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Logical Reasoning Lecture 1 - 1 Logical Reasoning Lecture#1...

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1 Logical Reasoning Lecture #1 I. Introduction (A) Thinking Thinking can be distinguished from feeling . It is a cognitive process that we use in an attempt to gain knowledge or to understand something. Thinking is an activity . It is something that we do. This is different from our emotional response to things. Thinking can be distinguished from daydreaming and fantasy. When we think, we think for a purpose . It is something that we do, often for a particular purpose. You can think to solve a problem, create a plan, proving a hypothesis, etc. Since it is purposive, we can succeed or fail in our thinking. We can succeed at what we are aiming at and we can fail at what we are aiming at. In this way, thinking is a skill. You can be better or worse at this skill. Part of the point of this class, is to make you a better thinker. Logic is on way of getting you to be a better thinker.
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2 (B) Logic Some of the knowledge that we acquire, we acquire through direct observation. Other knowledge requires reasoning and inference. We need reasoning and inference to find out the easiest way to get home, the least amount of money to pay for gas, etc. * Logic is the study of the methods and principles that are used to distinguish correct from incorrect reasoning. As an academic discipline it is concerned with: (a) Differentiating sound arguments from unsound arguments (b) Differentiating valid arguments from invalid arguments (c) Differentiating good arguments from bad arguments Logic is not the study of what works in persuasive arguments.
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