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Lecture 1 (August 28)

Lecture 1 (August 28) - Paradigm All-encompassing idea that...

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Paradigm: All-encompassing idea that explains everything about some subject Gregor Mendel 1840s Austrian monk (genetics) Plate Tectonics o 1965: 90% of scientists believed that continents were fixed o 1970: 90% believed the opposite o Explains why volcanoes and oceans are where they are Earthquakes do not occur with equal frequency everywhere around the world (occur in a few narrow belts around the world) Earthquake occurrence is like 15% of the surface of the earth 90% of energy released in earthquakes occurs surrounding the Pacific Ocean (circumference Pacific belt) Narrow belt of earthquakes in middle of ocean basins Wider belts surrounding Pacific Rim Diffuse, messy cloud of earthquakes in central Asia Narrow mid-ocean belts of earthquakes correspond to linear undersea mountain ranges (e.g. Mid-Atlantic Ridge) Earthquakes tend to be shallow ( < 5 km) Occur very locally right on crusts of mid-ocean ridges Mariana Trench 10 km deep
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