America moves to the city 1865-1900
By the census of 1870 doubled from 40 million
The Urban Frontier
-American metropolises -
in 1860 no city in the United States could boast a million inhabitants
by 1890: NY, Chicago, and Philadelphia had vaulted past the million mark
by 1900: NY w/ some 3.5 million people was 2nd largest city in the world outranked by London
- famed architect working on and perfecting skyscrapers (first appearing in Chicago in 1885).
-The city grew from a small compact one that people could walk through to get around to a huge
metropolis that required commuting by electric trolleys.
-Electricity, indoor plumbing, and telephones made city life more alluring.
-skyscrapers and New York’s awesome Brooklyn Bridge were a plus
-Department stores like Macy’s (in New York) and Marshall Field’s (in Chicago) provided urban
working-class jobs and also attracted urban middle-class shoppers.
-era of consumerism and class divisions
: a woman’s escapades in the big city and made cities dazzling and attractive.
-because while farmers always reused everything or fed “trash” to animals, city dwellers, with
their mail-order stores like Sears and Montgomery Ward, which made things cheap and easy to
buy, could simply throw away the things that they didn’t like anymore.
-In cities, criminals flourished, and impure water, uncollected garbage, unwashed bodies, and
droppings made cities smelly and unsanitary.
-Worst of all were the slums, which were crammed with people.
-(which gave a bit of fresh air down their airshaft) were the worst since they were dark, cramped,
and had little sanitation or ventilation.
-To escape, the wealthy of the city-dwellers fled to suburbs.
The New Immigration
-By 1870’s more than 2 million migrants had stepped onto America’s shores
-1880s, most of the immigrants had come from the British Isles and western Europe (Germany
and Scandinavia) and were quite literate
-Many were Protestants, except for catholic Irish, and many Catholic Germans
-accustomed to some type of representative government.
-preferred to work in farms
-from Southern and Eastern Europe by the 1880s and 1890s
-Italians, Croats, Slovaks, Greeks, and Poles
-many worshiped in orthodox churches or synagogues
-came from places with little history of democratic government
-largely impoverished and illiterate
-mostly seeking industrial jobs in cities than in farms
-accounted for only 19% of immigrants to the U.S. in 1880’s
-by the early 1900s, they were over 60%!
-Many lived in NY and Chicago
Southern Europe Uprooted
-Many Europeans came to America because there was no room in Europe, nor was there much
employment, since industrialization had eliminated many jobs.
-America was also often praised to Europeans, as people boasted of eating everyday and having