EXAM 1 1. Anatomy - parts and pieces. Physiology - function 2. 6 levels of organizations - chemical - smallest parts are at chemical level cellular- we are composed of cells (composed of atoms) Tissue- composed of similar/ same cells. (epithelial, connective, muscular, and nervous) Organ- composed of tissues (often contains all four types) Organ systems- composed of organs with similar functions (12) Organism- composed of organ systems 3. homeostasis- systems/processes in balance 4. negative feedback loop- majority of cases, end result is opposite of what triggered the effector 5. positive feedback loop- end result moves in the same direction as what triggered it. Ex: blood clotting 6. Biological control system- keeps the body in balance maintains homeostatis\ 7. Atom- smallest piece of matter. Protons (+) neutrons (neutral) electrons (-) 8. Atomic number- number of protons (same number of electrons except for isotopes) 9. Isotope- when an atom has a different number of electrons than protons 10. Atomic mass- most abundant isotope (p+n) 11. Atomic weight- takes on the average 12. Electrons in chemical bonding- atoms desire 8 electrons in outermost ring 13. Ionic bonds- opposite charges attract electrons- give and receives 14. Stability- pairs electrons fills outer ring… split them electrons stay with whichever atoms it was given to 15. Ion- charged atom 16. Electrolytes- charged atoms Na+, Mg+, Cl-, K+ 17. Covalent bonds- sharing of electrons to be stable. Single bond: one pair shared Double bond: two pairs shared. Triple bond: 3 pairs shared 18. Polar Covalent bond- all parts are not the same. Positive and negative sides. Hydrogen is an example. 19. Nonpolar covalent bond- all parts the same 20. Synthesis reaction- taking independent molecules and joining them together 21. Endergonic- energy consuming 22. Exergonic- reactions release energy 23. RATE OF CHEMICAL REACTIONS EFFECTED BY:
Temp goes up, reaction rate goes up. Q10 effect, 1 degree Celsius increases the rate by 10x concentration: increase amount of reactions, increases reaction rate particle size: smaller particles travel faster catalyisis: secondary substance that isn’t already part of the reaction. Will be added to increase its rate, enzyme 24. inorganic compound- a compound that does not contain carbon. Ex: water,salts 25. micronutrients- salts, vitamins, minerals 26. WATER: aborbs/releases heat when changing from liquid to gas change form a liquid to a gas universal solvent high reactivity lube cells maintain blood volume cool system 27. Salts- ex: Ca+, P+ (mainly bones + teeth Na+ -not strong. Strengthens bones, all salt ions can be separated by H20. Necessary for: nervous system, muscular system, kidney filtration. Imbalance leads to dehydration needs to rehydrate with H20 + electrolytes Hypernutriuma- too much H20 flushes out salts 28. Acids - electrolytes: ions that conduct a current in a solution. Soluble in H20 pH less than 7, alkaline. Likes to accept protons, take up H+. Releases OH- hydroxyl ion when dissolving OH- decreases acid of a solution 29.
You've reached the end of your free preview.
Want to read all 19 pages?