Chapter 12 Personality

Chapter 12 Personality - Chapter 12 Personality Theory...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–3. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Chapter 12 Personality: Theory, Research and Assessment [book notes] NATURE OF PERSONALITY Personality: refers to an individual’s unique constellation of consistent behavioral traits. Concept of Personality explains: 1) stability of behavior over time and across situations 2) behavioral differences of people reacting to the same situation. Personality trait: a durable disposition to behave in particular way in a variety of situations. Ex. Honest, dependable, anxious, excitable etc. A small number of fundamental traits determine other more superficial ones. Factor analysis: correlations among many variables are analyzed to identify closely related clusters of variables. Used to reduce a list of 171 personality traits to 16 basic dimensions of personality. Five Factor Model (“The Big Five”) –most personality traits are derived from five high order traits 1) Extraversion: outgoing, sociable and assertive. Referred to as positive emotionality. 2) Neuroticism: anxious, hostile, self-conscious. Referred to as negative emotionality. 3) Openness to experience: curiosity, flexibility, vivid fantasy. It’s argued this trait is the key determinant of people’s political attitude. 4) Agreeableness: sympathetic, trusting, cooperative, modest. May have its roots in childhood temperament 5) Conscientious: diligent, disciplined, and well organized. Referred to as constraint and is associated with living longer. Differing personality theories: psychodynamic perspectives, behavioral perspectives, humanistic perspectives, and biological perspectives. PSYCHODYNAMIC PERSPECTIVES Psychodynamic theories: all the diverse theories descended from the work of Freud which focuses on the unconscious mental forces. Psychoanalytical theory: attempts to explain personality, motivation and psychological disorders with focus on childhood experiences, the unconscious motives and methods people use to cope with their sexual, aggressive urges.
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Freud —divided personality into three components: id, ego, and superego . Id: primitive instinctive component of personality that operates according to the pleasure principle. Considered the reservoir of psychic energy, controls biological urges. Pleasure principle: demands immediate gratification of its urges. Primitive Process Thinking—primitive, illogical, irrational and fantasy oriented. Ego: decision-making component of personality that operates according to the reality principle. Mediates between the id (forceful desires v. external world). Considers social realties: norms, etiquettes, rules and customs. Reality principle: seeks to delay gratification of the id’s urges until appropriate outlets and situations can be found. Secondary Process Thinking—rational, realistic and oriented toward problem- solving avoid negative consequences. Superego:
Background image of page 2
Image of page 3
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

Page1 / 7

Chapter 12 Personality - Chapter 12 Personality Theory...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 3. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online