Genetic Engineering Outline - K RISTIN C HEN BI O PL 2400 G...

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Unformatted text preview: K RISTIN C HEN BI O PL 2400 G REEN W ORLD / B LUE P LANET G ENETIC E NGINEERING Lecture 2 • Genetic engineering : the transfer of genetic information to an organism to introduce a desirable trait • Result = Transgenic organism or Genetically Modified Organism (GMO) • Cloning = genetic copies of an organism (under umbrella of GE) • Rapid growth of GMO crops in the US (1996-2008) • Soybean pesticide resistant (Bt) make farming easier • Cotton herbicide resistant (Ht) • Corn “Roundup” • Intended for animal feed, not for human consumption • Europe resisting GMOs, common in Australia, just being introduced to US • Questions • Are GMO’s safe? • Are they necessary/ what are the potential benefits? • Are the techniques safe? • What are the techniques? • Cells—The Unit of Life • All living things are made up of cells • cells tissues organs organisms → → → • Each cell serves a function • Parts of a Cell • Cell wall • Plasma membrane • Cytoplasm • Nucleoid • Prokaryotes vs. Eukaryotes • Prokaryotes- “simplest” forms of life- Ex: Bacteria Cyanobacteria**- Lack complexity of Eukaryotes • Eukaryotes- = membrane bound organelles including a nucleus - More organized- Organelles = membrane bound structure such as Nucleus, chloroplasts, mitochondria • Cells • Cells divide, expand & then become specialized • Differentiation = development of a cell into a specific cell type- Based on genetic make up—expression of genes • cell’s fate is determined by expression of Genes • stem cells = fate not yet determined, can be manipulated • cells contain the same genetic material—expression of genes varies • [1] Differentiation • Totipotency = all cells contain the same genetic information • Chromosomes & genes make up genetic information DNA • Activation of certain genes results in specialization • Mitosis = a process where chromosomes are duplicated and passed on to daughter cells by the process of mitosis • Cells divide, genetic material copied • Genotype = all the genetic material that makes up for the genotype of an organism • Phenotype = the physical appearance of the organism—physical traits • Traits are inheritable—passed onto offspring • Meiosis = the process by which cells divide to form gametes (sperm & egg) • Genetic makeup of gametes is variable • Gametes contain half of the # of chromosomes • During sexual reproduction, the full complement of genetic material is restored • Variation in genetic makeup of gametes leads to unique individuals • Chromosomes = contain information that leads to phenotypes • Genes = region of the chromosome which carries the information for one trait • Contain info that is passed on to offspring • Information codes for production of proteins (= either structural or enzymes which catalyze the chemical reactions of life) • DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid) = chemical structure of a gene • DNA genes chromosomes → →...
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This note was uploaded on 01/26/2009 for the course BIOPL 2400 taught by Professor Silva,t. during the Fall '08 term at Cornell University (Engineering School).

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Genetic Engineering Outline - K RISTIN C HEN BI O PL 2400 G...

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