student%20notes%20lec%2014%20F08

student%20notes%20lec%2014%20F08 - Chem 11500 Lecture14...

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Chem 11500 Lecture14 Reading: Sections 11.1-11.2 (part), 11.3-11.4 (part), pp. 474-485, 496, 500-505
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Molecules as fuel: what’s in a barrel of oil? Almost half of a barrel of oil is gasoline, but there are many other products that we get from oil: The cost of a barrel of oil affects more than just the cost of gasoline
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A Barrel of Oil: a molecular perspective Oil is predominantly made of “organic” (carbon containing) molecules 1 – 4 carbon atoms: some fuel, mostly feedstock for plastics and chemical product 5 – 12 carbons: fuel (gasoline), solvents 12 – 16 carbons: fuel (jet fuel) 15 – 18 carbons: diesel fuel 16 – 20 carbons: lubricants (engine oil) > 20 carbons: paraffin, waxes, asphalt What are the molecular structures of these products?
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Lewis structures of Hydrocarbons:_________ The simplest types of organic molecules are hydrocarbons , which contain only carbon and hydrogen; example C 3 H 8 Each carbon forms four covalent bonds, hydrogen forms one covalent bond; indicate a shared (bonding) pair of electrons with a line For hydrocarbons with more than three carbons, more than one Lewis structure is possible; example C 4 H 10 C C C H H H H H H H H C C C C H H H H H H H H H H C C C H H C H H H H H H H H linear branched Isomers : molecules with the same molecular formula but different structures
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Shapes of hydrocarbons The carbon atoms are nearly tetrahedral ; bond angles (H-C-H, C-C-H, C-C-C) are close to 109.5˚ Organic molecules with single bonds are not flat! 109.5˚
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Representing organic structures Full formula (show all atoms and bonds) Condensed formula (show bonds between carbons, include atoms) Carbon skeleton formula: show only bonds between carbons; carbons are at the vertices C C C H H C H H H H C H H H C H C H H H H H H H 3 C CH CH 3 CH 2 CH CH 3 CH 3
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student%20notes%20lec%2014%20F08 - Chem 11500 Lecture14...

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