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PSYCH FINAL - Psychology Review TEST#1 Development...

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Psychology Review TEST #1 Development - systematic changes and continuities. Three broad domains: Physical, Cognitive and psychosocial. Bio-ecological Model - Microsystem, Mesosystem, Exosystem, Macrosystem and Chronosystem. Nature - Heredity. Maturation process guided by genes. Biologically based pre- dispositions. Biological unfolding of genes. Nurture - Environment. Learning; experience cause changes in thoughts, feelings and behaviors. Scientific Method- Three critical features: Manipulation of independent variable. Random Assignment of individuals to treatment conditions. Experimental control. Verbal Reports- Often standardized interviews, questionnaires and/or tests. Limitations on usefulness. Respondents may falsely present themselves in positive manner. Behavioral Observations- Naturalistic . Advantages: Natural setting. Disadvantages: conditions not controlled. Structural . Advantages: cannot generalize to natural settings. Disadvantages: conditions controlled. Physiological Measurement - Assess physiological advantages. Advantages: hard to fake. Disadvantages: not always clear what’s being assessed. Experimental Method - manipulating or altering some variable to see how it affects the behavior of the sample. Advantages: establishes unambiguous causalities. Disadvantages: Application to real world. Ethical limitations. Correlation Studies- two variables change in a predictable way in relation to each other. Research Designs- Cross-Sectional. Longitudinal. Sequential. Meiosis- process of cell division. Produces sperm and ova. 23 chromosomes. Mitosis- process of cell division. Produces multi-celled organism. 46 chromosomes. Genes- instruction for development. Parent/Child 50% related genetically. Siblings related 50% genetically. Human Genome Project- Sex Chromosome- determines the sex. Males have x and y chromosome. Females have XX. Inheritance- Dominant gene= dominant trait.
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Homozygous- trait expressed if paired with a similar gene. Heterozygous- trait not expressed if paired with dissimilar gene. Chromosome Abnormalities- Turner’s syndrome: Single X chromosome. Klinefelter syndrome: XXY. Fragile X syndrome: one arm on X is fragile. Behavioral Genetics: Genetic/Environmental cause of traits. Molecular Genetics- Analysis of genes and their effects. Gene-Environment Correlations- Passive interaction: create social home environment. Evocative interaction: smiley baby gets more social stimulation . Active interaction: shy child seeks solitary activities. Conception- ova travels from ovary to uterus. Penetration by 1 of 300-500 sperm. Outcome= single-celled ZYGOTE. Pre-Natal Stages- Germinal period: days 1-14; implantation. Embryonic period: 3 rd to 8 th week; organogenesis. Fetal period: 9 th week to birth; proliferation, migration, differentiation of stem cells.
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