Study Guide for final

Study Guide for final - Sustainable Development and the...

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Sustainable Development and the Constitution- Balancing different concerns (not just env and econ)- morals, ethics. Easier to compromise on interests than principles. Public Ambivalence/Engagement- hard to create command and control acts. Must provide incentives. Pg 249 in Kraft. Consensus-building and environmental policy-making- market incentives. Easier for state and local policy making than national government. State and local policymakers can more easily build consensus for innovation than is possible in the contentious arena of national politics. Policy innovation/integration- chpt6 multiple use. Wise use. Employment of market incentives to stimulate technological innovation State and local policymakers can more easily build consensus for innovation than is possible in the contentious arena of national politics. Policy Integration o EPA cannot alone take care of all environmental problems o New institutional authority or intergovernmental mechanism for sustainability policy analysis and planning is necessary Democracy and Scientific expertise - should people have the say in what goes on with environmental policy or should scientists be given the lone power to decide or should there be a balance? Success is likely to depend on generating credible and compelling scientific analyses of the environmental effects of resource use and also on designing policies to mitigate unavoidable and adverse economic and social repercussions. Measures of environmental progress- Cost-Benefit analysis- environmentalists are using it now to gain more ground with companies. EX: UPS trucks. Precautionary principle- if one of the solutions negatively affects the environment then it should not be done. o Precautionary Principle Scientific risk assessment is an essential tool for setting regulatory standards and priorities. This, however, sometimes fails. “precautionary principle” may be a better guide to action Founded in the 1992 Rio Declaration on Environment and Development Holds that “where there are threats of serious or irreversible damage, lack of full scientific certainty shall not be used as a reason for postponing cost-effective measures to prevent environmental degradation Controversial in the U.S. Polluter pays principle- cercla Responsibility for cleanup and financial liability was on those who disposed of hazardous wastes; “polluter pays” policy Environmental Justice- pg 223 . Poor people receive all of the pollution while rich are the biggest creators. Environmental Justice
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o Community must also focus on the distributive effects of activities the negatively affect people and the environment o Low-income people and minority groups are disproportionately exposed to environmental hazards o Clinton issued Executive Order 12898 that called for all federal agencies to develop strategies for achieving environmental justice o EPA has established the Office of Environmental Justice and a civil rights office in the Office of the Administrator
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