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Unformatted text preview: Hypothesis Testing • Assuming that a given hypothesis were true: • 1) What are the characteristics (e.g., shape, mean, variance) of the sampling distribution speciFed by that hypothesis? • 2) On the basis of that hypothetical sampling distribution, what would be considered a rare, as opposed to a common outcome; i.e., what sort of outcome would lead us to doubt that the hypothesis was true? 1 Common vs. Rare Outcomes • Rare outcomes are those which fall in the tails of the hypothetical sampling distribution • Common outcomes are those which fall in the center of the hypothetical sampling distribution • “Statistically signiFcant” 2 A Revised Anatomy of a Hypothesis Test • Step #1: State the statistical hypotheses • Step #2: Specify the sample size and sampling distribution • Step #3: Specify the decision rule • Step #4: Specify the test statistic • Step #5: Carry out calculations • Step #6: Interpret Results 3 Statistical Hypotheses • Two components: • Null Hypothesis ( H ) • Usually the hypothesis that there is no effect • The hypothesis that we seek to falsify • Alternative Hypothesis ( H 1 ) • SpeciFes the basic effect that the researcher is expecting to observe • Not directly tested 4 One vs. TwoTailed Hypotheses • TwoTailed (Nondirectional) Tests • The expectation ( H 1 ) is simply that a difference will be observed • OneTailed (Directional) Tests • The expectation (...
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 Winter '08
 Ard
 Normal Distribution, Standard Deviation, Null hypothesis, Statistical hypothesis testing

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