Unformatted text preview: Final Lecture: Ecology, Climate Change, Population Growth First – The Final Exam!
• • • • • Thurs June 12 @ 7:00pm 100 points Material from last exam Same format Study tips:
– Read chapters in text – Study previous quizzes – Download ppt from BB – STUDY!! Ecology
The Study Of the Interaction Of Organisms And Their Environment OR The Study Of The Biosphere And Its Components The Biosphere • Zones of the earth’s soil, water, and air where living organisms are found
– Hydrosphere – Lithosphere – Atmosphere Ecologists Study
• Where organisms are found • How many organisms occur • Why organisms occur where they do Components Components Of Ecosystem
– Living – Producers – Consumers • Abiotic
– Nonliving – Temperature, rocks, precipitation, wind Organism: Organism Organism an individual Population: Population: A group of potentially interbreeding individuals of the same species occurring together in space and time Community: Community Community all populations in an ecosystem Ecosystem: Ecosystem Ecosystem The community and the physical environment Biosphere: Biosphere Biosphere All the ecosystems on Earth combined Three Three hundred trout are needed to support one man for a year. The trout, in turn, must consume 90,000 frogs, that must consume 27 million grasshoppers that live off of 1,000 tons of grass. -- G. Tyler Miller, Jr., American Chemist (1971) Categorizing Organisms By What They Eat
• Producers are eaten by: • Primary consumers (herbivores) which are herbivores) eaten by: • Secondary consumers (carnivores which carnivores) carnivores are eaten by: • Tertiary consumers which are eaten by • Quaternary consumers which are eaten by • No Energy left!! Biogeochemical Cycles
• Energy does not cycle through the ecosystem due to the laws of thermodynamics • Many resource do – biogeochemical cycles
– Includes the water cycle, carbon cycle, nitrogen cycle, phosphorus cycle, etc The Water Cycle The Nitrogen Cycle
• Atmospheric nitrogen = N2
– Unavailable to plants • Bacteria convert nitrogen to useable form • Fixation The Carbon Cycle Carbon Dioxide
• Removed by:
– Photosynthesis – Ocean “sink” • Produced by:
• Vehicles & factories – Global Warming The Greenhouse Effect Greenhouse Effect Greenhouse Gases Anthropogenic Sources Natural Sources Global Warming??? Global Warming and Greenhouse Effect
• Increased emissions of CO2 into the environment, mostly from fossil fuels • So, what will happen if the world gets warmer?? A Warmer World
• Rising sea levels due to melting glaciers • Change global precipitation patterns • Warmer belts around equator – affects crops and other plants • Human health How Do We Solve This Problem?
Increase E efficiency standards •
Reduce driving 2. Renewable E sources 3. Eliminate FF subsidies 2. Drive more fuel efficient vehicles 3. Insulate home 4. Protect & restore forests 4. Use E efficient appliances 5. Use less electricity Population Growth The United States
• Has less than 5% of the world’s population • Uses 25% of the world’s nonrenewable resources • Uses 33% of the world’s minerals • Produces 33% of the world’s pollution & trash • A baby born in US will do 20-100X more environmental damage than a baby born in a developing country The US Population
• In 1900 = 76 million • In 2000 = 281 million • Peaked in 1957 during baby boom • According to US Census:
– US will increase 44% by 2050 to 404 million Current World Population
• It took:
– 2 million yrs to reach 1 billion people – 130 yrs to reach the 2nd billion – 30 more yrs to reach the 3rd – 15 yrs to 4 billion – 12 yrs to 5 billion – Now have over 6 billion Six Billion People
Click Here In Summary Ocean current “conveyor belt” ...
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This note was uploaded on 01/22/2009 for the course BIO bio213 taught by Professor Has during the Spring '09 term at Cal Poly.
- Spring '09