamber, public } 798 change 5 1008 chant − 21 chapter W 1123 char Ð 557 character ° 185 charcoal 0 771 137 chariot chase « 1268 index iv: key words and primitive meanings chastise checkup cheerful cherry tree chess piece chestnut chestnut, horse chic chicken chief chihuahua child child, with chirp choose chop chop-seal Christmas tree chronicle chrysanthemum cinnabar circle circumference city walls clam clan clap class claw clean clear the land clear up cleverness cliff climate climax clique cloak clock clod closed clothes hanger clothesline clothing cloud of, rising cloud cloudy weather 509 congeal congratulations conjecture connection consent consider consign consolation consort conspire constancy constitution consult with consume consummate contact contain contend continue contraption contrast control convenience convex conveyor cook cooking ³re cool copper copy cord core corner cornerstone cornstalk cornucopia correct corridor cosmetics cottage cotton country country, home county courage courts courtyard o W r C l k Ÿ y ¨ L { A k ã Ì w › # Ò : ” O Ä Ã þ ä ¬ þ K › u o w R ² · 340 1724 1642 1932 1763 1609 514 925 1947 967 112 95 2012 1942 1074 1126 355 383 1354 927 2038 1811 317 432 38 1912 652 1353 727 1155 651 1538 459 60 1640 753 1619 167 387 2024 1623 436 398 1399 173 423 424 cocoach coarse cocoon cocoon code cof³n coin cold collapse collar colleague collide color coloring column column comb come in come comfortable commander commandment commence committee commoner companion company compare compass compensation compilation complete computer comrade concave conceal concentrated concept concerning concurrently condolences condor confer confront Confucian confused á — J B ø & , í G A W à 5 í + û Ú t w x W “ ¿ ç ² E ‹ U 8 í Œ ò ` =  { › h 0 B 872 719 1777 351 1880 1827 1272 368 1526 1315 1099 1707 1680 1753 1714 267 1628 315 251 1884 1182 1270 676 747 913 1191 19 1092 447 192 476 1825 97 84 1637 33 1313 2015 609 1969 1597 1233 456 1660 648 1166 1185 ! g u F ë † è ] { ä f Ê ¤ ¢ | 6 Ù m ¡ | º Ô “ ¢ … w ƒ ‹ á A ï [ G ± ³ Ú à q ³ Í u ¹ Ó Ò 1412 868 663 2017 351 1252 1917 1096 1203 1760 620 1554 475 1550 540 1813 790 1154 1345 677 1277 1552 991 34 1873 468 79 1404 272 1247 1365 928 1958 394 384 373 379 1852 923 316 1367 581 1848 1843 1407 508 590 510 cow cow, sign of the cowl craft cram school cramped crane crash create creek crest, family cricket, game of Cricket, Talking crime crimson criticism crock, lidded crossing crotch crow crowded crown crown crude cruel crumble cry cultivate cup, measuring cupfuls current curriculum curtain cut cylinder index iv: key words and primitive meanings È œ ^ k ò Æ ¨ ‹ s • ‹ } − ¹ • Á ì ð µ ¹ ¾ ; 3 H • 1 × h 245 2040 87 76 309 1266 1943 1307 281 139 1727 63 454 1414 1355 649 142 279 237 1944 780 137 304 207 1431 774 432 477 317 1219 764 376 409 85 944 D dagger dainty dairy products damage damp dance dangerous daring darkness ú & © Ó E [ # K 51 1363 1433 666 1788 1774 1416 826 480 darning dart daughter day daybreak daytime death decameron decay deceased deceit decide decline decorate decrease dedicate deed, meritorious deep deer deer deer, painting of defeat defense defer degenerate degrees deliberation delicate delicious delight deliver deluge delusion demand demolition den departed department deposit depression descend descendants design desk destitution destroy detach 8 ¢ c Õ $ d ‘ y » Ó ’ · { , ‚ ´ o L Ä ; Å & ´ E ™ Æ Š ) ¥ t x 7 p … ¿  Õ g œ Ì t h Ò n ? 1335 1220 1471 12 1201 1075 815 67 1243 485 1762 1641 1890 1477 1914 1573 1677 1328 1999 462 462 63 1646 1528 1314 1194 642 889 455 570 1110 1799 487 1165 400 181 1132 1179 1595 1323 1308 448 1021 210 1215 365 1492 detailed detain determine devil dew diagonal diameter diamond diarrhea dice diced difference dif³cult dig dike dilate diligence dilute direction director dirt dirty disaster discard discharge discipline disclose disconcerted discontinue discreet discriminating discuss dish dislike dispatch display dispose dissolve distant distinction distract distress distribute disturb ditch divide divining rod å K Ï ° å ‡ Ô 9 j Ê b Î Œ 0 V ¾ s ë ó ã n @ } g á B Æ  V È Ü Í ‰ Î æ Ú i A 9 × ø Õ 550 1423 382 194 1283 1662 882 1517 1687 446 17 1644 1580 1061 390 1923 1577 227 490 1863 75 1245 167 655 1705 1722 1085 624 1754 1576 482 350 1447 1598 1773 262 297 1044 402 554 1358 901 1436 491 1062 478 33 index iv: key words and primitive meanings do ` 1918 doctor l 1694 document £ 601 432 dog tag dog Ñ 238 dog, sign of the (R) 469 328 dollar domesticate ¨ 1866 don ^ 555 door ú 1076 door, front ¬ 1638 dormitory Z 1708 dose # 1730 doth O 756 185 double back double : 992 doubt ” 1410 29 dove Dr. N 47 draft { 892 434 drag dragon O 536 dragon, sign of the ó 2008 drama ¬ 1997 draw near b 192 dreadful / 623 dream Z 305 drift å 1607 drink † 1474 drip ì 442 drive P 1983 droop s 1582 28 drop of drought ê 463 drown ö 707 drowsy x 1583 362 drum drum 1 1444 drunk } 1435 dry ø 1648 453 ducks, migrating dull ¸ 1495 duplicate U 465 duty ¤ 884 dwell W 954 dwindle ç 366 dye ô 509 511 enlightenment enroll enter entertain entice entrails entrust entwine envious environs epidemic equal equestrian equilibrium equip erect erupt escape Esq. establishment esteem etc. eternity ethics Europe evade evaluate even evening eventide every everywhere evidence exam examination example excel excellent exchange exclude excuse exertion exhaust exhort exist exit expand E each ear of a plant ear early earnings earthworm east easy eat eaves echo ecstasy edge edict, imperial eel egg ego eight elbow elder brother elder sister elect electricity elementary elephant elude embarrass embrace eminent emotion emperor employ employee empress empty emulate enclosure encounter encourage encroach end endure enemy England engrave ª ¤ ¿ f N X ^ 7 ” ú Ì 2 ä ) a k | y * / K æ v 9 » ß û y / ‚ U W − » } „ ? F Ý ë Ä ± 291 909 818 26 893 371 504 1051 1472 1656 1850 619 1167 342 206 1422 640 8 244 103 413 1804 535 1532 1976 1973 2009 645 51 615 261 1083 56 1861 1317 979 1842 1174 866 1148 1352 597 443 1741 1521 ; Ï × ö É ˆ * $ þ Œ É Ï „ ’ Ä G a s à Ü ¹ f ½ l õ ¿ é r Ï Ã , ’ ã p Î ‚  : É ¤ o ” e ± $ m ; 622 1567 779 1426 916 851 1954 1350 553 284 1689 1695 1981 891 1183 869 1197 283 933 708 184 945 132 1821 1699 1501 1487 1484 109 110 458 1824 380 1278 1673 972 914 970 842 1658 1972 1975 1071 732 685 767 1118 512 expense expert explanation exploits expose exquisite extent extinguish extract extremity eye of a needle eye eyeball eyeball eye-dropper index iv: key words and primitive meanings ¾ ‚ ö Ð ° U Ý Ì ¿ = ‡ Q 1238 1269 1908 1542 805 123 894 144 647 217 46 15 20 1467 28 F fabricate face faceup facsimilie faction failure faint faith fall falsehood family crest family name fan fare farm fascination fasten fat man fat fate father fathom favor fear feathers, tail feathers fee feelings fell S W þ p $ 2 ¼ = % ‡ • ’ í ¤ i K Î š f 5 — ˆ ë – [ ù q 950 1717 1701 1211 1855 331 1380 969 299 1919 1727 1828 1079 1004 166 2023 661 32 456 1400 1274 149 612 613 1178 573 1178 1537 994 feminine fence fencepost fermentation fertilizer fervent few ³ber ³eld, rice ³erce ³esta ³ght ³gure ³le ³lial piety ³nger ³ngerprint ³ngers ³nish ³re ³replace ³rewood ³rst time ³sh guts ³sh ³shhook ³shing ³st ³t ³ve µag µag, national µats µavor µedgling µesh µip µoat µoating µock µood µoor µour µourish µower pot µower µower § p — » ™ ¸ d , { y z – [ … ò J U Š + Ö Ô § 2 i Û I ü 4 s g ¼ ! P 563 1056 412 1430 1756 1988 106 1341 14 1456 154 1629 474 812 1253 659 357 229 1731 161 79 1503 404 71 171 46 172 235 253 5 296 1764 1652 219 242 19 1911 158 730 1163 67 15 920 326 1032 103 1009 µuid µute µy µying horse focus fog fold follow following, the fond food foolish footgear foothold footprint forces ford forehead forest forge forget formerly fortune-telling foster four fragrant frame free, set freight fresh friend frolic from front door front, in frost frozen frugal fruit full fundamentals funnel fur furrow È î Á Ó _ Û „ õ Y T 4 Í ¤ Í Â I 9 Ù B ç ï v q Ï ½ Y 1 º ‹ ì ¬ 2 ƒ L ¿ F F _ z Ÿ 1038 1111 1887 215 124 1228 1130 1298 575 99 367 1957 1057 669 159 1515 372 295 197 1860 596 501 48 1479 4 1681 200 496 1010 551 704 1994 686 1638 290 426 506 1674 1121 1169 1767 428 1913 1017 index iv: key words and primitive meanings 513 hairpin halberd ^ half } halo halt É hand # handle ; hands, outstretched hands, two hang Ä hanging scroll Q happenstance û happiness a harbor v hard up  harden ô hare, sign of the ™ harm “ harmony É harp 7 harvest µ hat, bamboo Å hate ‡ haven § hawser „ haystack he ª head, place on the ™ head head w headland N heal ` healing ² healthy Á hear l hearing C heart  hearth hearth « heat å heavens ú heavy b hedge ¤ hegemony þ Heights + heir u helmet 448 1225 1202 366 977 637 690 236 233 674 407 333 1505 1800 1326 580 2041 1551 897 1591 908 939 626 328 1963 321 883 94 40 1441 1115 1709 2037 974 1626 1910 595 79 1080 1516 428 1675 154 1895 1294 1867 87 G gain “ gall bladder 6 gamble = game hunting _ game of cricket garden ä garment h gates – gather T gauze ø general r generation › genesis S genie in the bottle genie genius î gentle µ gentleman w genuine „ germ ? ghost … gigantic Ë gist + give 6 glass canopy glossy ã glue gnats go in Go A goat, mountain go-between ` godown V gods P going ‘ gold  golden calf gone É good luck Ÿ good d goods õ goodwill ( gorge government of³ce z grace 0 876 31 1264 1940 63 1419 396 1616 559 1342 1366 28 1631 234 234 681 728 319 1494 918 2019 856 820 1897 87 1755 32 203 251 1766 454 956 1630 1119 873 269 465 750 320 1468 23 1097 1265 591 606 graceful graceful grade gradually graduate grains of rice grains grandchild grant grasp grass skirt grass grass, bamboo grate grave graveyard greatness green grind grip grope ground ground groundbreaking group grove grow late grow up grudge guard guess guest guidance guillotine guilt gulf gully gun gutter guy g h B ¡ ¢ M § ¦ û u E L ¦ ´ k $ 2 ) G Ç : n n Ø ! I ª ‚ & Ø c w G 721 1907 1859 1659 1025 274 922 1393 1052 1752 377 224 940 1104 231 105 999 1371 594 1059 1327 75 515 1971 582 196 694 378 1420 186 1103 294 278 396 1636 1749 254 762 1819 702 H haiku hair of the head hair hair, lock of , p 1633 1924 447 447 514 help š 1782 hemp & 593 hermit ä 986 hide ’ 1692 highness x 1310 hill ° 1329 hillock ± 1039 hinder ì 1297 hinge Š 1697 history t 692 hit c 1153 hoarse Ì 454 hog, sign of the n 1519 hoist Û 664 hold ³ 660 hole ¹ 1316 holy ¸ 825 home country Í 1848 home á 1916 homecoming o 1230 hometown ø 1849 honey P 776 honorable : 1398 87 hood hop – 1284 hope d 1489 horizon — 157 horizontal e 1645 37 horns horse chestnut Ÿ 514 214 horse horse + 1978 horse, sign of the (5) 469 458 horses, team of hot water _ 546 hours, wee ´ 189 89 house house B 541 how many e 1381 however ñ 953 hug Ý 1387 36 human legs humanity _ 988 humility E 630 hump N 1561 hundred million $ 983 hundred ß 38 index iv: key words and primitive meanings hungry hunt hunting, game hurry husband husk ƒ & _ ¹ & t 1475 243 1940 1146 838 710 I I beam I ice icicle idea ill illuminate imitation immature immersed impart imperial edict imperial order in a row, upside down in front in incense include income increase increase incur indications individual infancy infant inferiority inµammation inµation inherit ink, black inmost inn inquire inscription insect insert 7 ä [ í Ñ v M K 4 ä › 2 _ ¡ L 9 † ¼ ‚ ñ × — Ý x š î h f c j g c 48 17 175 131 608 1682 170 229 896 1149 736 342 1667 423 290 39 911 1588 1510 195 502 807 887 973 1378 247 862 162 1989 1370 175 1891 995 1145 275 517 1116 inside inspection Inst. instant instead instruction intelligent intention interintercept interchange interment interval interview intestines intimate intimidate introduce intuition invariably inverted investigate iron iron, pig island isolate Italy item ivy » œ Š “ © r Ú ƒ o ì ! w  Z ‘ ò X Û ï × − Û ÷ / S ½ Q O 1019 1093 1304 1462 1395 341 852 600 209 1192 1043 816 1620 1956 544 1514 364 1359 1769 635 1959 1781 846 270 1948 1312 1161 2029 77 J jail cell jammed in Japanese Judastree jawbone jewel jewel, squared join journey jubilation Judas-tree, Japanese judgment jump junior k ” * ‚ n ð ‰ ” | ì 6 395 250 198 338 256 155 1030 880 2001 198 1205 1409 878 index iv: key words and primitive meanings jurisdiction just so juvenile 515 long long-distance longevity longing look back look to loose lord lose lot love lovely lower lowly loyalty lucidity luck, good lumber lunatic lungs luxuriant i ¡ ‡ 1405 388 436 K kazoo ketchup key kidnap kill kiln king knot know Korea 189 372 396 656 1493 1325 255 295 1223 1647 x N å ÷ F H L labor lack lacquer lad ladle lady lagoon laid waste lake lament lamp land land lap large lass late, grow laugh laundry lazy lead (metal) leader leaf leak lean leap learn leather ± µ Ô Ò ð ( Ê Œ þ U a @ Ø ÷ n Ù æ · ç µ è º z ¨ H ¾ 860 466 932 1716 68 1151 2039 488 148 621 165 75 1513 142 107 1530 694 938 577 629 794 731 228 1068 1011 1285 574 1893 lecture left leg leg, wooden legitimate wife legs, animal legs, human legs, walking leisure lend length lengthen level levy license lidded crock lie down lie life lightly lightning bug likeness lily, water limb limit line up line line lineage linen liner lips listen little livelihood lively liver livestock load location lock of hair lock locket logic loins loneliness long time “ ˜ ] E Ð ï | 1 = { B ß ´ ¦ ¢ Ø ™ ï ¦ û ˜ + U @ ‹ · © Ï : T þ õ ) 7 » ù ± 1816 77 1279 336 440 36 36 134 1625 1007 691 1921 160 378 765 142 1150 1141 1555 717 518 100 369 714 1466 1301 267 1339 1391 405 1869 2013 827 105 232 143 1649 1384 359 545 447 383 397 265 1605 720 1016 ˜ Ò 3 ò 0 r G ü Ï & ( ’ È ¦ b ˜ Ÿ % ñ 7 ’ 1920 1281 1565 792 1084 854 830 266 845 1529 737 2002 1831 1511 602 1704 320 683 260 414 1337 M made in… maestro magic wand magnet mail mailbox majestic plural make a deal make male mama mandala mane maneuver manipulate mannerism many many, how map march market marketing marquis º ¼ Ì ¡ ¬ 6 C ª e Á } − e o } • J 419 334 33 1390 1847 358 2027 439 1142 859 101 260 448 671 801 1691 108 1381 1180 157 412 726 1639 516 marriage marrow marry into marsh martyrdom masculine mask masses mat, tatami matrimony matter mausoleum me meadow meal measurement measuring box measuring cup meat mechanism mediator medicine mediocre meeting meeting melancholy mellow melodious melon melt membrane memorize mending mention mercy merit meritorious deed metal method metropolis mid-air migrating ducks military of³cer milk mimic mind, state of mineral index iv: key words and primitive meanings È † A Ë { Í s L # „ ª h ì ã š š © Ò n = ¦ þ l ¾ l µ « â 2 · o ² P o À @ a Y Ö ‘ ˜ 1830 1290 542 137 809 743 1892 1857 1784 584 1156 1518 1794 134 1473 45 42 317 1022 1382 1761 1736 62 117 752 616 310 1469 1877 791 233 325 162 1524 1389 1276 1677 123 751 1846 1109 453 1095 729 1411 221 741 mingle mirror mirror miscellaneous miss missile mist mistake mix model monk monkey monkey monkey, sign of the monme month moon mop moreover morning mosaic mosquito mould Mount mountain goat mountain peak mountain stream mountain mourning mouth move Mr. mud mulberry municipality muscle muscle music music, play musical score mutually muzzle mysterious H ù P W C Ï = á 1275 190 483 562 1926 239 35 1899 450 1960 79 306 403 N nail naked name name, family Nara national µag nativity navigate navy blue near neck need needle needle needle, eye of negate negative neglect neighboring nest netting new newborn babe next nickname night nightbreak nightfall nine nitrate No. node Noh chanting noon north nose nose nostrils not yet not notebook nothingness notice, put up a nourishing now ú e ’ ¹ i 8 ‹ Ñ C / ê [ § # Æ t h } G − µ ¦ š * œ G Ô Ù Þ ë 5 ë Ì J ‰ y [ Œ · Ä (M) 469 — ½ Õ † ^ „ þ Œ • [ f S { * è m , : Á Y : 3 é 1027 13 19 314 2034 52 416 1728 680 1961 454 773 840 768 599 11 1676 1805 1055 698 1002 265 941 1735 1571 1787 757 188 1383 53 1124 112 1828 1094 1764 393 1870 1758 1129 70 1604 18 274 46 1218 1217 745 1311 1927 1373 1502 58 471 1242 1037 30 1974 9 115 1239 1464 1968 568 445 29 678 29 216 1049 1922 1775 673 1388 1587 index iv: key words and primitive meanings nucleus number nun 517 patrol pattern paulownia pavilion pay respects pay peaceful peach tree peak, mountain pear tree pearl pedestal Pegasus pelt penal penalty penetrate pent in people pepper, red perfect performance perfumed period perish permit person in charge person persuade perusal petition phantasm philosophy phrase pick up pick pickling picture pierce piety, ³lial pig iron pigeon piggy bank piglets pillar pinch pine tree ± ‰ Í 1520 929 1054 O oak oaken tub obese obey occasion occupation ocean of of³ce, government offering of³cer of³cer, military oil old boy old man old man, venerable Old West old woman old olden times once upon a time one oneself one-sided only ooze open sea open or again order, imperial orders organize orphan other ought outburst outhouse outline outlook P â ˆ ! · á î z Ò 3 Y ± p ¾ ø ( ò Ç Ë s À ‰ ï ³ ! ˆ : › | ª ö ¬ m Ü – ? 199 420 494 129 1296 1034 549 1214 591 1615 693 1095 1107 1162 1251 786 390 804 16 35 1184 1 36 1212 53 636 138 1622 696 1667 1401 1670 1879 961 1718 1801 254 1482 572 outside ‘ outskirts – outstretched hands oven ³re overall j overcome ° overdo [ overµow , overgrown w overnight Q overpowering « oversee 2 overthrow I owl oyster 111 1844 236 79 1347 104 1293 1454 360 147 543 1453 980 449 38 … – + Ç p Y Ê Y Œ 6 ( × µ ƒ r ó W õ Ü Æ k Ñ y ^ ð 1 X å ò I B ï · … A [ / v e é Ç P pack of wild dogs packed paddy ridge page pagoda pain paint painting of a deer pair paper punch paper parade paragraph parcel post parch pardon parent park parking part of the body part partial particularly partition parts of speech party patent path pathetic ¥ ‘ z O − 3 T — Ÿ ã l ä V Ó l _ ‡ % v Ÿ J ½ − & 112 343 1204 60 254 1690 1663 462 697 344 1829 156 82 1858 215 1744 1504 585 1982 19 781 1823 810 783 1865 797 1715 1282 401 285 1413 204 311 1864 738 1570 236 773 907 258 744 215 802 888 833 886 218 1834 371 187 2007 493 1765 191 569 1392 951 864 855 135 1862 1131 65 667 733 1545 1346 102 1253 270 1946 208 208 268 657 785 518 pining pinnacle pipe pit pity place on the head place placement placenta plaid plains plan plane plank plant plant, rice plantation play music play pleasure pledge plot plow pluck plug up plug plum plump plural, majestic pocket podium poem Point pointed poison pole, wooden poles polish politics pond pony pork portable portent porter possess post index iv: key words and primitive meanings § 5 W È ™ ‹ N Å Ÿ L 7 ‡ 0 w ð Y Ê − … £ c Z ï ? ° ¡ v ; ¡ À Ç š ) Ó © K R ² ‘ t À 4 633 339 1273 306 1187 94 1127 832 531 411 1596 214 118 724 205 910 358 1571 1047 628 1549 337 290 1106 1321 264 460 120 2027 828 587 346 1330 500 1531 93 1903 675 381 516 1979 538 687 235 196 79 824 post, parcel posture pot, µower potato potato pottery pour poverty power pox practice praise pray precious precipitous preface prefecture pregnancy present presents pressure previously price priest, Buddhist princess printing block printing prison private prize proceed proclaim products profession pro³t prohibition prolong promise promontory -proof property proportion propose prosperous prostrated protect provisional ã r ! y v f ú j d £ Ê t { Þ Ÿ Ö Ü ê Š 9 j E R Ü Š H ¹ • ç ? è c % 2 8 × ¥ 2  ( Ë Ø Ä N ˜ 6 1858 1818 1032 399 1655 1966 267 782 858 1684 1343 998 1128 1771 1672 1594 513 507 259 503 152 1481 978 982 849 1213 1069 338 902 796 386 188 1560 1792 906 1098 392 1362 778 1164 682 1553 665 25 962 997 966 provisions prudence public chamber public publish pull punish pup tent pupil puppet pure puri³cation purple purse pursue push put in put up a notice puzzle c R } N î … { † ² ù ˜ X ò Œ 926 1996 798 784 1650 1232 679 408 437 332 1539 1732 1375 419 539 1114 251 673 291 Q quake quandary quantity quarter quasiqueen question quick quiet quit quiver Å g w ¨ “ ™  º 2010 579 177 323 560 527 1617 1669 1540 2032 154 R 457 rabbit 302 radiance ‚ 295 rag rain ˜ 422 rainbow Ó 520 raise Î 1938 313 rake ram, sign of the (J) 469 range o 356 rank R 955 rapidly Õ 1686 index iv: key words and primitive meanings rapids rare rather rat, sign of the ratio ray rereach out read reality reap rebuke receipt receive recess recitation reclining recollection recommend record recreation recruit rectify red pepper red reed reef re³ned reµect reformation refreshing regiment register regularity reign reject rejoice relax reliant religion remainder remorse remote remove rend renowned reparation 519 rise up rising cloud of rising sun risk ritual river road road-way rob robust rod romance roof room root roots rope rope, straw rot rotation round rouse route row rowboat rowing rub rue rule rumor run alongside run rut œ 1666 £ 1723 â 834 ({) 469 B 1737 M 119 Œ 1081 ´ 688 œ 348 × 1572 ç 1488 ³ 352 Ø ‹ Æ & % Æ 8 ¥ ó Ó # Õ · º y ^ Ó « Y ¸ Ê ] H S ; m þ ½ ô & q ¦ 358 308 611 345 183 632 2000 1144 1898 861 1221 371 1743 242 558 1535 1742 528 313 1306 949 903 746 1138 1445 190 971 1100 808 631 958 760 806 1258 985 repay repeatedly repel repent report repress repudiate reputation request research resemblance resentment reside residence resign resin resist respect respects, pay responsibility rest restore retainer retreat return revelation revered review revise revolve rhyme rhythm ri rice ³eld rice, grains of rice plant rice seedling rice ride ridge, paddy ridgepole ridicule right righteousness rin ring riot S ü Ì t ³ ñ 1 Ó ¼ Á Ü É Ê ä Â Ö ì p Û ³ P S Ñ ‘ ² ¨ Ï à % ‘ A = , w y ñ ‘ [ E “ – m 0 ( 1432 373 857 625 1507 1700 1634 1939 934 1320 114 1460 1063 1841 1497 376 1832 1803 1864 1003 965 875 848 1465 725 247 1439 1618 339 420 481 874 173 14 274 910 374 919 1585 1204 505 829 78 641 178 836 72 à 4 à ø I Š ô X ß › % Ñ Í Å 7 ø K | ? u ß k ; • ’ ß Û { } 43 173 27 18 1102 146 130 277 566 321 1575 1748 1058 754 1461 305 37 1377 1023 1046 44 526 1661 1785 1876 1175 644 1483 88 499 795 384 288 S saber saber sack sacri³ce sacri³ce, animal sad safeguard sagacious sail saké salad Ä Ï “ ³ «  p „ , 51 1671 1006 643 1559 1635 700 1014 406 1428 319 520 salary salt salutation salvation same samurai sand sandwiched sane sash sated savings saw say sayeth saying scaffold scale scarecrow scarf, top hat and scatter scenery scheme school, cram schoolhouse scissors score, musical scorn scorpion scrapbook screwdriver scribe scroll scroll, hanging sðtra sea sea, open seacoast seal search seasons seat seaweed second secrecy secret section index iv: key words and primitive meanings Æ é ˆ º | Þ í d Ä “ r í Q ` 1349 1458 1087 936 180 143 117 1267 1159 415 1480 194 310 335 578 148 367 400 385 167 1189 314 948 309 144 334 1787 989 201 429 318 529 1207 407 1360 461 138 1332 156 1120 912 1193 2035 899 775 904 1845 _ “ @ k : B z ñ Q ™ } ! ø I a u Ç y î O ¸ H seduce see seedling seethe seize self self-effacing sell semisend back send off sentence separate sequential set aside set free set settlement seven severance sew sex shade shadow shake shaku shakuhachi shallow shame shape shape sheaf sheep sheet of shelf shelf shell³sh shells shield shift shining shins Shinto shrine ship shish kebab shoes shoot ª Ø ï Z ³ ÷ Ù  } B | k ƒ x @ ½ ‘ ó Ì ? Ä § ‹ ¹ F ñ ò I † æ + ù Š ƒ c Å « · $ ] e 86 57 234 1237 701 525 1600 323 564 837 2016 1725 90 1854 1188 496 1064 1356 7 1136 1563 1558 1592 1712 2011 1070 298 369 823 409 1711 370 547 332 421 202 54 38 1853 898 87 1396 1033 1874 603 1894 304 shoot â 1249 shop ™ 1839 short 1 1442 shoulder × 1077 shouldering ( 668 shout ä 1508 315 shovel show ½ 1086 293 shredder shrine, Shinto · 1033 shrink i 1336 sickle à 1599 404 sickness side ‘ 975 sideways ô 1751 181 siesta 314 sieve sigh % 1579 sign of the bird © 1427 sign of the cow œ 2040 sign of the dog (R) 469 sign of the dragon ó 2008 sign of the hare ™ 2041 sign of the hog n 1519 sign of the horse (5) 469 sign of the monkey (M) 469 sign of the ram (J) 469 sign of the rat ({) 469 sign of the snake L 2042 sign of the tiger ¨ 2006 signature • 1259 signpost ã 1608 386 silage silence † 240 silk Õ 1368 silkworm f 523 365 silver silver F 1459 367 silverware similar « 1029 simple $ 1928 simplicity 6 1621 sincerity ¼ 363 single › 522 sink ¢ 1888 Sino+ 1578 index iv: key words and primitive meanings sire sister, elder sister, younger sit sitting on the ground six skeleton sketch skill skin skirt skirt, grass skunk slacken slap slave slave sleep sleeve slender slingshot slip out slippery slope slow small bell smash smoke snake snake snake, sign of the snapshot snare snow so-and-so sociable soft soil soldier solely solemn solicit solution somebody someone son 521 St. Bernard dog stab stagnate stalk stamp stamp stand up standard staple gun staples star stare starve state of mind state station statue stature status quo status steadily steal stealth steam steel step stern sticky stiff stimulate stinking stipend stirred up stocks stomach stone stop store storehouse storehouse storm story straightaway strand strange strangle stratum 60 1319 416 715 354 1425 431 841 435 359 1556 237 1476 221 128 1984 1977 446 239 292 1135 1451 1322 1900 1962 1287 1936 921 695 1280 122 1574 565 222 29 113 370 588 850 589 777 1309 73 1263 126 1348 1065 R y ) ã  ¿ ì Œ 8 á 7 ï ‹ X £ ü s Ñ * Q Š ö ß í L K à Þ Ê É F o µ j ¾ g X é Á 1361 413 220 1024 180 6 1288 670 712 1992 800 377 456 1952 1793 263 2036 1835 1108 1790 330 705 1289 723 1067 1406 116 1612 214 519 2042 822 326 1143 1759 1970 470 150 1331 556 1733 1536 947 1248 1256 1851 song sort of thing sort soul sound soup source south sovereign sow span spare time spark sparkle sparkler speaketh spear special specialty species specimen speech speech, parts of sphere spicy spike spindle spine spinning spirit spirits spit splash splendor split sponsor spool spoon spot spread spring springtime sprout spy squad squared jewel squeeze H 5 { Ó 3 ^ è Ç Ð Ò E Æ M – é ) C Ÿ Æ Y ƒ ¨ á q ‘ 1 ? T ™ æ 0 ( 1 ñ r Ê Œ ‚ 9 469 241 931 2021 479 140 142 1613 435 207 32 1882 63 22 413 1117 327 246 46 1679 1455 148 1865 1208 1496 53 1584 24 1357 1885 1791 151 218 1581 813 987 240 444 169 1883 133 1568 304 981 1229 155 1324 £ Ë Ÿ | C y « Š i ? Ë … 6 ! ° 4 ] Ý % š r ä ë z Œ I ° f Û f Í Œ ü ‰ ø * ‰ Ÿ ’ ` ƒ ] 522 straw man straw rope stream stream, mountain street stretch strict strike strong strung together stubborn study stupid sturdy style subjugate submerge submit subscription substance substitute suck sue suffering sugar suitable sulfur sultry summer summit sun sun, rising sunµower sunglasses sunglasses with one lens out sunshine superµuous superintend supplement suppose surface surname surpass surplus surround suspend 322 1377 127 840 91 165 853 653 1235 424 61 324 1683 1964 353 881 844 1796 1817 1137 1005 689 787 225 1158 441 763 1260 296 1562 19 27 24 258 292 1300 300 1499 1840 684 1546 1557 387 1586 1807 1394 index iv: key words and primitive meanings suspicious swamp sweat sweep sweet swell swift swim swing sword symptoms system Å ë • s Ç ¸ è V ¿ L ¤ Å ¦ õ Ú • Ö Ö µ â N i ï L Œ @ · 4 s å * b 1 ã h ¾ Ü M Ò £ 716 1072 1651 1152 1757 1719 280 136 1967 83 1685 418 T T’ang table tag tail feathers tail tailor take along take tale Talking Cricket tall tariff task taskmaster tassel tatami mat tax tea teach team of horses tears technique teenager teepee tempering temple, Buddhist temporarily tempt ten thousand ten tenacious tender N M Å ü ¦ þ Ê ¢ I Y Û # Ä [ î y © § ± l ×  Y Î ] î ò ì ¢ ¦ è ¥ Î ó U Ë 1157 362 212 447 1915 397 287 819 344 454 307 1778 1227 146 1078 1784 895 252 1254 458 1082 421 58 407 2030 158 1134 766 64 10 1506 1226 tenderness tense test texture Thanksgiving thick thin thing think third class thirst thong thorn thousand thread threaten three throw thunder thwart ticket tide tie tiger tiger tiger, sign of the tighten tile till timber-trees time time, spare -times tin can tired together toil token tolerant tomb tombstone tome tongue wagging in mouth tongue too much tool ¸ ; ¢ h R , ] „ m Ð ” r æ – õ X V ! O à ‡ º ) ¨ Þ é … 5 ´ E n 8 ´ ß  6 ÷ b · G â Ñ 993 1374 354 66 155 125 164 1050 605 1020 451 1344 417 40 1333 871 3 706 425 1780 1206 141 1351 460 1990 2006 1340 1031 1808 1446 159 1882 586 1965 1688 1795 865 1001 226 1198 1512 1826 19 41 1657 47 index iv: key words and primitive meanings tool tooth top hat top hat and scarf topic tortoise torture touch towel tower town tracks tracks, animal trade traf³c tranquillize transcend transit transition translate transmit transparent transport tray tread treasure tree trunk tree treetops tremendously tribe tribute triceps trip trouble true trunk trunk, tree truss trust tub, oaken tucked under the arm tune turf turkey turkey house/coop 523 valley value valve vapor various vase vast vat vegetable vehicle vein venerable old man veri³cation vermilion versify vertical vessels vicarious vicevictory vie villa village villain vine vinegar violent virtuous vis-à-vis visit voice voiced void volume vow vulgar vulture S © Û † © Ù ¼ ª Ô æ ° ¥ • 9 + § ) t ´ ¡ ) µ ù … È d Ÿ ” S ñ O ˆ ù [ þ 74 1171 139 167 389 534 1255 672 169 1624 208 1746 445 1424 1408 276 385 1195 1610 1073 963 915 289 1872 1286 257 1654 195 201 1768 1222 81 266 1048 1935 75 182 1654 1376 1665 420 236 349 1216 211 214 turn into turn turtle tusk twenty twig twist two hands two two-mat area tyrannize ¨ Ÿ b Ô û Å Ì ¿ ¬ 361 1909 110 1904 1190 298 1509 233 2 1486 1998 ú 9 – r ™ e j û T ø à $ E a Æ Ú O § Þ v ‰ à º n ± 3 Á Z ¹ ê Ð Î ½ š U ugly umbrella umbrella ununcle uncommon unde³led undertake undress uneasiness unfold United States universal unlucky unravel unusual upbraid upright upside down in a row urge urine use usual utensil utilize utmost U Y À d b ¸ Y õ U û 3 £ m ˆ © Ì W Ù q ø ^ ä è 2020 116 1026 1632 718 1797 1548 375 498 1995 1925 274 1786 1415 1814 1745 2026 55 423 282 1053 990 799 121 1181 821 788 1603 742 1886 1261 176 1234 1176 734 132 1856 786 1980 221 1589 1338 699 1739 89 1209 434 322 92 1490 1945 1434 497 1035 1726 1720 1896 835 1993 1543 1133 968 242 W wagging tongue in a mouth wagon wait waiter waitress walk 19 132 879 976 368 371 “ Ü V V.I.P. vague valentine û Y 511 230 221 Å ¬ Ÿ 524 walking legs walking stick wall wall wand, magic wandering war ward off ward warm warmth warrior warship wash waste, laid watch over watchtower water lily water water, hot waterfall waver waves weak wealth wealth weather weather vane weave wee hours week weekday welcome welfare well west West, Old wet 134 28 246 1500 33 1470 1929 1302 1696 1452 1949 377 1875 249 488 638 930 369 130 546 537 1438 803 1236 52 193 174 37 1334 189 318 576 1702 1091 1806 1602 390 1627 index iv: key words and primitive meanings whale what wheat wheel wherefore whirlpool whirlwind whiskey bottle white bird white whole wholesale wicked wicker basket wide widow wife wife, legitimate wild dogs, pack of willow wind wind winding window wing wings wink winter wisdom wish wisteria witch with child withdraw wither withstand woman woman, beautiful 315 1012 270 s 1822 Æ 1105 ¢ 1292 139 360 29 R 37 6 263 / 1397 î 1906 417 b 739 C 617 ë 1889 ] 440 112 ª 1421 37 K 524 l 1369 p 749 ö 1798 216 s 817 K 427 J 1224 ç 1590 n 1210 % 2022 A 2012 j 1318 ü 206 ó 1770 œ 98 Ý 1950 « 7 | ¹ ì è J 1 @  ; ó Œ 3 · v _ Ý Ä # ú ) 3 ´ Q Þ ª ” m » ‚ womb wonder wood wooden leg wooden pole wool word words work world worship wound wrap wretched write writing brush Ì ü B z ƒ 0 ¥ ± ] – Ù 748 1987 93 336 93 211 347 148 1678 251 1564 996 530 1721 327 943 Y yarn yawn year year-end yell yellow yesterday yield yonder young younger brother younger sister æ ñ ò ü : a T ø Ô ) 353 185 1036 512 1042 1750 1140 1060 183 223 1240 220 Z Zen zero zoo 7 Œ 1930 1402 166 ...
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This note was uploaded on 01/18/2009 for the course ASIAN 125 taught by Professor Emori during the Winter '07 term at University of Michigan.

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