Study Guide

Study Guide - FINALEXAMStudyGuide

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–2. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
FINAL EXAM Study Guide [Kraft, Ch. 5: Environmental Protection Policy, Controlling Pollution; 112-123] Major environmental protection statutes: o Clear Air Act, Clean Water Act, Safe Drinking Water Act, Toxic Substances Control Act, Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, and Superfund. o Gains made in urban air quality and controlling point sources of pollution. o Statutes have not been cheap; the US General Accounting Office (GAO) estimated between 1972 and 1992, expenditures for pollution control = $1 trillion. o Implemented by the EPA in cooperation with the states. The Clean Air Act (CAA) o Most comprehensive and complex o EPA must set primary/secondary national ambient air quality standards/emission limits. o State must develop implementation plans. o Regulates motor vehicle emissions and fuels. o 1990 amendments to limit acid deposition, phase out CFCs, regulate major sources of toxic and hazardous air pollutants. o Clinton (1997) wanted to tighten air pollution standards for ozone and fine particulates; Bush wanted to give greater weight to economic effects. o National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS)—deal with permissible concentrations of chemicals in the air; to protect human health, and protect buildings, forests, waters, crops. o Set an “ample margin of safety” for toxic/hazardous air pollutants to reduce air pollution to acceptable levels. o 1970: national emissions standards for cars, trucks, and buses. 90% reduction in nitrogen oxides by 1976. o For existing sources of air pollution, each state was to implement SIPs (State Implementation Plans). o 1997 Amendments: left the major goals of the law intact and strengthened the act on requirements for non-attainment areas and provisions for prevention of significant deterioration (PSD) o Three classes of safe areas: National parks and similar areas; air protected against any type of deterioration. Specified the amount of additional pollution that would be permitted. Air pollution allowed to continue until it reached the level set by national standards. o 1990 Amendments: to control acid rain, chemicals from coal-burning power plants, and CFCs. o Title IV: an emissions trading program for reducing sulfor dioxide emissions. o Set up 189 toxic chemicals that needed to be regulated; set new health based standards for chemicals that represented a risk of 1 cancer case in 1 million exposed individuals. o Proposed Reforms: in 2002, Bush proposed the Clear Skies Initiative; it would use market incentives to control emissions of mercury, nitrogen dioxide, and sulfur dioxide from power plants, but not carbon dioxide. Those opposed believe the CAA would achieve better results and more quickly if properly
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Image of page 2
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

This note was uploaded on 01/26/2009 for the course HIST 101 taught by Professor Wormer during the Spring '08 term at Baylor.

Page1 / 26

Study Guide - FINALEXAMStudyGuide

This preview shows document pages 1 - 2. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online