TEST 3 REVIEWChapter 9 communicationThe communication process-Communication: involves the sharing of information between two or more people to achieve a common understanding about an object or situation. Successful communication occurs when the person receiving the message understands it in the way that the sender intended (the message received is the message sent).-Encoding: process whereby a sender translates the information he or she wishes to send in a message. -Communication medium/ channel: the manner in which the message is conveyed (writing, texting, verbal).-Decoding: the process whereby a receiver perceives a sent message and interprets its meaning. -Feedback: the process whereby a receiver encodes the message received and sends it or a response to it back to the original sender. Communication that includes feedback is a two-way communication and ensures the message is understood.-organizational communication: the patters and types of communication that occur at the organizational and unit levels.Involves the use of communication networks, policies, and structures. Communication Networks-Sparse networks: a communication network in which most or all network members communicate with only a few other members (the wheel, Y, and circle).-Dense networks: communication network in which most or all network members communicate with many other members (well-connected).-Centralized networks: communication network in which one or a few network members dominate communications (the wheel, Y).-Decentralized network: communication network in which no single network member dominates communications (the circle, well-connected).The wheel and Y can be effective in accomplishing simple tasks—promote efficiency, speed, and accuracy by channeling communication through a certain person.Dense networks with some degree of centralization in the leader role are more effective for complex tasks = most effective.oConsistent with high involvement management.Direction of Organizational Communication-Downward communication: communication that flows from superior to subordinate.Necessary to provide job instructions, information on organization policies, and performance feedback—but lower-level managers often complain about lack of information.-Upward communication: communication that flows from subordinate to superior.Less frequently used form of communication because it is difficult to achieve in an effective way (departmental meetings, “open-door” policies, suggestion boxes, attitude surveys, participation in decisions, grievance procedures, exit interviews).
-Horizontal communication: communication that takes place between and among people at the same level. Coordination among organizational units is facilitated by horizontal communication.