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Chapter 2 – Constructing a Government: The Founding and the ConstitutionThe First Founding: Interests and conflicts5 sectors of society had interests that were important in colonial politics: 1) the New England merchants, 2) the southern planters, 3) the “royalists” – holders of royal lands, offices and patents, 4) shopkeepers, artisans, and laborers, 5) small farmersAfter 1750, by seriously threatening the interests of New England merchants and southern planters, British tax and trade policies split the colonial elite.British Taxes and colonial interests1760’s: Britain sought to impose new, though relatively modest, taxes on the colonistsStamp Act of 1765: This act required that all printed and legal documents, including newspapers, pamphlets, advertisements, notes and bonds, leases, deeds, and licenses, be printed on official paper stamped and sold by English officials.Sugar Act of 1764: taxed sugar, molasses, and other commodities, most heavily affected the two groups in colonial society whose commercial interests and activities were most extensive: the New England merchants and southern planters.Political Strife and the Radicalizing of the Colonists1773: british government granted the politically powerful East India Company a monopoly on the export of tea from Britain, eliminating a lucrative form of trade for colonial merchants.Boston Tea Party of 1773: Led by Samuel Adams, they dumped the East India Company’s tea into the boston Harbor in hopes of provoking the British government to take actions that would alienate its colonial supporters and pave the way for a rebellion…succeeded…. Boston tea party led way to the First continental congress (an assembly consisting ofdelegates from all parts of the colonies, which called for a total boycott of British goods) and the result was the Declaration of Independence.Declaration of Independence1776: 2ndContinental congress appointed a committee consisting of Thomas Jefferson of Virginia, Benjamin Franklin of Pennsylvania, and Roger Sherman of Connecticut, John Adams of Massachusetts, and Robert Livingston of New York to draft a statement of American independence from British rule.Declaration of Independence: written by Jefferson (borrowed ideas from John Locke)Dec of ind adopted by the 2ndcontinental congressLocke: life, liberty and the pursuit of happinessArticles of ConfederationUnited States’s first written constitution: Articles of confederationArticles of Confederation and Perpetual Union: America’s first written constitution. Adopted by the continental congress in 1777, the articles were the formal basis for america’s national government until 1789, when they were superseded by the constitution.