Introduction to Neurobiology - Section 01 - Electrical Properties of Neurons 1

Introduction to Neurobiology - Section 01 - Electrical Properties of Neurons 1

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1) The Prialt peptide is produced by the cone snail, Conus magnus . The cone snail uses the peptide as a calcium channel blocker. Prialt, or Ziconotide, is the synthetic form of the ω- conotoxin M-VII-A. Jon-Paul Bingham, a biochemist at Clarkson University in Potsdam, New York, said there are more than 500 cone snail species. Each species is able to produce more than a hundred unique toxins and each toxin has the potential to be a new drug. 2) Nueropathic pain is pain caused by diseases that affect the nervous system. Nueropathic diseases often refer to diseases affecting the peripheral nervous system. Symptoms include numbness, dysesthesias and allodynias. Although the mechanism through which Prialt acts in humans is somewhat uncertain, it is believed that the drug blocks N-Type calcium channels on
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Unformatted text preview: the primary nociceptor nerves that exist in the spinal cord. Thus, Prialt acts by suppressing pain. Morphine, on the other hand, binds to µ-opioid receptors in the central nervous system. By having these receptors activated, a person feels euphoria. Prialt is generally administered intrathecally since it has very little effect when given orally. The drug is said to be one thousand times more potent than morphine. 3) Major voltage dependent calcium channels are L-type, N-type, P/Q-type, R-type and T-type. The various calcium channels are found on neurons, cardiac muscles, cerebellar granule cells and purkinje fibers....
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