Nutrition 101 - Chapter1: Nutrition Diet Food Whentakenintot

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Chapter 1: An Overview of Nutrition 16:47 Nutrition: Science of nutrients in foods and their actions within the body Also refers to human behaviors related to food and eating  Both a pure and social science Diet: Foods and beverages a person eats Food: Products from plants and animals When taken into the body, yield energy and nutrients for growth and maintenance  Many factors influence our food choices Taste Habit Culture/region Convenience Income Health benefits Values Emotions Body Image Energy: Energy in food is chemical energy Nutrients Chemical substances obtained from food
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Used in the body to provide energy and to support growth, maintenance, and repair of  tissues No single food supplies all nutrients the body needs to function Six major classes of nutrients: Carbohydrates Protein Lipids (Fats) Vitamins  Minerals  Water Macro-nutrients:  Carbs, proteins, lipids Gives our body energy* (Vitamins and minerals and water CAN’T) Complex nutrients: Long strains of atoms Carbs, protein, lipids, vitamins Simple nutrients: One atom or smaller structure Water and minerals (Example: Iron) Organic nutrients:  Contain the element carbon Carbs, proteins, fats, vitamins Inorganic nutrients Do not contain carbon Water and minerals
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Categories of nutrients Essential nutrients Must be obtained from foods – there are about 40 of these Needed from outside the body because our body cannot make it* Example: Essential fatty acid Nonessential nutrient Can be synthesized by the body Our body makes it so we do not have to intake it Example: Amino acids Non-nutrients Compounds that do not fit into the 6 classes of nutrients Phytochemicals – non-nutrient compounds in plants that aid in healing but are not  essential  Energy Yielding Nutrients Commonly referred to as macronutrients Carbs, proteins, and fats/lipids Measured in grams because large amounts Vitamins and Minerals Micronutrients Do not provide energy May assist in energy release process Vitamins are organic and complex and can be destroyed Minerals are inorganic and indestructible  They can bind and hinder absorption or leach into water Measured typically in mg.
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Measuring energy in food Calories are the unit we use to measure food Food is measured in kilocalories  1000 calories = 1kcal Example: Orange is 60 kcal = 60,000 calories or 60 Calories 1 kilocalorie: energy required to raise 1kg water 1 degree Celsius Energy from Food Carbs: 4 kcal/g Proteins: 4 kcal/g Lipids (fats): 9 kcal/g Alcohol: 7 kcal/g Alcohol contributes to energy but it is not a nutrient Energy (calorie) density vs. Nutrient density Energy density: comparing the amount of calories a food/meal has and its ratio to how 
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