Chapter 31 Review What is an animal ? 1. Characteristics: a. Multicellular organisms that much take in pre-formed organic material (heterotrophs) b. Acquire organic matter by ingesting other organisms. Living or dead, and digestion then within their bodies c. Animals must expend energy to acquire these o-molecule d. Have circulatory systems that carry oxygen, carbon dioxide, and nutrients. e. Much diversity in the animal kingdom evolved as animals acquire the ability to capture and eat many different types of food and avoid becoming food to other animals. 2. How and when they evolved? a. Evolved from ancestral colonial flagellated protists (choanoflagellates) b. Similarities in their small-subunit ribosomal RNA’s c. Similarities in Hox Genes (nomeotic genes) d. Special types of cell-cell junctions: tight junctions, desmosomes, and gap junctions Types of Animal Diversity 3. Phylogenetic tree of animals a. Pg 672 4. Distinguish between acoelomate, pseudocoelomates, and coelomate a. Acoelomate: animals like flatworms, lack enclosed fluid filled cavity. Instead have space
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