lecture 2 - Lecture2 Genome&theirregulation

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Lecture 2 Phenotype - something that changes the physical attributes of an organism (eye color, etc) Biochemical assays - something that changes some physical properties that are used for per- forming a specific assay Junk DNA - DNA that is not in the coding region, not everything that doesn’t code for protein or is immediately adjacent to the coding region that is specifically involved in transcription does not neces- sarily have an affect on genes. Chromatin structure has an enormous effect on transcription level, proteins that bind to repetitive DNA govern where the 3d structure of genes reside in the nucleus. therefore genes that have to be accessible to TF end up accessible TF and due to chromatin structure those that are in lineage that the gene is no longer expressed they end up sequestered and are no longer available to TF. Every enzyme reaction in a cell or organism is catalyzed by an enzyme, otherwise they would not be energetically favorable enough or would occur slowly, resulting in nothing happen every enzyme has to be produced from a gene made into mRNA then translated into protein. The protein is processed as the RNA is processed and are regulated by time, development and cell type Micro-arrays - snap shots of the gene expression level of the whole genome at once. TFs control whether transcription occurs TFs regulate at what point RNA transcription is at in cell development role of TF can be many folds different TF are complexes of 12 to 15 proteins, can be dimers, tetramer, pentamer, etc factor usually means the functional unit. factor implies a biological function some factors directly bind to DNA sequences that are parts of genes, some are adja- cent to the coding region, some can be in the introns, some can be 1000 bases either before or after the gene coding region ends. regulatory regions can act at distance quite far apart from where the coding region is.
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lecture 2 - Lecture2 Genome&theirregulation

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