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Lecture 2 -- Citizens: The French Revolution and Napoleon, 1789-1815 Timeline[----------------------------------------------------|---------------------------------------------]178917991815Fall of the BastilleBrumaireWaterlooI. The Significance of the French RevolutionII. Long-term OriginsIII. Short-term CausesIV. The Revolution Phase 1: Moderates in PowerV. The Revolution Phase 2: Radicals in Power and the TerrorVI. The Revolution Phase 3: The Napoleonic WarsVII. The Legacy of the French RevolutionI. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION.1*This was the central event in the history of Modern Europe and Western Civilization.2*It marked the point of transition between the Old Order and the New.3*It also represented the most momentous upheaval of the Age of Revolution, 1775-1848. 4*It inaugurated more changes than any other event in history.5*To date it is the European event with the most enduring impact on the present.II. LONG-TERM ORIGINS.1. The Population Boom. 6*France was the most powerful nation in continental Europe because it was the most populous nation in 1789. 1 out of every 5 Europeans was French.7*Enormous population growth took place as France grew from 18-26 million from 1715-1789, a rise of 44%. 8*The population surge resulted from a decline in the mortality rate and drop in plague-and-disease-related deaths. 9*Advances in medicine and hygiene, including smallpox inoculation spread throughwestern Europe. 10*There were more women of childbearing age and a decrease in the infant mortality rate. 11*The introduction of New World crops such as corn, beans, potatoes, and tomatoes brought better nutrition to European tables.2. Urbanization.
12*The population growth led to a land squeeze that caused rural to urban migration. 13*Paris was a city of 500,000, Lyons had 135,000.14*Landless peasants moved to the cities to eke out a living. 15*Unemployment increased. 16*The Revolution broke out because of lack of industrial employment in France. 17*On the eve of the Revolution there was a discontented, unemployed, and hungry urban proletariat3. Power Struggle and Commercial Rivalry Between Great Britain and France.18*War with Great Britain proved costly and contributed to public debt that brought down the monarchy. 19*France lost her American colonies in the Seven Years' War and sought revenge in the American Revolution. 20*Support of the American Revolutionaries cost her 2 billion livres. 21*While Britain built up its merchant marine and navy, France concentrated on building its land army and neglected its navy. 22*Britain was the dominant naval, colonial, and commercial power in the World 23*France was the strongest nation in continental Europe.4. The Enlightenment.24*Whereas the Renaissance began in Italy, the Enlightenment emerged in France.25*Through the application of reason and science French publicists attacked church and state. 26*Philosophes called for the reformation or destruction of existing institutions. Descartes, Montesquieu, Voltaire, and Rousseau were the big four of the French Enlightenment.