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Genetic Engineering Outline 2003 version

Genetic Engineering Outline 2003 version - KRISTIN CHEN BIO...

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K RISTIN C HEN BI O PL 2400 G REEN W ORLD / B LUE P LANET G ENETIC E NGINEERING Lecture 2 Genetic engineering : the transfer of genetic information to an organism to introduce a desirable trait Result = Transgenic organism or Genetically Modified Organism (GMO) Cloning = genetic copies of an organism (under umbrella of GE) Rapid growth of GMO crops in the US (1996-2008) Soybean pesticide resistant (Bt) make farming easier Cotton herbicide resistant (Ht) Corn “Roundup” Intended for animal feed, not for human consumption Europe resisting GMOs, common in Australia, just being introduced to US Questions Are GMO’s safe? Are they necessary/ what are the potential benefits? Are the techniques safe? What are the techniques? Cells—The Unit of Life All living things are made up of cells cells tissues organs organisms Each cell serves a function Parts of a Cell Cell wall Plasma membrane Cytoplasm Nucleoid Prokaryotes vs. Eukaryotes Prokaryotes - “simplest” forms of life - Ex: Bacteria Cyanobacteria** - Lack complexity of Eukaryotes Eukaryotes - = membrane bound organelles including a nucleus - More organized - Organelles = membrane bound structure such as Nucleus, chloroplasts, mitochondria Cells Differentiation = development of a cell into a specific cell type - Based on genetic make up—expression of genes
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cell’s fate is determined by expression of Genes stem cells = fate not yet determined, can be manipulated cells contain the same genetic material—expression of genes varies [1] Differentiation Totipotency = all cells contain the same genetic information Activation of certain genes results in specialization Mitosis = a process where chromosomes are duplicated and passed on to daughter cells by the process of mitosis Cells divide, genetic material copied Genotype = all the genetic material that makes up for the genotype of an organism Phenotype = the physical appearance of the organism—physical traits Traits are inheritable—passed onto offspring Meiosis = Genetic makeup of gametes is variable Gametes contain half of the # of chromosomes During sexual reproduction, the full complement of genetic material is restored Variation in genetic makeup of gametes leads to unique individuals Chromosomes = contain information that leads to phenotypes Genes = region of the chromosome which carries the information for one trait Contain info that is passed on to offspring Information codes for production of proteins (= either structural or enzymes which catalyze the chemical reactions of life) DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid) = chemical structure of a gene DNA genes chromosomes Is genetic engineering merely an acceleration of traditional breeding?
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