psych_exam_3_review

psych_exam_3_review - PSC 1 Exam 3 Review Development 1 Who...

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PSC 1 Exam 3 Review Development 1. Who was the most influential psychologist regarding theories of cognitive development? Jean Piaget 2. What is constructivism? The concept that real world experience is critical 3. What is a stage-theory of development? The concept that mental growth involves major qualitative changes 4. What is a schema? A knowledge structure that guides a child through how to act in the world 5. What is assimilation? Taking in new information and incorporating it into existing ways of thinking about the world 6. What is accommodation? Process by which existing mental structures and behaviors are modified to adapt to new information and experiences 7. Describe Piaget's stages of development: Stage Process Sensorimotor Period (0-2 years) Children experience the world through movement and sensation and learn object permanence Preoperational Period (2-7 years) Acquisition of motor skills Concrete Operations Period (7-11 years) Children begin to think logically about concrete events Formal Operations Period (11+ years) Development of abstract reasoning 8. What are some of the major milestones of each stage? What are some of the cognitive limitations encountered during the stages? Stage Milestones Cognitive Limitations Sensorimotor Period Reflex development, habits, creativity and insight Unable to perceive the world through mental processes Preoperational Period Symbolic thinking, highly imaginative A child is unable to take others' viewpoints— egocentric Concrete Operations Period Logical thinking including organization and understanding problems from different angles Abstract thought is not yet developed; only tangible problem sets can be understood Formal Operations Period Full mental capacity including abstract thought as in producing hypothetical situations, moral judgment, and sexual development An individual is able to perform scientific, abstract, deductive, and expansive thinking. There are few if any limitations.
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9. What is egocentricism? Describe the "mountain task." Egocentricism occurs when an individual has only his or her own point of view of a problem. The "Mountain Task" was an experiment designed by Jean Piaget in which a preoperational child was to reconstruct a doll's view of a mountain scene. The child's inability to reconstruct the scene from the doll's point of view proved Egocentricism in the Preoperational phase. 10. What is centration? Focus on one aspect of a problem, and the inability to solve problems logically 11. What are Piaget's conservation tasks? Cannot de-center and cannot reverse an operation 12. What are the pros of Piaget's theory of cognitive development? Methods were developed for studying the ways infants and children interpret the world. 13. What are the cons of Piaget's theory of cognitive development? The question of whether cognitive development is stage-like or not in that the stages may not progress smoothly, and there may even be gaps.
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