MCB3208Ch3

MCB3208Ch3 - MCB32F08Chapter3 Cellsandtheirorganelles...

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MCB 32 F08 Chapter 3 Cells and their organelles Outline Cell organelles Plasma membrane: phospholipids and proteins, some sugars (glycoproteins and glycolipids) Cytoskeleton Nucleus Endoplasmic reticulum and ribosomes Golgi Lysosomes Secretory granules Mitochondria Protein synthesis DNA, RNA, mRNA, tRNA, codons, anti-codons, ribosomes, and secretory pathway Plasma membrane Phospholipids in a bilayer with proteins surrounds the cell. Phospholipids : glycerol + two fatty acids + one phosphate Hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions in one molecule, called amphipathic Membranes of cells form a bilayer with hydrophilic portion facing the water and the hydrophobic region facing inside. These lipids generate the insulating portion of the membrane Membranes also contain cholesterol. Proteins inserted into the membrane, perform specialized functions : receptors for hormones to regulate activity of the cell, ion channels control nerve and muscle function, transporters allow specific substances into and out of the cell. Cytoplasm and cytoskeleton comprises all the material inside the cell, includes water, salts, proteins, and macromolecular structures like actin (+ myosin) cables, microtubules (tubulin) and intermediate filaments (cytokeratin) that provide structure to the cell. Nucleus: double membrane bound structure containing genes/DNA used in controlling the cell’s function. Membranes have large holes, pores that allow communication between the cytosol and the nucleus. Factors produced in the cytosol can enter the nucleus to ocntrol the turn-on and turn-off of specific genes. Genes are activated and produce RNA, which then moves to the cytosol where it directs function of the ribosomes Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a membrane bound organelle that is found throughout the cell,
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MCB3208Ch3 - MCB32F08Chapter3 Cellsandtheirorganelles...

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