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Chapter 14 - Chapter 14-Psychological disorders[book notes...

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Chapter 14—Psychological disorders [book notes] ABNORMAL BEHAVIOR Medical model:  proposes that one thinks of abnormal behavior as a disease.  1) Is the behavior deviant?   Does it violate social norms? 2) Is the behavior maladaptive?   Does it impair everyday behavior? 3) Does the behavior cause personal distress? Only need one to have “abnormal behavior” Works on a continuum and is subjective. A person is judged to have a psychological disorder when their behavior becomes  extremely deviant, maladaptive or distressing.  Diagnosis:  involves distinguishing one illness from another Etiology:  the apparent causation and developmental history of an illness. Prognosis:  a forecast about the probable course of an illness. False Stereotypes: 1) Psychological disorders are incurable 2) People with psychological disorders are often violent and dangerous 3) People with psychological disorders behave in bizarre ways and are very different from  normal people. DSM— Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (highly subjective) Works on 5 axes (only need to know first three) 1) Clinical Syndromes (ex. Autism) 2) Personality disorders/mental retardation (extreme inflexible personality traits) 3) Physical disorders (ex. Arthritis) 44% of people have a psychological disorder at some point, 24% is substance abuse. Epidemiology:  the study of the distribution of mental of physical disorders in a population. Prevalence:  the percentage of the population that exhibits a disorder during a specified time. ANXIETY DISORDERS Anxiety disorders:  a class of disorders marked by feelings of excessive apprehension and  anxiety.
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Generalized Anxiety Disorder:  marked by a chronic, high level of anxiety that is not  tied to any specific threat.  Tends to have a gradual onset and is more common in females than males. Phobic disorder:  marked by a persistent and irrational fear of an object of situation that  presents no realistic danger Fears seriously interfere with their everyday behavior Panic disorder:  characterized by recurrent attacks of overwhelming anxiety that usually  occur suddenly and unexpectedly.  Agoraphobia: fear of going out to public places. 2/3rds of people who suffer from panic disorders are females. Sufferers become  apprehensive wondering when their next panic will occur. Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD):  marked by persistent, uncontrollable  intrusions of unwanted thoughts (obsessions) and urges to engage in senseless rituals  (compulsion) Post Traumatic Stress disorder (PTSD):  involves enduring psychological disturbance  attributed to the experience of a major traumatic event. 
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