Chemistry Study Guide

Chemistry Study Guide - Ayan Adan GENERAL BIOLOGY: STUDY...

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Ayan Adan GENERAL BIOLOGY: STUDY GUIDE: UNIT 3 THE CHEMICAL BASIS OF LIFE Define the following terms: Matter- Anything that occupies space and has mass. Subatomic Particle- a minute portion of matter, the least possible amount. Energy levels- the rings of the atom Double Bond- the number of bonds an atom can form is equal to the number of additional electrons needed to fill its outer shell. Element- An element consists of one unique type of atom. Atom- smallest component that matter can be broken into by ordinary chemical means. Proton- stable subatomic particle occurring in all atomic nuclei, with a positive electric charge. Electron- a stable subatomic particle with a charge of negative electricity, found in atoms. Neutron- a subatomic particle without an electric charge. Chemical bond- a strong force of attraction holding atoms together in a molecule, resulting from the sharing or transfer of electrons. Covalent bond- two atoms share electrons. One or more pairs of outer shell may be shared. Polar covalent bond- An attraction between atoms that share electrons unequally because the atoms differ in electronegativity. The electronegative atom pulls the electron closer. Non-polar covalent bond- An attraction between atoms that share one or more pairs of electrons equally. Atomic number- the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom, which determines the chemical properties of an element and its place in the periodic table.
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Atomic weight- the mass of an atom of a chemical element expressed in atomic units. It is equivalent to the number of protons and neutrons in the atom. Ion- an atom or molecule with a net electric charge due to the loss or gain of one or more electrons. Ionic bond-Depend upon the complete transfer of electrons from one atom to another Molecule- a group of atoms bonded together, representing the smallest fundamental unit of a chemical compound that can take part in a chemical reaction.
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Chemistry Study Guide - Ayan Adan GENERAL BIOLOGY: STUDY...

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