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Unformatted text preview: Clostridium Difficile Strict anaerobes, contain endospores, gram-positive, can’t reduce sulfate to sulfite Responsible for antibiotic-associated gastrointestinal diseases Epidemiology Common in natural habitats such as soil, dung, hay, sand Can be normal flora About a 50% carriage in neonates Get the disease from exposure to antibiotics, or nosocomial (from hospital) It is an endogenous infection Clinical Diseases Antibiotic-associated diarrhea • Normal flora disrupted, intestines are colonized, growth occurs, toxins released, diarrhea Antibiotic-associated pseudomembranous colitis • Starts several days to weeks after taking antimicrobial • Fecal urgency, abdominal pain, pus and mucus in poop, fever, dehydration • White plaques of fibrin, mucus, and inflammatory cells over the normal red intestinal mucosa Diagnosis Don’t use microscopy Culture can’t detect non-toxigenic strains, rarely performed You can use cytotoxin or enterotoxin cell culture assays or toxin immunoassays which detect both toxins present in the disease You can have strains with B toxin but not A toxin or the other way around Treatment, Prevention, and Control For a mild infection, discontinue the antibiotic Severe infection, use vancomycin The disease is difficult to prevent because of the spores (resistant), use good housekeeping and cleaning to prevent Anaerobic, Non-Spore-Forming, Gram-Positive Bacteria Include skin and mucus flora, and endogenous infections Recovered in mixtures of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria Fastidious nutritional requirements and grow slow on media, so difficult to identify Treat empirically Normally colonize the oral cavity, the gastrointestinal tract, genitourinary tract, and skin...
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- Spring '08
- Bacteria, diarrhea Normal flora, endogenous infections