Lecture 3 - Lecture3 , %identical 99.5%, considered

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Lecture 3 Allele implies that there is some sort of heterogeneity, it could be a single nucleotide humans and chimps are 99% identical 99.5% of human genes are identical among races, but it is thought that only exons are considered If you want proper expression you have to put all the regulatory information upstream of the gene making the downstream of the gene very difficult to clone Fig 2.6 A locus may have more than one wt allele a locus may have a polymorphic distribution of alleles No individual allele can be considered to be the sole wt Fig 2.8 the genetic code is triplet the genetic code read in triplet nucleotides is called codon the triple are non-overlapping some viral genomes make more than one protein from the same gene, not by alternat- ive splicing but by starting an reading frame overlap Fig 2.9 6 reading frames because DNA is double stranded ORF - how you group triplets to encode for Amino acids Coding strand - strand that looks like the RNA except it has T instead of U template strand - template for transcription Promoter sequence - sequences of nucleotides that are either RNA pol or TFs with RNA pol bind to, has a directionality to it, which determines the template. In any given set of nucleotides, three registered on both top and bottom strand. An ORF (usually only one in any given segment of DNA) usually the one that is used for protein translation. identified by ATG going to stop codon other 5 potential ORFs pick stop codons which are called arrested/stop reading frame. it is usually the one that has the longest contiguous set triplets before hitting a stop codon Computer programs have errors for 2 reasons doesn’t know which strand to use doesn’t know length of over all protein mostly due to introns 3 reading frames, that is only true for mRNA. Not true for genomic DNA because it is double stranded ORFs that are conserved are considered functional genes. y chromosome - a lot of repetitive DNA, only 70 known active genes which specify maleness. essential genes are in tandem repeats ORF are potentially things that could encode functional protein. Stop reading frames, either reading in wrong register or that region doesn’t have any coding function at all 25% of genome has unique DNA, 25% moderately DNA that does not code for protein that are transposable elements, 20% highly repetitive DNA (found tandemly repeated)
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Transposable elements - sequences of DNA that arose from viruses that have spe- cial ends that are recognized by their own genomes. Now those ORFs have been mutated, have the capability not only double their number and can move in other regions Fig 2.9 Every DS sequences has six possible reading frames usually only one reading frame is translated
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Lecture 3 - Lecture3 , %identical 99.5%, considered

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