Chapter Review Notes

Chapter Review Notes - Chapter 1 Review Notes Language...

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Chapter 1 Review Notes Language: dynamic set of visual, auditory, or tactile symbols of communication and elements used to manipulate them. Linguistic Knowledge Sound symbolism : words whose pronunciation suggests the meaning. Onomatopoeic: words that imitate the sounds associated w/ the objects or actions they refer. Ex. Buzz. Competence: unconscious knowledge Performance: use of linguistic competence in production Lexicon: Mental Dictionary, collection of words you know Grammar : Knowledge speakers have about the units and rules of their language Phonology : rules for combining sounds into words Morphology : rules for word formation Syntax: rules for combining words into phrases and phrases into sentences Semantics : rules for assigning meaning Descriptive Grammar : describes basic linguistic knowledge. Tells what you know about the sounds, words, phrases, and sentences of your language. Mental Grammar : set of all linguistic, elements and rules about the make up of a language. Rule is a statement of some pattern that occurs in language. Grammatical: means we conform to rules of mental grammar Prescriptive Grammar : prescribing rules of grammar rather than describing rules. Bishop Robert Lowth : “two negatives make a positive” Prestige Dialect: language spoken by those in position of power. Teaching Grammar : used to learn another language or dialect Gloss : meaning of a word given by the parallel word in the student’s native language. Universal Grammar
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Rules representing the universal properties of all languages. Animal Communication and Human Language Animals can vocally imitate human utterances Birds: Songs vs. Calls Calls: short simple notes conveying message associated w/ immediate environment Songs : complex patterns of notes used to stake out territory and to attract mates.
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