Chapter 8 Intelligece Notes - Intelligence How do you...

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IntelligenceHow do you define intelligence? How would you go about measuring intelligence?Which of the following best describes your views of intelligence?Intelligence is essentially fixed at birth and parents and/or teachers can't really change a child's IQ.Intelligence can be manipulated and changed as a result of experience and learning.How Do You Think About Intelligence? Are you anEntity Theorist - Intelligence fixedIncremental Theorist - Intelligence variableStereotype threatCultural stereotypes affect performanceWhat is intelligenceThe ability to learn from experienceThe ability to adapt to the surrounding environmentDavid Wechsler (1975) “Intelligence is the global capacity of the individual to act purposefully, to think rationally, and to deal effectively with the environment.”The nature of intelligenceSome theorists are “lumpers,” who view different aspects of intelligence as part of a general underlying capacity.Others are “splitters,” who divide intelligence into two or more specific abilities.Two Factor TheoryCharles Spearman
Proposed that general intelligence (g) underlies all mental abilitiesUsed factor analysisPeople who did bad inmath tended to do bad in EnglishSpecific intelligence (s)Multiple-Factor TheoryLouis ThurstoneAdministered 56 different test to college studentsConcluded that human intelligence consists of seven factors:verbal comprehensionnumber abilityword fluencyspatial visualizationassociative memoryreasoningperceptual speedRaymond CattellTwo types of general intelligenceFluid - problem solving, reasoningCrystallized - specific knowledgeHoward GardnerThe word intelligence as used does not adequately encompass the kinds of genius found in great musicians, poets, dancers, and athletes.Argued that there are multiple intelligences, each linked to a separate and independent system within the brain.Eight types of intelligence
LinguisticVerbal aptitudeLocated in auditory and speech center (temporal lobes)Reading and writing, speaking and listeningLogical/mathematicalAbstract reasoning skillsEmerges early in childhoodSpatial intelligenceKnowing where you are in spaceBeing able to navigate from one location to anotherRight hemsiphere abilityMusicalAbility to play an instrument, compose, or appreciate musicEmerges early in childhoodBodily-kinestheticAbility to control large muscle behavior as well as fine motor behaviorMotor cortexEvolutionary originsInterpersonal Ability to understand other peopleIntrapersonalAwareness of your own feelings and motivationsUnderstand the consequences of your behavior
Naturalistic

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