lec6gmo - Alternative Spring Breaks Alternative 7th Annual...

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Unformatted text preview: Alternative Spring Breaks Alternative 7th Annual 5K Saturday September 27 Cornell Plantations Arboretum Registration begins 9am Registration Race begins 10am Early registration: $12 ($10 student) Early $12 Must be received by September 19th Must Pre-order t-shirts Just $7 each! shirts (Will be delivered after the race) (Will Also must be received by September 19th Also Regular registration $14 ($12 student) Regular All profits will go to Alternative Spring Breaks, a service learning organization that gives Cornell students the ning chance to spend their spring break volunteering. Past trips include serving meals at an HIV/AIDS living center chance ude in Boston, tutoring juvenile detention center in Lake Placid, teaching classes at a domestic violence shelter in in aching West Virginia and much more! Pick up a registration form at the Public Service Center in 200 Barnes Hall or email altbreaks@cornell.edu for more information. altbreaks@cornell.edu for Applications of Genetic Engineering Applications Most examples of GMO’s are in plant Most GMO are systems/agriculture systems/agriculture Some medical/human examples, largely at the Some testing stage testing Medical Examples Gene Therapy Gene Production of Insulin and other drugs Production Vaccines Vaccines Gene Therapy Gene Insert engineered gene into cells to correct a genetic disorder genetic First test case was in 1990 to treat Severe Combined Immunodeficiency Disease (SCID) Combined Disease was caused by a single gene mutation, the body did not produce an enzyme which led to destruction of white blood cells to Gene Therapy for SCID Gene Doctors cultured cells from patient’s body, Doctors body, inserted functional gene for the enzyme, and used transfusions to re-iintroduce functional ntroduce used cells. cells. Was successful, though patient needed repeated transfusions monthly for rest of life. Gene Therapy Gene Most tests have failed Most Body rejects vector used to introduce geneBody immune response Gene stops functioning, cells eventually die Gene Genes often inserted into Somatic cells- cells Genes cells which are not passed on to next generation. Cure is not heritable. Cure For trait to be inherited, must be inserted into Germ line- cells which will lead to production of Germ cells gametes gametes For this type of result, gene must be inserted at For Embryonic stage- stem cells Embryonic Germ Line Therapy Germ Genetic modification at the embryonice stage of embryonice stage development development Insertion or removal of genes, which are passed on from cell to cell. on Done in the lab on non-human embryos since Done human the 1980’s the Potential treatment for cystic fibrosis and muscular dystrophy muscular Germ Line Therapy Germ Human Germ Line Therapy banned by AAAS (American Association for the Advancement of Science) since 2000, until ethical issues have been worked out been Will it be possible to alter genetic makeup to select for specific traits in humans? select Vaccines Vaccines Take gene that induces immune response in humans, insert it into a harmless virus to create safer vaccines safer Edible vaccines- iincorporate protein to induce ncorporate Edible immune response into potatoes, bananasimmune vaccinate individuals when eaten- hepatitis-B and cholera and Vaccines Vaccines Human and Mouse tumor fragments have been inserted into tobacco plants leading to a potential vaccine for non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma potential Organ transplants Organ Transgenic Pigs altered to produce organs which are less likely to be rejected as transplantsare xenotransplantation Growing organs in tissue culture to be used for transplants- relates to Stem Cell Research transplants Cell transplantation therapy- similar to gene Cell similar therapy- for spinal cord injury and Parkinson’s therapy Animal GMO’s GMO Transgenic Mice- used for research into human Transgenic used diseases diseases BioSteel- gene for silk from spiders inserted into BioSteel gene goat eggs- goats developed then produce protein goat goats in milk which can be harvested and used as fiber- lightweight and extremely strong fiber Transgenic Salmon- grow to market size in half Transgenic grow the time of non-transformed the Animal GMO’s GMO Farm animals engineered as well to be rapid growing, leaner, or produce useful pharmaceuticals pharmaceuticals Production of infertile individuals to control populations populations Insects- sterile Transgenics or “Terminator Insects sterile Transgenics or Terminator Insects”- bred to confer sterility to undesired Insects bred insects that spread diseases, eat crops, etc. insects Milk and Cheese production Milk Chymogen - Engineered version of the enzyme Chymogen Engineered Chymosin which causes milk to curdle- higher Chymosin higher levels present- used in 60% of cheese levels used production production BST (Bovine Somatotropin) iincreases milk Somatotropin ncreases production in cows production Plant Examples of GMO’s GMO Herbicide tolerance- potential to decrease Herbicide potential spraying of herbicides spraying Pesticide resistance- decrease spraying of Pesticide decrease pesticides pesticides Stress Tolerance- resistance to environmental Stress resistance stresses stresses Altering quality of food- nutrition, aesthretic Altering nutrition, aesthretic quality ...
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This note was uploaded on 01/26/2009 for the course BIOPL 2400 taught by Professor Silva,t. during the Fall '08 term at Cornell University (Engineering School).

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