Exam2 Review CMS344K - 344K Lying DeceptionFall 2008 Exam 2...

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344K Lying & Deception—Fall 2008 Exam 2 Review Sheet Read and study Chapters 7-10 + videos and PowerPoints Performing Lies and Deceit With Others: (Chapter 7; 10/2, 10/7, 10/9 lectures) 1. Understand how liars alter their behavior to perform deceit o Competent liars are liars are likely to avoid the behavior in question, mask it, or create  distractions so it won’t be seen.  o One example: Eye behavior. “a liar will not look you in the eyes" o With practice and/or self-deception, some people are quite capable of controlling their  behavior so it looks natural and spontaneous. Corcoran, Lewis, and Garver taught people  how to control their galvanic skin response and arousal level through biofeedback and  relaxation training to reduce accuracy of a polygraph examination.  o Sometimes people attempts to not sound anxious would result in an even higher pitched  and anxious sounding tone.  o Leakage clues : when liars are not able to effectively control their behavior, they  communicate in leakage clues, which are behaviors that mistakenly reveal the truth o Deception clues:  behavior that suggests a person is lying without revealing the truth.  2. Know the reasons why adults lie and the two primary types of lies o Adults Lie to avoid punishment, protect oneself from harm, obtain a reward for oneself,  protect or help another person, win admiration from others, get out of an awkward or  embarrassing social situation, maintain privacy, exercise power over others, fulfill social  expectations, and too have fun.  o Falsifying : falsification means the liar is actively trying to create a false belief within the  target or support a false belief the target already believes.  o Concealing : Here the liar is hiding or withholding true information or feelings. Sometimes  this occurs when a person decides not to provide information to a person who is known to  have a false belief.  3. Understand the difference between low-stakes and high-stakes lies and why each  might be performed in relationships o Because of  Consequences:  if the stakes are low there are not major consequences of  liars.  o When stakes are high, you can go to prison, get a divorce, or even cause death.  o Don’t expect the same behavior when a person tells a friend they had a nice time at a 
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party(when they didn’t) to a person telling terrorist captors they are not U.S citizens.  o Low stakes lies may be performed in relationships because they are mostly told for one’s  personal benefit to improve one’s image, to feel better, to protect oneself from  embarrassment, hurt, or disapproval.  o In relationships you want to present yourself in the best possible way. 
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