Lecture1 Intro

Lecture1 Intro - The scientifc process: Hypotheses •...

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Unformatted text preview: The scientifc process: Hypotheses • FALSIFIABILITY is the criterion o¡ demarcation that distinguishes science ¡rom opinions and belie¡s • A good theory is one that can, in principle, be disproved • Two types o¡ Hypotheses: • Null (H o ) - represents the status quo • Alternative (H 1 ) - the hunch on which the research is predicated 1 The scientifc process: An aside about variables • Constant - takes only one value • Variables - elements in studies that are manipulated, measured, compared, and/or controlled...and sometimes overlooked • Operational defnitions • Variables must be observable and measurable • Psychological constructs 2 The scientifc process: An aside about variables • Independent Variable (IV) - Any variable that is systematically manipulated by the experimenter; the cause • Dependent Variable (DV) - any variable that is measured, counted, or recorded; the eFFect • ConFounding Variable - any uncontrolled variable that compromises the interpretation oF the study 3 The scientifc process: Research Design • Two ways to approach a research question: • Experiments (controlled studies) • Observational studies (also called correlational studies) 4 Research design: Experiments • A study with both IV’s and DV’s • An investigator manipulates some factors (IV’s) and observes the effect on other factors (DV’s) 5 Research design: Experiments • Defning Features: • Control - the researcher attempts to hold all variables constant except those under investigation • Random assignment - each person has an equal chance oF being assigned to any group in the experiment - Permits the researcher to draw conclusions about CAUSE and E¡¡ECT 6 Research design: Experiments • What if conducting an experiment would be impossible (breakdown of control or random assignment) or unethical?...
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This note was uploaded on 01/21/2009 for the course PSYC 60 taught by Professor Ard during the Winter '08 term at UCSD.

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Lecture1 Intro - The scientifc process: Hypotheses •...

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