Perspectives Exam 1 Sem 2

Perspectives Exam 1 Sem 2 - PERSPECTIVES QUESTIONS FOR...

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PERSPECTIVES: QUESTIONS FOR EXAMINATION ONE 1. Machiavelli: What is the significance of Chapter 1 of The Prince? It sets up the political situations that he addresses relating to new principalities and hereditary principalities. He does not discuss republics and he also does not present a moral dimension. Explain Machiavelli’s use of King Louis as an example. Louis is the example of the modern leader and the modern world. He is compared to the Roman leaders (symbols of success). His biggest mistake was that he aligned himself with the pope to get his marriage annulled. This shows that he had some faith that the pope could help him- Christianity already had an influence. Faith keeps people from gaining and keeping power (because it requires them to trust). The pope is a natural enemy, and he made the mistake of becoming an ally. What is the significance of Chapter 6 of The Prince? He says it takes virtú and luck to get power. Those who take advantage of their chances will be successful if they also use their virtú. It is important to choose strong leaders to imitate. Moses, syrius, romulus, thesesus- there isn’t anything different between the supernatural force that Moses had and the success of the others. He also says that it is hard to hold on to territories once you have them. Machiavelli also says that unarmed prophets are crushed (Jesus was powerful, however). People are by nature inconstant, so its easy to persuade people but difficult to
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keep their affection. Moses did not know any more than what Machiavelli was teaching, and Moses was taught by God. Therefore Machiavelli teachings are god-like. What is the significance of Chapter 8 of The Prince for Machiavelli’s understanding of virtù? Virtu means strength and moral virtue. Therefore wicked leaders don’t have moral virtú but they have strength and will. If they are successful, what is bad about it? To get power you have to do wicked actions. Examples: Oliverotto (failure because he trusted) and Agathocles was successful because he was ruthless—died with power so did he exceed?) If you take control you should do all of your evil deeds at once. Cruelty well used is done all at once at the beginning. It is not smart to constantly inflict cruelty on your people because it can become problematic. What does Machiavelli have to say about Ecclesiastical principalities —and how does this relate to what he says about mercenary and auxiliary troops? These are badly run because they have mercenary armies. Christianity doesn’t make men holy, only bad enough to lose. It becomes a mask because they pretend to have virtú but hide behind Christianity.
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