Earthquakes 15 November 1 st , 207 Why is damage where it is? Five controls-Source effects: issues related directly the specifics on that seismic rupture. If you stand on the side of the road and a truck drives past you, you experience high pitch going towards, low pitch going away, known as Doplar effect. o 1. Magnitude : Size of earthquake (how much energy is released) is a basic control on the damage of earthquake. o 2. Location/proximity to site: proximity to the seismic source generally means more damage. o 3. Frequency content of seismic waves: earthquakes release energy over wide spectrum of frequencies. The bigger the earthquake, the richer it tends to be in low frequencies. Low frequency waves affect big things such as, buildings, dams, skyscrapers. o 4. Directivity: under certain circumstances, seismic energy can be preferentially directed in one preferred direction. Killer pulse will destroy
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