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C__DOCUME~1_MAXWID~1_LOCALS~1_Temp_plugtmp-27_lecture10_ee306Review

C__DOCUME~1_MAXWID~1_LOCALS~1_Temp_plugtmp-27_lecture10_ee306Review

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1 1 Announcements Lecture 10 Topic for today – Review of EE306 Next Lecture – Strings - Chapter 13 2 What is Computer Organization? … a very wide gap between the intended behavior and the raw (unorganized) electronic devices. The forerunners to modern computers attempted to assemble the raw devices (mechanical, electrical, or electronic) into a separate purpose- built machine for each desired behavior. Electronic Devices Desired Behavior
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2 3 Role of General Purpose Computers We will break the gap into multiple levels and build an island in the middle. A general purpose computer is an island that bridges the gap between the desired behavior (application) and the raw material (electronic devices). Electronic Devices Desired Behavior General Purpose Computer computer organization software 4 Two Important Ideas • Universal Computational Devices – Given enough time and memory, all computers are capable of computing exactly the same things (irrespective of speed, size or cost). • Turing’s Thesis: every computation can be performed by some “Turing Machine” - a theoretical universal computational device (not mathematically proven, but taken to be true). • Problem Transformation – The ultimate objective is to transform a problem expressed in natural language into electrons running around a circuit! • That’s what Computer Science and Computer Engineering are all about!
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3 5 Problem Transformation - finer breakdown Natural Language Algorithm Program Machine Architecture Devices Micro-architecture Logic Circuits Desired Behavior: application Raw Material: electronic devices 6 Levels of Description –These levels do not necessarily correspond to discrete components, but to predetermined (fixed) standard interfaces. –Standard interfaces provide portability third party software/hardware wider usage –These levels are to some extent arbitrary - there are other ways to draw the lines . Natural Language Algorithm Program Machine Architecture Devices Micro-architecture Logic Circuits
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4 7 The Program Level – Most computers run a special management program called the operating system (OS). – Application programs interface to the machine architecture via the OS. An example: Application Program Operating System Program (Software) This lecture PowerPoint Windows NT Data Application Program Operating System 8 The Machine Level Machine Architecture – This is the formal specification of all the functions a particular machine can carry out, known as the Instruction Set Architecture (ISA) • Microarchitecture – The implementation of the ISA in a microprocessor - i.e. the way in which the specifications of the ISA are actually carried out. Logic Circuit – Each element of the microarchitecture is composed of simple logic circuits • Devices – Finally, each logic circuit is actually built of electronic devices such as CMOS or NMOS or GaAs (etc.) transistors
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5 9 Data types • Our first requirement is to be able to represent information (data) in a form that is mutually comprehensible by human and machine.
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