22Jan09Development - Psy 110 (03) Dr. M. Olver1 Human...

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Psy 110 (03) Dr. M. Olver Human Development across the Lifespan Psychology 110 (03) Infancy and Childhood Infancy and Childhood * Developmental Psychology *The study of age related changes across the lifespan, from birth to old age *Personality, cognition, temperament, relationships and attachment style, social roles, etc. Prenatal Development *Stages of prenatal development *Germinal stage: first two weeks after conception *Embryonic stage: 2-8 weeks *Fetal stage: 8 weeks to delivery (38-40 weeks) Prenatal Development (Cont’d) *Teratogens *Refer to foreign substances/agents that can cause fetal malformations *e.g., drugs, alcohol, infections, illness *Sensitivity to teratogenic influences varies *Example: *Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) *Medical diagnosis. Some criteria include *Mental retardation *Growth retardation *Facial malformations A boy with FAS Infant Perceptual and Motor Development *Vision: *At birth sees at 20ft what adults see at 200-400ft *Normal visual acuity by 6 months and depth perception emerges 4-6 months *Audition: *Can hear in utero *Some auditory localization shortly after birth *3 months can distinguish between different voices but prefer sound of mother’s voice *Major Reflexes: *Babinski, Rooting, Moro, Stepping *By age 6-8 months, infants will not cross over to other side as depth perception has developed. *Infants can discriminate depth as soon as they learn to crawl. Infant Perceptual and Motor Development Cont’d *Nervous System: 1
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*At birth only 25% of adult weight, by age 2, 80% *Cerebral cortex almost completely undeveloped at birth *Primary motor and sensory cortex undergoes rapid development in first few months *Frontal cortex continues to mature through childhood *Substantial plasticity of brain regions during childhood Infant Perceptual and Motor Development Cont’d *Motor development: *Cephalocaudal (Head to tail) *Head, before arms, then legs *E.g., learning to crawl before standing *Proximodistal (center to extremities) *Trunk, then arms, then hands and fingers Infant Temperament Longitudinal study of “temperament” * Temperament : an infant’s characteristic mood, activity level, and reactivity *Three types of temperament identified *Easy (40%) *Difficult (10%) *Slow-to-warm-up (15%) *Remaining 35% a mixture of the three *Temperament reasonably stable into middle childhood I nf ant Temperament Cont’d Age 6 10 14 Jen Bob Amy Jen Bob Amy Jen Bob Amy Longitudinal design Age 6 Age 8 Age 10 Cross-sectional design Stacy Pete Dave Infant Attachment Attachment *Close emotional bond of love between an infant and caregiver 2 2
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Psy 110 (03) Dr. M. Olver *Separation anxiety appearing 6-8 months of life John Bowlby *Attachment evolutionarily adaptive. Ensures infants remain in close contact with caregiver *Rhesus monkey experiments (Harlow) *Not only humans develop attachment. Laboratory findings demonstrate that distressed
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This note was uploaded on 01/30/2009 for the course PSY 110 taught by Professor Olver during the Spring '09 term at University of Saskatchewan- Management Area.

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22Jan09Development - Psy 110 (03) Dr. M. Olver1 Human...

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