Abnormal: Deviating from what is normal or usual, typically in a way that is undesirable. 1 in 5 people have symptoms that hinder their ability to function on a daily basis Abnormal behavior: A psychological dysfunction within an individual that is associated with distress or impairment in functioning and a response that is not typical or culturally expected. All three criteria must be present to count as psychological dysfunction. Psychological dysfunction: Breakdown in cognitive, emotional, or behavioral functioning Personal distress: Difficulty performing appropriate and expected roles Impairment is set in the context of a person’s background Atypical or not culturally expected response Reaction is outside cultural norms Classification of Abnormal Behaviors: Pros: Allows scientists to communicate Often times lets people know they are not alone, and that there may be a solution Cons: Assumes that certain behaviors belong to one category Ethical? The DSM concerns “diagnoses” not “disorders” Psychological Tradition Id: Most basic characteristics and associated with pleasure centers Ego: Mediates Id, conscious Super Ego: Moral ego Behaviorists—believe that everything can be explained by the before and after behaviors Where does psychological dysfunction come from?
Biological Influences Development of social/emotional competence, brain maturation, puberty Genetics Heredity: The process by which characteristics are moved from one generation to the next. (a) Genes are how these characteristics are transported. Code of the gene (b) Phenotype is the result of the gene. Physiology: Alcohol metabolism, craving, reward, tolerance, withdrawal Behavior: Personality/temperament, internalizing/externalizing Reciprocal-gene environment Environments are inheritable because genotype influence the behaviors that evoke, select, and modify features of the environment Passive-genotype correlation: Association between the genotype a child inherits from his or her parents, and the environment in which the child is raised Evocative-genotype correlation: Association between an individual’s genetically influenced behavior and other’s reactions to that behavior Active-genotype correlation: Association between an individual’s genetic propensities and the environmental niches that individual selects Emotions: a particular kind of subjective feeling aroused by objective events (real or imagined) that have high significance to the individual. Feeling or subjective experience = Cognitive component Pattern of physiological arousal = Visceral/Organs Pattern of overt expression/emotional expression = Behavior Brain Areas Frontal cortex allows us to control out conscious reactions to emotional events Regulates the limbic system Amygdala—Anger/threat assessment (i.e. fear) Hippocampus—Memory Hypothalamus—Regulates body function
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