lec2_gmo - Genetic Engineering Genetic Genetic Engineering...

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Unformatted text preview: Genetic Engineering Genetic Genetic Engineering Genetic The transfer of genetic information to an The organism to introduce a desirable trait organism Result is called a Transgenic organism or Result Genetically Modified Organism (GMO) Genetically Genetic Engineering Genetic Are GMO’s (genetically modified organisms) safe? Are GMO Are they necessary/ what are potential benefits pf Are gene modification? gene Are the techniques by which they are created Are safe? safe? What are the techniques used to alter the genome What of an organism? of Cells- The Unit of Life Cells Organisms are made up of Cells Cells are organized into tissues Tissues into Organs Prokaryotes vs. Eukaryotes Prokaryotes Prokaryotes “Simplest” forms of life Bacteria Cyanobacteria Bacteria Cyanobacteria Lack complexity of Eukaryotes Eukaryotes Eukaryotes More Organized Organelles- membrane bound structures membrane such as Nucleus, chloroplasts, mitochondria mitochondria Cells Cells Cells Divide, Expand and then become Cells Specialized Specialized Differentiation- Development of a cell into a Development specific cell type specific Cells fate is determined by expression of Genes Stem cells- Fate not yet determined, can be Fate manipulated manipulated Differentiation Differentiation Totipotency-All cells contain the same All genetic Information genetic Chromosomes and Genes make up genetic Chromosomes information- DNA information Activation of certain genes results in Activation specialization specialization Mitosis Mitosis As cells divide, Chromosomes are As duplicated and passed on to daughter cells by the process of mitosis cells Genotypes and Phenotypes Genotypes All the genetic Material makes up the All Genotype of an Organism Genotype Phenotype is the physical appearance of the Phenotype organism- physical traits organism These traits are inheritable-passed on to passed offspring offspring Meiosis Meiosis Meiosis- The process by which cells divide The to form gametes. to Genetic makeup of gametes is variable Gametes (sperm and egg) contain half the Gametes number of chromosomes. During Sexual Reproduction, the full complement of genetic material is restored genetic Through breeding programs desirable traits can be selected and passed on to offspring offspring Novel hybrids can be created Is Genetic engineering merely accelerating Is this process? this The information which leads to a phenotype is contained within the Chromosomes is Genes- region of the chromosome which region carries the information for one trait carries DNA- Deoxyribonucleic Acid- chemical chemical structure of a gene structure Genes contain information, which is passed on to offspring on The information itself codes for the The production of Proteins which are either structural or enzymes which catalyze the chemical reactions of life. chemical ...
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