Marine Biology Exam 1 Notes

Marine Biology Exam 1 Notes - Marine Biology Exam 1 Notes...

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Marine Biology Exam 1 Notes Organic o Complex molecules o High energy o Contains carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen o Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids Inorganic o Simple molecules o Low energy o H 2 O, O 2 , NaCl, CO 2 , NO 3 , PO 4 Carbohydrate-consists of chains or rings of carbon with hydrogen and oxygen attached o Sugar, starch, cellulose o Functions: Energy storage Structural Carbohydrate Chitin-horseshoe crab shell Cellulose-algae cell wall Lipids o Fats, waxes, oils o Functions: Energy storage Cell membrane component Buoyancy Blubber Insulation Water repellency
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Hormones Steroids Proteins-contain nitrogen o Functions: Serve as enzymes Cell membranes Hormones Structural Hair Fingernails Teeth Baleen Byssal threads Movement o Structure: Chains of amino acids Backbone of protein Nucleic Acids-store and transmit genetic information o DNA-genetic blueprint; nucleic acids that contain the inherited genetic code that specifies the structure and function of organism Structure: A T G C o RNA- translates blueprint; translates genetic information into proteins
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o ATP- a molecule that stores energy and releases it to power chemical reactions in organisms Stages of Central Dogma o DNA replicates (replication) o DNA codes for production of messenger RNA (transcription) o mRNA is processed and migrates from nucleus to cytoplasm o mRNA carries coded information to ribosomes to read and use for protein synthesis (translation) Genetic Code o DNA T-A-C=tyrosine G-T-T=valine Proteins A-G-T=serine Nucleic Acid-base pairing o A-T o G-C Protein Synthesis- ribosomes attach to RNA and rundown RNA and categorizes nucleic acid o Transcription o Translation Prokaryotic Cells o Simple organization o No organelles o Uni-cellular organisms o Ancient evolution (3.5 billion years) o No nucleus o Bacteria
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o Cell wall outside cell membrane o Single ring-like molecule of DNA Attached to cell membrane and scattered through o Cytoplasm- structures of protein and RNA o Flagella- protein filaments that move cell by acting as a propellor Eukaryotic Cells o Complex organization o Organelles- complex structures specialized for specific tasks bound by membranes o Uni/multi-cellular organisms o Recent evolution (1.4 billion years) o Mitochondria- respiration; breaks down organic molecules to provide energy o RNA replicates DNA in nucleus and sends into cytoplasm o 10X size of prokaryotes o Animal cell- no cell wall o Plant cell- rigid cell wall o Mitochondria and chloroplasts evolved from prokaryotes o Vacuole-pocket that stores things o Nucleus- holds cell’s genetic information and directs activities; contains chromosomes that carry DNA o Cell/plasma membrane- allows some substances to pass in or out but prevents other from doing so o Chloroplast- chlorophyll-containing organelles where photosynthesis occurs Biological Classification o Domain o Kingdom o Phylum
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This note was uploaded on 04/15/2008 for the course HIST 101 taught by Professor Blue during the Spring '08 term at UGA.

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Marine Biology Exam 1 Notes - Marine Biology Exam 1 Notes...

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