Psychology Final Review

Psychology Final Review - Development 1. Who was the most...

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Development 1. Who was the most influential psychologist regarding theories of cognitive development? A: Piaget 2. What is constructivism? A: A view of child development in which the home and social environment of the child is a key component to how they will develop. The child constructs knowledge about the world based on his or her world experiences. 3. What is a stage-theory of development? A: Mental growth that involves major qualitative changes. The mind of a child is different from that of an adult. 4. What is a schema? A: a concept or framework that organizes and interprets information. 5. What is assimilation? A: interpreting one’s new experience in terms of one’s existing schemas. 6. What is accommodation? A: adapting one’s current understandings to incorporate new information. 7. Describe Piaget’s stages of development? (lots of info. to know here!) Sensorimotor stage: o Occurs from birth to nearly age two o The infant uses senses and motor abilities to experience and understand the world. o First year of Life Infants lack object permanence: the awareness that objects continue to exist when not perceived. Means-End Behavior: from reflexes to organized actions o Second year of life Experimenting with objects Beginning of representational thought—deferred limitation, pretend play. Preoperational Stage o From ages 2 to about 6 or 7, a child learns to use language but does not yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic. o Advances in thinking, semiotic function—the child’s ability to use a symbol, an object, or a word to stand for something else. o Thinking beyond the immediate present. o Cognitive Limitations: egocentrism, centrism, conservation tasks
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Concrete Operations Stage o 6 or 7 to 11, the stage of development during which people begin to think logically about abstract objects. o Operations=mental actions, logical manipulations of symbols o Decentration: able to focus on more than one aspect of a problem o Classifications: grouping things together by their similarity. Ex. Grouping all the red blocks together and all the blue blocks together. o Seriation: putting things in order, smallest to largest o Cognitive limitations: cannot think abstractly, need to have physical demonstration of the problem. Cannot think hypothetically. Formal Operations Stage o The stage of cognitive development (beginning around 12) during which people begin to think logically about abstract concepts. o Hypothetical thinking o Forming abstract rules: ex. addition of 1 to any even number always produces an odd number. o Solving problems systematically, scientific thinking—pendulum task, trial and error. What makes the swing quickly and slowly? 8. What are some of the major milestones of each stage? What are some of the
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Psychology Final Review - Development 1. Who was the most...

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