Hist4BMidtermStudyGuide -...

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History 4B (Spring, 2015): Midterm Study GuideWEEK 110th and 11th centuries­ Early Middle AgesLord & Vassal:system of hierarchytook on a more pyramidal structurekings had rights and dues to their vassals and vassals had rights and duesfor their knights.called for everyone involved to work alongside one another.Fief:plots of land granted to aristocrats in exchange for military service.They would be given their land and they would provide the king with armed andtrained knights.This relationship was contractual.relief­compensation or land was given to heir of the vassal.Homage­ceremonyFealty­promiseManor/Manorialism:Land came in units called “manors”built, defended, and cared for by the land’s occupants.usually divided into 3 large fieldstwo of which would be in use while the 3rd was being prepared andoccupied by the cattle and livestock in order to fertilize the landThe head of the manor lived in the manor house while serfs lived in a smallestablishment on another part of the manor.Manors also generally had gardens, mills, a chapel, a pasture, and cultivated land.The “manorial method” was a method of agriculture that may look primitive to usnow, but was what paved the way for progress and medieval urbanization.Cerealization:period of time during which the people were more well­nourished because of the increasein wheat and grain production (bread)agricultural and technological advances that allowed them to drastically increaseproduction and harvest successfully.The surplus that resulted from this was paid to the landlords.
Cerealization also caused the people’s diet to be less varied causing physical changes inthe people.Encastellation:This refers to the construction of many castles for protection and for use during battle.During this time, the structure of castles changed from being short and wide to beingsmall and tall.This allowed for the castles to be more easily defended.During the 11th century castles were being constructed out of stone rather thantimber.Scholasticism:the method of teaching and the mindset that was very prevalent during the High MiddleAges.originated in Christian monasteries and was brought to the first universities that wereestablished in Europe at this time.involved critical thinking and the ultimate goal was to reveal truth.This was done often by considering opposing views and bringing traditionallyaccepted “truths” into question.How did the growth of towns during the High Middles Ages challenge the traditional contractualrelationships that underpinned the feudal manorial system?The rapid growth that began to occur in towns during the High Middles Ages caused adisruption in the system on which towns relied.The population growth and land expansion allowed for the development of a thrivingeconomy and new technology.

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