Chap7SecondLaw%20ofThermodynamics2

Chap7SecondLaw%20ofThermodynamics2 - 5 7.8 The Carnot...

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1 7.5 Perpetual-Motion Machines 7.28 A perpetual-motion machine that violates the first law of thermodynamics (PMM1) 7.29 A perpetual-motion machine that violates the second law of thermodynamics (PMM2)
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2 7.6 Reversible and Irreversible Processes • Reversible process: is defined as a process that can be reversed without leaving any trace on the surroundings. • Processes that are not reversible are called irreversible processes. • Reasons: friction, unrestrained expansion, heat transfer 7.32 Friction renders a process irreversible 7.33 Irreversible compression and expansion processes
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3 7.7 The Carnot Cycle The best known reversible cycle is the Carnot cycle Reversible isothermal expansion (Process 1-2, T H = constant) Reversible adiabatic expansion (Process 2-3) Reversible isothermal compression (Process 3-4, T L = constant Reversible adiabatic compression (Process 4-1) 6.37 Execution of the Carnot cycle in a closed system 7.37 Execution of the Carnot cycle in a closed system
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4 7.38 P-V diagram of the Carnot cycle 7.39 P-V diagram of the reversed Carnot cycle
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Unformatted text preview: 5 7.8 The Carnot Principles 1. The efficiency of an irreversible heat engine is always less than the efficiency of a reversible one operating between the same two reservoirs. 2. The efficiencies of all reversible heat engines operating between the same two reservoirs are the same. 7.40 The Carnot principles 7.10 The Carnot Heat Engine 7.46 The Carnot heat engine is the most efficient of all heat engines operating between the same high and low temperature reservoirs. 6 7.47 No heat engine can have a higher efficiency than a reversible heat engine operating between the same high and low temperature reservoirs 7 7.49 The fraction of heat that can be converted to work as a function of source temperature (for TL = 303 K) 7.11 The Carnot Refrigerator and Heat Pump 8 7.51 No refrigerator can have a higher COP than a reversible refrigerator operating between the same temperature limits Reference: Fundamental Thermal-Fluid Sciences by Y. Cengel, R.H. Turner, J.M. Cimbala, McGraW Hill....
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Chap7SecondLaw%20ofThermodynamics2 - 5 7.8 The Carnot...

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