chapter2basicstd

# chapter2basicstd - Chapter 2 Basic Concepts of...

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1 Chapter 2 Basic Concepts of Thermodynamics Thermodynamics can be defined as the science of energy, entropy and equilibrium. Greek words: therme means heat and dynamics means power Thermodynamics did not emerge as a science until the construction of the first successful atmospheric steam engines in England (1697, 1712). Application Areas of Thermodynamics Internal combustion engines, heaters, refrigerators, power plants, air conditioning systems, rockets, jet engines, combustion systems etc. Figure 1.2: Some application areas of thermodynamics.

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2 2.1 Thermodynamic Systems Thermodynamic system is defined as a quantity of matter or a region in space chosen for study . The mass or region outside the system is called the surroundings. The real or imaginary surface that separates the system from its surroundings is called the boundary. The boundary of a system can be fixed or movable. The boundary has zero thickness, and thus it can neither contain any mass nor occupy any volume in space. Figure 2.1: System, surroundings, and boundary. Types of Systems Closed system (Control mass) : Consists of a fixed amount of mass, and no mass can cross its boundary. But energy, in the form of heat or work, can cross the boundary; and the volume of a closed system does not have to be fixed. Figure 2.2: Mass cannot cross the boundaries of a closed system, but energy can.
3 Figure 2.3: A closed system with a moving boundary. Open system (Control volume) : Both mass and energy can cross the boundary of a control volume, called the control surface. Figure 2.4

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4 Figure 2.5: An open system (a control volume) with one inlet and one exit. 2.2 Property, State and Process Property is a macroscopic characteristic of a system such as mass, volume, energy, pressure and temperature to which a numerical value can be assigned at a given time without knowledge of the history of the system. State refers to the condition of a system as described by its properties. Intensive properties : are those that are independent of the mass of a system. Ex: temperature, pressure, and density. Extensive properties : are those whose values depend on the size—or extent—of the system. Ex: total mass, total volume, and total momentum.
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chapter2basicstd - Chapter 2 Basic Concepts of...

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