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QCA7e_ch08_szb_handouts

# QCA7e_ch08_szb_handouts - Daniel C Harris Quantitative...

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1 Quantitative Chemical Analysis Seventh Edition Quantitative Chemical Analysis Seventh Edition Chapter 8 Systematic Treatment of Equilibrium Daniel C. Harris Daniel C. Harris Chapter Highlights • Activity – we just skip this part • A systematic way to solve equilibrium problems: – What are the equations? – Charge balance? – Material balance? – Enough equations for variables? – Solve!

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2 Systematic Treatment of Equilibrium • A way to deal with all types of chemical equilibria, regardless of their complexity. • Write as many independent algebraic equations as there are unknowns (species) in the problem. • The equations to be written: – All the chemical equilibrium conditions – The balances of charge – The balances of mass Charge Balance • The charge balance is an algebraic statement of electroneutrality: The sum of the positive charges in solution equals the sum of the negative charges in solution. Suppose that a solution contains the following ionic species: H + , OH , K + , H 2 PO 4 , HPO 4 2– , and PO 4 3– . The charge balance is: [H + ] + [K + ] = [OH ] +[H 2 PO 4 ] + 2[HPO 4 2– ] + 3[PO 4 3– ] The total charge contributed by H + and K + equals the magnitude of the charge contributed by all of the anions. The coefficient in front of each species always equals the magnitude of the charge on the ion.
3 Charge Balance Charge contributed by each ion in 1.00 L of solution containing 0.025 0 mol KH 2 PO 4 plus 0.0300 mol KOH. The total positive charge equals the total negative charge. Example Charge Balance • In a certain equilibrium solution: • Charge balance:

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4 Charge Balance The general form of the charge balance for any solution is – [C i ] is the concentration of a cation n i
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QCA7e_ch08_szb_handouts - Daniel C Harris Quantitative...

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