psych study guide - Study Guide for Exam 1 Instructor: Ann...

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Study Guide for Exam 1 Instructor: Ann Phillips Psychology 111 University of Michigan Hindsight bias - I knew it all along phenomenon; tendency to believe we would have foreseen something after it has already happened Scientific method - sift reality from illusion; bias to seek information that confirms our judgments; skeptical yet with humility, carries into life as critical thinking: examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses outcomes Psychological theories - organize observations and imply predictive hypotheses Case studies- focus on one individual in hopes of revealing universal principles. .can suggest hypotheses but can lead to false conclusions Surveys- Wording effect (changes in phrasing or sequence) can affect responses; random sampling chooses people by chance so each person in the entire group has an equal chance of participating Naturalistic observation - Gives researchers opportunity to watch and record behavior in naturally occurring situations; cannot explain behaviors but can expand our understanding and lead to hypotheses that can be studied by other methods Correlation coefficient- Statistical measure of the strength and duration of the relationship between 2 factors (Positive : two factors rise or fall together. .Negative : One item rises as the other falls) Scatterplots and the correlations they reveal help us to see relationships that the naked eye might miss -fails to provide evidence of cause-effect relationships because it does not prove causation, or if causation does exist, the direction of the influence -a third factor may be the cause of the correlation Illusory correlations - random, often dramatic or unusual, events that we notice and falsely assume are related (and once we believe two things are related, we tend to notice and recall instances that confirm this belief) Patterns & sequences - occur naturally in sets of random data, but we tend to interpret these patterns as meaningful connections. .attempt to make sense of the world around us Discovering cause-effect relationships - psychologists conduct experiments by manipulating one or more factors of interest, and controlling other factors, and can determine the effect on some behavior or mental process Double-blind procedure - Neither researchers nor participants know if participants are receiving treatment or a placebo (counteracts possibility that placebo effect or researcher’s expectations will unintentionally influence the study’s results) Random assignment - Minimizes preexisting differences between the groups by selecting people by chance for the experimental condition (group exposed to treatment) or the control condition (group that experiences no treatment or a different version of the treatment) Independent vs. Dependent variable - Independent variable is the factor you manipulate to study its effect, dependent is the one you measure to discover any changes that occur in response to these manipulations Statistics- Help us to organize, summarize, and make inferences from data
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psych study guide - Study Guide for Exam 1 Instructor: Ann...

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