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2nd bio final exam review

2nd bio final exam review - Gas Exchange in Animals 1 What...

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Gas Exchange in Animals 1. What are the factors affecting gas exchange and explain how it influences diffusion across respiratory surfaces. 2. Describe the adaptations of respiratory surface and list the variety of respiratory organs that have evolved to meet them. 3. Describe the advantages and disadvantages of water/air as a respiratory medium. 4. Describe countercurrent exchange and explain why it is more efficient than the concurrent flow of water and blood. 5. For the human respiratory system, describe the movement of air through air passageways to the alveolus, listing the structures that air must pas through on its journey. 6. Explain how respiratory movements in humans ventilate the lungs. 7. What is the significance of surfactant? 8. Distinguish between tidal volume, vital capacity, and residual volume and total lung capacity. 9. Explain how the respiratory system of birds is different from that in mammals. 10. Describe the adaptive advantages taken up by different oxygen binding pigments in circulatory systems. 11. Draw the Hb-oxygen dissociated curve explain the significance of its shape, and explain how the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen changes with oxygen concentration. Describe two factors that shift the curve . 12. Describe how carbon dioxide is picked up at the tissues and deposited in the lungs. 13. Explain how breathing is controlled by the brain. Chapter 49 Circulation in Animals 1. Describe the need for circulatory and respiratory systems increasing animal body size. 2. Explain how a gastrovascular cavity functions in part as a circulatory system. 3. Distinguish between open and closed circulatory systems. 4. Describe the general relationship between metabolic rates and the structure of the vertebrate circulatory system. 5. Distinguish between pulmonary and systemic circuits and explain the functions of each. 6. Explain the advantage of double circulation over a single circuit. 7. Using diagrams compare and contrast the circulatory schemes of fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. 8. Define a cardiac cycle, distinguish between systole and diastole, and explain what causes the first and second heart sounds. 9. Define cardiac output and describe two factors that influence it. 10. Define heart murmur and explain its cause. 11. Define pacemaker. What does it do? How is it influenced?
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